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Innovative Foundation Alternative Inspired From Tree Roots, Macie Larranaga 2022 Boise State University

Innovative Foundation Alternative Inspired From Tree Roots, Macie Larranaga

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

It is not easy to find a more efficient foundation system than the roots of a tree. Trees create a vast three-dimensional network of roots to support and anchor the critical above-ground trunks, leaves, and limbs. In this work, investigations are made for the feasibility of imitating such a technique and creating similar networks to support civil infrastructure, particularly those subjected to moment loads such as traffic signal posts. Some of the raised questions were: Is it feasible to have a shallow tree root-based foundation system to provide the same capacities as conventional foundation alternatives? If this is feasible: What …


Development Of Deep Shear Wave Velocity Profiles And An Approach To Generate Site Signature Consistent Pseudo Shear Wave Velocity Profiles In The Mississippi Embayment, Ashraf Kamal Himel 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of Deep Shear Wave Velocity Profiles And An Approach To Generate Site Signature Consistent Pseudo Shear Wave Velocity Profiles In The Mississippi Embayment, Ashraf Kamal Himel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation details the development of a surface wave method (SWM) technique to generate deep shear wave velocity profiles (VS profiles), applying this technique at 24 sites across the Mississippi embayment and developing an approach to generate pseudo site signature consistent VS profiles from velocity functions and fundamental frequency. In the presented SWM technique, active and passive source surface wave measurements are inverted along with fundamental frequency to develop a site signature consistent VS profile. Multiple transformation methods, including MSPAC, HRFK and FK are used to resolve experimental dispersion data from surface wave measurements. SWM VS profile at the Central …


Initial Exploration Of Reduced Gyrations For Arkansas Asphalt Mix Designs, Jocie L. Baker 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Initial Exploration Of Reduced Gyrations For Arkansas Asphalt Mix Designs, Jocie L. Baker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The most common distresses in asphalt pavement are cracking and rutting. These distresses plague almost every asphalt roadway in the world. Finding ways to mitigate these distresses will improve the performance of asphalt pavements. One way to combat the premature cracking of asphalt in the field is to ensure there is enough asphalt binder within the mix. This will help the flexibility of the asphalt undergoing large loads and deformation. However, it is widely accepted that mix designs across the country lack the appropriate amount of asphalt binder in their mixes, causing dry mix designs that are subject to cracking …


Investigations Into Flange Surface Friction Effects On Shear Stud Load Transfer In Composite Bridge Girders, Callie Clark 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigations Into Flange Surface Friction Effects On Shear Stud Load Transfer In Composite Bridge Girders, Callie Clark

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Composite bridge behavior is commonly achieved through headed shear studs welded tothe steel girder flange and embedded in the concrete deck. Current AASHTO provisions for estimating demands on shear studs during service-level loading consider only bearing load transfer, neglecting adhesion bonding and friction load transfer between the concrete deck and girder flange. Quantifying alternative load transfer mechanisms across the steel-concrete interface may result in improved steel bridge economy by reducing the number of studs required in a composite girder design. This study investigates the effects of flange surface friction (considering various coatings) on resulting stud demands using both experimental testing …


The Evacuation Simulation Of Wheelchair Users In A Building Fire: An Initial Dynamic Characterization Of Structural Egress Components, Haley Hostetter 2022 Clemson University

The Evacuation Simulation Of Wheelchair Users In A Building Fire: An Initial Dynamic Characterization Of Structural Egress Components, Haley Hostetter

All Theses

People with disabilities are one of the most vulnerable groups involved in building fires. According to the U.S. Fire Administration, in the United States alone, an estimated 700 home fires involve people with physical disabilities each year while over 1700 involve those with mental health disorders. Despite this, the current body of literature shows few studies focused on the evacuation of disabled people. This is a direct result of past and present social injustice on people with disabilities and has resulted in high injury and death rates during fires. To combat this, enrich the literature, and improve their experiences in …


Wind Flow Characteristics Of Multi-Vortex Tornadoes And Their Wind Effects On Residential Houses, Yi Zhao 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Wind Flow Characteristics Of Multi-Vortex Tornadoes And Their Wind Effects On Residential Houses, Yi Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

"Tornadoes strike the USA very frequently, with an average of 1200 reports per year, and the average annual tornado-induced property loss has reached $10B. The devastation from recent tornadoes have prompted a renewed interest in better understanding tornado dynamics, their interactions with the built environment, and the performance of civil structures during tornadoes. In the past, the wind effects caused by single-vortex tornadoes have been widely studied, while the multi-vortex tornadoes were rarely considered. In fact, many previous deadly, costly tornadoes involved multiple vortices. Therefore, it is important to understand the wind flow characteristics of multi-vortex tornadoes in order to …


Properties Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Aquesous Dispersions Stabilized By Anionic Surfactants, Anita Vuchkovska 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Properties Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Aquesous Dispersions Stabilized By Anionic Surfactants, Anita Vuchkovska

Theses and Dissertations

The stability of titanium dioxide nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous solutions with and without anionic surfactants was investigated as a function of phase separation (sedimentation), particle size at the age of 33 and 303 days, polydispersity at 33 and 303 days, and zeta potential. Mechanical energy in the form of homogenization or mixing with propeller blade mixer was used to wet out the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the aqueous media and this process was evaluated for the capability of developing a stable dispersion. The ultrasonic waves were used as a second step to form stable dispersions. The research results indicated …


Influence Of Specimen Geometry And Anisotropy On Dynamic Modulus Of Asphalt Mixes In South Carolina, Srinivasan Nagarajan 2022 Clemson University

Influence Of Specimen Geometry And Anisotropy On Dynamic Modulus Of Asphalt Mixes In South Carolina, Srinivasan Nagarajan

All Dissertations

The objective of this study was to characterize the variability of dynamic modulus of asphalt mixes in South Carolina on the basis of geometry and anisotropy. High priority mixes Surface Type B, and C; Intermediate Type B and C and Base Type A from three different days of production were collected from seven different contractors each having a different aggregate source and the dynamic modulus was measured using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT) at temperatures of 40, 70, 100 and 130℉ (4.4, 21.1, 37.8, and 54.4℃) and at frequencies of 25, 10, 5, 1, 0.5, and 0.1 Hz. One-way …


On The Application Of Dynamical Measures Of Hydrologic Response To Prediction And Similarity Assessment In Watersheds, Prashanta Bajracharya 2022 The University of Maine

On The Application Of Dynamical Measures Of Hydrologic Response To Prediction And Similarity Assessment In Watersheds, Prashanta Bajracharya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) initiative set out to improve the understanding of hydrological processes with an aim of improving hydrologic models for application in ungauged basins. With a majority of basins around the world essentially ungauged, this suggests the need to shift from calibration-based models that rely on observed streamflow data to models based on process understanding. This is especially important in natural infrastructure planning projects such as investments in the conservation of wetlands across the watershed, where the lack of streamflow data hinders the quantification of their benefits (such as flood attenuation), resulting in a difficulty in …


A Comparable Analysis Of Civilian And Military Airfield Runway Design Procedures, Jacob Wessel 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

A Comparable Analysis Of Civilian And Military Airfield Runway Design Procedures, Jacob Wessel

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In the United States there are two primary agencies that regulate, approve, and aid in airfield runway designs. These two agencies are the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense (DOD), and they both have different design procedure for design and construction of their prospective airfield runways. It is important to have a closer look at the design procedures, the reliance of software and how these compare to each other. The primary objective of this research was to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the FAA and the DOD airfield design programs used to aid in the design of …


Development Of Balanced Mix Design Quality Control Specifications Based On The Acceptance Limits Of Hma Performance Tests, Lucas Tameirao Abrantes 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Development Of Balanced Mix Design Quality Control Specifications Based On The Acceptance Limits Of Hma Performance Tests, Lucas Tameirao Abrantes

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

With the augmented use of recycled materials, recycling agents, modified binders, andwarm mix asphalt additives, several highway agencies including the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), have considered methods to improve the durability and long-term performance of asphalt concrete (AC) mixes. The need for performance tests that could consistently evaluate the rutting and cracking potentials of AC mixes became crucial as the popularity of the Balanced Mix Design (BMD) concept has increased over the years. A concern now is related to the practicality of these tests for routine use in the process of quality control and quality assurance during the field …


Inspection Of Flexible Fillers In Post-Tensioned Bridges, Carley Gonzalez 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Inspection Of Flexible Fillers In Post-Tensioned Bridges, Carley Gonzalez

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is currently pushing toward the use of flexible fillers (FF) in new post-tensioned (PT) bridges. Flexible fillers have several advantages compared to the currently used cementitious grouts (CG) and can offer longer-lasting structures by providing better corrosion protection and allowing for replaceable tendons, which reduces the overall maintenance costs over the structure’s lifespan. Due to these fillers being used in new bridges, FDOT needs effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to employ in their biennial inspections. There are currently numerous NDE methods available to inspectors that have been used to identify defects in PT bridges …


Crack Control And Bond Performance Of Alternative Coated Reinforcements In Concrete, Sachin Sreedhara 2022 Clemson University

Crack Control And Bond Performance Of Alternative Coated Reinforcements In Concrete, Sachin Sreedhara

All Dissertations

Concrete cracking in structures is a ubiquitous problem which can lead to the deterioration of the structure. Other than affecting the strength aspect of a structure, cracking impacts the serviceability criteria as well. Although cracking phenomenon in any structure is highly inevitable, it has to be minimized in order to maintain a structure’s life effectively. Cracking in reinforced concrete structures is related to the bond strength developed between the bar and the concrete. It also depends on an ability of the bar to resist the stresses due to shrinkage to minimize the crack. Another important aspect is the resistance offered …


Optimization Of A Lightweight Floating Offshore Wind Turbine With Water-Ballast Motion Mitigation Technology, William Ramsay 2022 University of Maine

Optimization Of A Lightweight Floating Offshore Wind Turbine With Water-Ballast Motion Mitigation Technology, William Ramsay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines are a promising technology to address energy needs utilizing wind resources offshore. The current state of the art is based on heavy, expensive platforms to survive the ocean environment. Typical design techniques do not involve optimization because of the computationally expensive time-domain solvers used to model motions and loads in the ocean environment. However, this project uses an efficient frequency domain solver with a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimize the design of a novel floating wind turbine concept. The concept utilizes liquid ballast mass to mitigate motions on a lightweight post-tensioned concrete platform, with a target …


Flexural Behaviour Of Concrete Beams With High Strength Reinforcement, Sohaib Akbar 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Flexural Behaviour Of Concrete Beams With High Strength Reinforcement, Sohaib Akbar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using High Strength Reinforcement (HSR) in concrete construction allows steel volumes to be reduced, and economies to be realized. CSA Standard A23.3:19 “Design of Concrete Structures” limits the maximum yield strength for design to 500 MPa. This thesis investigates the flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced with HSR to assess whether current code provisions are appropriate. Curvature ductility ratios are calculated for cross-sections with varying concrete compressive strengths, and reinforcement types and quantities. The effects of utilizing HSR on extreme fibre concrete compressive strains at Ultimate Limit State (ULS), moment redistribution at ULS, and deflections at Serviceability Limit States, are …


Evaluation Of The Chloride Ions Penetration Into Concrete Structure With The Surface Penetrants Served In Cold Marine Environment For 20 Years, Yanhua Kuang, Yuki Sakoi Associate Professor, Naoto Takashima postgraduate, Minoru Aba Professor, Yoichi Tsukinaga Professor, 2022 Hachinohe Institute of Technology

Evaluation Of The Chloride Ions Penetration Into Concrete Structure With The Surface Penetrants Served In Cold Marine Environment For 20 Years, Yanhua Kuang, Yuki Sakoi Associate Professor, Naoto Takashima Postgraduate, Minoru Aba Professor, Yoichi Tsukinaga Professor,

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The intrusion of chloride ions in concrete served in the marine environment is the leading cause of corrosion of steel bars. This paper examined the result of a long-term survey on the actual structure (the Tomakomai breakwater) treated with a set of penetrants partly. The survey was conducted twice, in the 12th and 20th years after construction.

The results showed that the penetrants could effectively reduce the penetration of chloride ions into concrete. After using the penetrants, the calculated surface chloride ion concentration was decreased by 5.04%/72.18% (the 12th year/the 20th year). As the service years increase, surface chloride ion …


Efficiency Of Bank Filtration In The Removal Of Cyanotoxins Under Different Levels Of Nutrients, Luke Walkenhorst 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Efficiency Of Bank Filtration In The Removal Of Cyanotoxins Under Different Levels Of Nutrients, Luke Walkenhorst

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are an increasing concern not only in Nebraska, but across the world. Increasing global temperatures in conjunction with overuse of synthetic fertilizers are leading causes to the increasing frequency and concern of HABs. In the present work, the effectiveness of simulated bank filtration (BF), as an economical water treatment option, to remove cyanotoxins under different levels of nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) was investigated. Vertical flow-through columns pre-acclimated with two levels of nutrients (e.g., nitrate and phosphate—10 vs. 50 mg/L) were exposed to two different levels of cyanotoxins (10 vs. 75 μg/L). Results from the study confirmed …


Autonomous Vehicles On The Smart Roads: Challenges And Potentials, Laura Cristancho, Baleki Campbell, Mahyar Amirgholy 2022 Kennesaw State University

Autonomous Vehicles On The Smart Roads: Challenges And Potentials, Laura Cristancho, Baleki Campbell, Mahyar Amirgholy

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

Self-driving vehicles and smart roads are not new concepts. These ideas have been discussed for many years but for much of this time, the required technology was not available to make them a reality. Just recently has our technology caught up to our ideas and we are beginning to see progress towards the realization of the automated highway system. As the transition to a complete automated system is still in progress, this leaves many questions that still need to be answered as well as allowing for novel solutions to be presented. Using modern research papers to formulate a sound basis …


The Effects Of Curing Temperature On The Hydration Kinetics Of Plain And Fly Ash Pastes And Compressive Strength Of Corresponding Mortars With And Without Nano-Tio2 Addition., Dan Huang, Mirian Velay-Lizancos, Jan Olek 2022 Purdue University

The Effects Of Curing Temperature On The Hydration Kinetics Of Plain And Fly Ash Pastes And Compressive Strength Of Corresponding Mortars With And Without Nano-Tio2 Addition., Dan Huang, Mirian Velay-Lizancos, Jan Olek

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

Incorporation of fly ash in cementitious systems containing ordinary portland cement (OPC) increases their long-term strength and durability. However, replacement of cement by fly ash also reduces the heat of hydration of such systems and reduces early-age strength development. The reduced rate of strength development can increase the risk of durability problems, e.g. scaling, in cases when young concrete is exposed to low temperatures and deicing chemicals. This study investigated the potential of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) particles to modify the hydration kinetics of fly ash pastes and compressive strength development of corresponding mortars cured under low (4°C) and …


End Effect Of Corroded Steel Bar In Concrete Specimen During Corrosion Test By Galvanostatic Method, Peng Zhao, Gang Xu, Qing Wang, Xuan Wang 2022 a.Hubei Key Laboratory of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, HuBei; b.College of Civil Engineering& Architecture, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, HuBei

End Effect Of Corroded Steel Bar In Concrete Specimen During Corrosion Test By Galvanostatic Method, Peng Zhao, Gang Xu, Qing Wang, Xuan Wang

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

The galvanostatic method is a commonly used accelerated corrosion method in studying the durability of concrete structures caused by steel corrosion. If this method is not adequately controlled, the ends of steel bars will be corroded seriously (this phenomenon is called end effect), which is not common in natural corrosion. How to effectively control the end effect during electrified corrosion is helpful to make the characteristics of electrified corrosion more similar to that of natural corrosion. In this paper, experimental and electromagnetic numerical simulation methods are used to study the influence of cathode and corrosion medium coverage area along the …


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