Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Bioimaging and Biomedical Optics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

691 Full-Text Articles 1,476 Authors 196,029 Downloads 75 Institutions

All Articles in Bioimaging and Biomedical Optics

Faceted Search

691 full-text articles. Page 31 of 32.

Characterization And Analysis Techniques Of A Dynamic In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model, Ryan Everett Woodhouse 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Characterization And Analysis Techniques Of A Dynamic In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model, Ryan Everett Woodhouse

Biomedical Engineering

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for maintaining the sensitive environment required by the brain. Although the BBB is necessary for proper functioning of the brain, it acts as an obstacle for doctors attempting to treat neurological disease. For a drug to act upon the brain, it must first pass through the discriminating BBB. For this reason, much research has been performed in recent years in order to create an in vitro model of the BBB on which drugs targeted for the central nervous system may be tested. The main goal of this project is to create an in vitro …


Singular Value Decomposition Metrics Show Limitations Of Detector Design In Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography, Frederic Leblond, Kenneth M. Tichauer, Brian W. Pogue 2010 Dartmouth College

Singular Value Decomposition Metrics Show Limitations Of Detector Design In Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography, Frederic Leblond, Kenneth M. Tichauer, Brian W. Pogue

Dartmouth Scholarship

The spatial resolution and recovered contrast of images reconstructed from diffuse fluorescence tomography data are limited by the high scattering properties of light propagation in biological tissue. As a result, the image reconstruction process can be exceedingly vulnerable to inaccurate prior knowledge of tissue optical properties and stochastic noise. In light of these limitations, the optimal source-detector geometry for a fluorescence tomography system is non-trivial, requiring analytical methods to guide design. Analysis of the singular value decomposition of the matrix to be inverted for image reconstruction is one potential approach, providing key quantitative metrics, such as singular image mode spatial …


Importance Of Phase Unwrapping For The Reconstruction Of Microwave Tomographic Images, Tomasz M. Grzegorczyk, Paul M. Meaney, Soon Ik Jeon, Shireen D. Geimer, Keith D. Paulsen 2010 Delpsi LLC

Importance Of Phase Unwrapping For The Reconstruction Of Microwave Tomographic Images, Tomasz M. Grzegorczyk, Paul M. Meaney, Soon Ik Jeon, Shireen D. Geimer, Keith D. Paulsen

Dartmouth Scholarship

Microwave image reconstruction is typically based on a regularized least-square minimization of either the complex-valued field difference between recorded and modeled data or the logarithmic transformation of these field differences. Prior work has shown anecdotally that the latter outperforms the former in limited surveys of simulated and experimental phantom results. In this paper, we provide a theoretical explanation of these empirical findings by developing closed form solutions for the fie


Optochemical Nanosensors For Intracellular Chemical Measurement, Raoul Kopelman, Michael T. Miller, Murphy Brasuel, Heather Clark, Marion Hoyer, Martin Philbert 2010 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Optochemical Nanosensors For Intracellular Chemical Measurement, Raoul Kopelman, Michael T. Miller, Murphy Brasuel, Heather Clark, Marion Hoyer, Martin Philbert

Heather Clark

The development of a submicron optical fiber "supertip" has provided advantages over previously produced submicron tips, such as facilitating insertion of these sensors into cells while minimizing damage to the cell membrane. Fiber optic ion correlation-based nanosensors for sodium, potassium and chloride employing these "supertips" have been applied to the monitoring of ion concentrations in single mouse oocytes. These sensors have also been used to monitor the effect of an ion channel-blocking agent. In order to address the challenge associated with single-cell simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes, the use of submicron optical fiber multiprobes has been explored.


Novel Optical Biosensors Using A Gold Colloid Monolayer Substrate, Heather Clark, Greg Merritt, Raoul Kopelman 2010 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Novel Optical Biosensors Using A Gold Colloid Monolayer Substrate, Heather Clark, Greg Merritt, Raoul Kopelman

Heather Clark

A novel optical biosensor matrix has been developed to exploit the native fluorescence of certain proteins. This matrix uses a gold colloid monolayer attached to an end of a fiber as a substrate for protein attachment. The effect of the gold monolayer size has been investigated through the techniques of fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that the size ofthe gold colloid does produce a marked difference in the fluorescence intesity measured. It is surmised through the use of microscopy techniques that the intensity changes seen in the fluorescence emission are not a result …


Second-Harmonic Imaging Microscopy Of Living Cells, Paul J. Campagnola, Heather Clark, William A. Mohler, Aaron Lewis (Prof.), Leslie M. Loew 2010 University of Connecticut Health Center - Farmington CT

Second-Harmonic Imaging Microscopy Of Living Cells, Paul J. Campagnola, Heather Clark, William A. Mohler, Aaron Lewis (Prof.), Leslie M. Loew

Heather Clark

Second harmonic generation (SHG) has been developed in our laboratories as a high-resolution nonlinear optical imaging microscopy for cellular membranes and intact tissues. SHG shares many of the advantageous features for microscopy of another more established nonlinear optical technique: two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Both are capable of optical sectioning to produce threedimensional images of thick specimens and both result in less photodamage to living tissue than confocal microscopy. SHG is complementary to TPEF in that it uses a different contrast mechanism and is most easily detected in the transmitted light optical path. It can be used to image membrane probes …


A Comparative Study Of Optical Fluorescent Nanosensors ("Pebbles") And Fiber Optic Microsensors For Oxygen Sensing, Z. Chen-Esterlit, S. F. Peteu, Heather Clark, W. McDonald, R. Kopelman 2010 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

A Comparative Study Of Optical Fluorescent Nanosensors ("Pebbles") And Fiber Optic Microsensors For Oxygen Sensing, Z. Chen-Esterlit, S. F. Peteu, Heather Clark, W. Mcdonald, R. Kopelman

Heather Clark

In this paper we report the use of phase sensitive fluorometry to obtain preliminary results from opto-chemical fluorescent oxygen nanosensors. PEBBLE (Probe Encapsulated By Biologically Localized Embedding) sensors were fabricated by immobilizing tris(4,7-diphenyl—1, 10-phenanthroline)Ru(II) chloride and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)Ru(II) chloride within a polyacrylamide matrix. PEBBLEs have diameters of 20-200 nm and exhibit excellent performance for dissolved oxygen detection. Their performance is compared with micrometer-sized (10-20 μm) optical fiber sensors and free dye in solution. Oxygen sensing ability of PEBBLEs was tested in the presence of other quenchers and compared with free dyes in solution. While PEBBLEs have been developed for minimally invasive …


Sub-Wavelength Plasmonic Readout For Direct Linear Analysis Of Optically Tagged Dna, Jonathan Varsanik, William Teynor, John LeBlanc, Heather Clark, Jeffrey Krogmeier, Tian Yang, Jonathan Bernstein 2010 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Sub-Wavelength Plasmonic Readout For Direct Linear Analysis Of Optically Tagged Dna, Jonathan Varsanik, William Teynor, John Leblanc, Heather Clark, Jeffrey Krogmeier, Tian Yang, Jonathan Bernstein

Heather Clark

This work describes the development and fabrication of a novel nanofluidic flow-through sensing chip that utilizes a plasmonic resonator to excite fluorescent tags with sub-wavelength resolution. We cover the design of the microfluidic chip and simulation of the plasmonic resonator using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software. The fabrication methods are presented, with testing procedures and preliminary results. This research is aimed at improving the resolution limits of the Direct Linear Analysis (DLA) technique developed by US Genomics. In DLA, intercalating dyes which tag a specific 8 base-pair sequence are inserted in a DNA sample. This sample is pumped though …


Can Spr Be Used To Interrogate The Double Layer Of Nacl, Brandon Kawula 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Can Spr Be Used To Interrogate The Double Layer Of Nacl, Brandon Kawula

Biomedical Engineering

Solutions of reagent grade salt .1, .01, .001, .0001, .00001M were run through a SPR to see if SPR had enough resolution to detect the formation of the electric double layer. We found that NaCl did in fact return a detectable signal. The signal shape seems to depend on concentration. While more study may need to be done to get definite information it looks like SPR can interrogate the double layer.


Production Of Anatomical Models From Ct Scan Data, John Brennan 2010 Technological University Dublin

Production Of Anatomical Models From Ct Scan Data, John Brennan

Other resources

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology was conceived in the mid 1980s as a method of manufacturing models, particularly to support the design of new motor vehicles. However as early as 1995 the potential to take data from medical scanners and generate models of patient anatomy to assist clinicians plan complex surgical procedures had been recognised, albeit by researchers rather than the mainstream medical industry. Over the last 15 years the production of preoperative planning models has increased dramatically and moreover, the potential to produce customised implants recognised.

Although RP technology is now established in the medical field work is still on …


Alterations In Multiple Measures Of White Matter Integrity In Normal Women At High Risk For Alzheimer's Disease, Brian T. Gold, David K. Powell, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D. Smith 2010 University of Kentucky

Alterations In Multiple Measures Of White Matter Integrity In Normal Women At High Risk For Alzheimer's Disease, Brian T. Gold, David K. Powell, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D. Smith

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

There is evidence that disruption of white matter (WM) microstructure is an early event in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the neurobiological bases of WM microstructural declines in presymptomatic AD are unknown. In the present study we address this issue using a multimodal imaging approach to the study of presymptomatic AD. Participants were 37 high-risk (both family history of dementia and one or more APOE4 alleles) women and 20 low-risk (neither family history nor APOE4) women. Groups were matched for age, education, neuropsychological performance, and vascular factors that could affect white matter. Whole-brain analyses of diffusion tensor imaging …


Silver Nanosphere Sers Probes For Sensitive Identification Of Pathogens, Kyuwan Lee 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Silver Nanosphere Sers Probes For Sensitive Identification Of Pathogens, Kyuwan Lee

Kyuwan Lee

The identification and timely detection of pathogenic bacteria is critical to ensuring safe food, health, and water. Although surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) methods have been used for pathogen characterization and single molecule sensing, the challenge of detecting pathogens in very low numbers using an optimal substrate that is sensitive and reproducible is still a challenge. In this report, we have developed and explored a novel SERS active substrate of 60−80 nm diameter through the assembly of Ag nanocrystals (AgNCs) into Ag nanospheres (AgNSs). A finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of the electromagnetic field produced by these structures and …


Return-Path, Multiple-Principal-Angle, Internal-Reflection Ellipsometer For Measuring Ir Optical Properties Of Aqueous Solutions, Rasheed M.A. Azzam 2010 University of New Orleans

Return-Path, Multiple-Principal-Angle, Internal-Reflection Ellipsometer For Measuring Ir Optical Properties Of Aqueous Solutions, Rasheed M.A. Azzam

Electrical Engineering Faculty Publications

A retroreflection (return-path) spectroscopic ellipsometer without a wave plate is described that uses an IR-transparent high-refractive-index hemicylindrical semiconductor substrate to measure the optical properties of aqueous solutions from multiple principal angles and multiple principal azimuths of attenuated internal reflection (AIR) at the semiconductor–solution interface. The pseudo-Brewster angle of minimum reflectance for the p polarization is also readily measured using the same instrument. This wealth of data can also be used to characterize thin films at the solid–liquid interface. Simulated results of AIR at the Si–water interface over the 1.2–11 μm IR spectral range are presented in support of this concept. …


Multi-Frequency Processing For Lumen Enhancement With Wideband Intravascular Ultrasound, Rory A. Carrillo 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Multi-Frequency Processing For Lumen Enhancement With Wideband Intravascular Ultrasound, Rory A. Carrillo

Master's Theses

The application of high frequency ultrasound is the key to higher resolution intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. The need to further improve the IVUS spatial resolution may drive the transducer center frequency even higher than the current 40 MHz range. However, increasing the center frequency may be challenging as it leads to stronger scattering echoes from blood. The high level of blood scattering echoes may obscure the arterial lumen and make image interpretation difficult. Blood backscatter levels increase with transmission center frequency at a much greater rate compared to arterial tissue. These different frequency dependencies provide a potential method to distinguish …


Virtual And Augmented Reality Techniques For Minimally Invasive Cardiac Interventions: Concept, Design, Evaluation And Pre-Clinical Implementation, Cristian A. Linte 2010 University of Western Ontario

Virtual And Augmented Reality Techniques For Minimally Invasive Cardiac Interventions: Concept, Design, Evaluation And Pre-Clinical Implementation, Cristian A. Linte

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While less invasive techniques have been employed for some procedures, most intracardiac interventions are still performed under cardiopulmonary bypass, on the drained, arrested heart. The progress toward off-pump intracardiac interventions has been hampered by the lack of adequate visualization inside the beating heart.

This thesis describes the development, assessment, and pre-clinical implementation of a mixed reality environment that integrates pre-operative imaging and modeling with surgical tracking technologies and real-time ultrasound imaging. The intra-operative echo images are augmented with pre-operative representations of the cardiac anatomy and virtual models of the delivery instruments tracked in real time using magnetic tracking technologies. As …


Characterizing Accuracy Of Total Hemoglobin Recovery Using Contrast-Detail Analysis In 3d Image-Guided Near Infrared Spectroscopy With The Boundary Element Method, Hamid R. Ghadyani, Subhadra Srinivasan, Brian W. Pogue, Keith D. Paulsen 2010 Dartmouth College

Characterizing Accuracy Of Total Hemoglobin Recovery Using Contrast-Detail Analysis In 3d Image-Guided Near Infrared Spectroscopy With The Boundary Element Method, Hamid R. Ghadyani, Subhadra Srinivasan, Brian W. Pogue, Keith D. Paulsen

Dartmouth Scholarship

The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the effect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically …


Ultrasound Transient Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging For Tendon Tissue, Pengfei Song 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Ultrasound Transient Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging For Tendon Tissue, Pengfei Song

Department of Agricultural and Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Degeneration of tendon tissue is a common cause of tendon dysfunction with the symptoms of repeated episodes of pain and palpable increase of tendon thickness. Tendon mechanical properties are directly related to its physiological composition and the structural organization of the interior collagen fibers which could be altered by tendon degeneration due to overuse or injury. Thus, measuring mechanical properties of tendon tissue may represent a quantitative measurement of pain, reduced function, and tissue health. Ultrasound elasticity imaging has been developed in the last two decades and has proved to be a promising tool for tissue elasticity imaging. To date, …


Characterization Of An Implicitly Resistively-Loaded Monopole Antenna In Lossy Liquid Media, Colleen J. Fox, Paul M. Meaney, Fridon Shubitidze, Lincoln Potwin, Keith D. Paulsen 2010 Dartmouth College

Characterization Of An Implicitly Resistively-Loaded Monopole Antenna In Lossy Liquid Media, Colleen J. Fox, Paul M. Meaney, Fridon Shubitidze, Lincoln Potwin, Keith D. Paulsen

Dartmouth Scholarship

Abstract

Microwave tomographic imaging of the breast for cancer detection is a topic of considerable interest because of the potential to exploit the apparent high-dielectric property contrast between normal and malignant tissue. An important component in the realization of an imaging system is the antenna array to be used for signal transmission/detection. The monopole antenna has proven to be useful in our implementation because it can be easily and accurately modeled and can be positioned in close proximity to the imaging target with high-element density when configured in an imaging array. Its frequency response is broadened considerably when radiating in …


A Review Of Autoimmune Diseases Associated With Cancer, Patricia Tai, Edward Yu, Kurian Joseph, Thomas Miale 2010 University of Saskatchewan

A Review Of Autoimmune Diseases Associated With Cancer, Patricia Tai, Edward Yu, Kurian Joseph, Thomas Miale

Oncology Publications

The focus of this review is on the relationships between autoimmune diseases and cancer from two closely related perspectives: 1.Those autoimmune diseases which are often associated with malignancies. 2.Those prevalent cancers which may increase the risks of developing autoimmune disorders. The review concludes with a brief discussion of some selected innovative approaches to cancer immunotherapy.


Application Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging To Understanding The Pathogenesis Of The X-Linked Leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease, Jeremy Jerome Laukka 2010 Wayne State University

Application Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging To Understanding The Pathogenesis Of The X-Linked Leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease, Jeremy Jerome Laukka

Wayne State University Dissertations

Myelin is a multilamellar membrane structure surrounding axons in both the CNS and PNS that facilitates nerve conduction. In the CNS, myelin is synthesized by oligodendrocytes, while in the PNS, myelin is synthesized by Schwann cells. In the CNS, Proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1), an integral membrane protein, is the major protein component of myelin, constituting ~50% of myelin protein. Mutations of the PLP1 gene in man cause a spectrum of neurological disease, ranging from the severe Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), that typically begins during infancy with nystagmus, seizures and hypotonia and evolves into spastic quadriparesis, cognitive impairment and ataxia, to ¡¥pure¡¦ …


Digital Commons powered by bepress