Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 383

Full-Text Articles in Bioimaging and Biomedical Optics

P-42 Using The Raspberry Pi For Ecl Reaction Analysis, Jonathan Swerdlow Mar 2018

P-42 Using The Raspberry Pi For Ecl Reaction Analysis, Jonathan Swerdlow

Honors Scholars & Undergraduate Research Poster Symposium Programs

Using a Raspberry Pi and its camera module, we developed an affordable and easily available system for photographing and analyzing electrochemiluminescent (ECL) reactions. These reactions can be represented as a function of average light intensity over time, allowing for a future program to determine the concentration of certain reactants. Such ECL reactions will be useful in the diagnosis of medical conditions such as cancer without the need for expensive equipment or laboratories. The proposed system will make certain diagnoses easy and available to people across the globe and will likely require only a small blood sample. It will also be ...


Automatic Brain Tumor Segmentation By Deep Convolutional Networks And Graph Cuts, Zhenyi Wang Jan 2018

Automatic Brain Tumor Segmentation By Deep Convolutional Networks And Graph Cuts, Zhenyi Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brain tumor segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is helpful for diagnostics, growth rate prediction, tumor volume measurements and treatment planning of brain tumor. The difficulties for brain tumor segmentation are mainly due to high variation of brain tumors in size, shape, regularity, location, and their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., contrast, intensity and texture variation for different tumors). Due to recent advances in deep convolutional neural networks for semantic image segmentation, automatic brain tumor segmentation is a promising research direction.

This thesis investigates automatic brain tumor segmentation by combining deep convolutional neural network with regularization by a graph cut. We ...


An Area Based Fan Beam Projection Model, Richard E. Steele, Jiehua Zhu Jan 2018

An Area Based Fan Beam Projection Model, Richard E. Steele, Jiehua Zhu

University Honors Program Theses

Area based projection models for computed tomography mitigate raw data errors by treating X-Rays as beams, whereas traditional line based projection models treat an X-Ray like a line, thus generating significant error. In an existing area based fan beam projection model, a rotation matrix, Q, simulates the rotation of the emitter detector pair to reduce computational load, but this introduces approximations by using an approximated rotation matrix. We eliminate approximations by deriving an exact formula for the entries of Q. Using a rotation of axes and by considering the neighboring cells' contributions to the area, the result has formulations for ...


Characterization Of Structural Dynamics Of The Human Head Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography, Andrew Arun Badachhape Dec 2017

Characterization Of Structural Dynamics Of The Human Head Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography, Andrew Arun Badachhape

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

In traumatic brain injury (TBI), the skull-brain interface, composed of three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater, along with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the layers, plays a vital role in transmitting motion from the skull to brain tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging modality capable of providing in vivo estimates of tissue motion and material properties. The objective of this work is to augment human and phantom MRE studies to better characterize the mechanical contributions of the skull-brain interface to improve the parameterization and validation of computational models of TBI. Three specific aims ...


System Optimization And Iterative Image Reconstruction In Photoacoustic Computed Tomography For Breast Imaging, Yang Lou Dec 2017

System Optimization And Iterative Image Reconstruction In Photoacoustic Computed Tomography For Breast Imaging, Yang Lou

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic computed tomography(PACT), also known as optoacoustic tomography (OAT), is an emerging imaging technique that has developed rapidly in recent years. The combination of the high optical contrast and the high acoustic resolution of this hybrid imaging technique makes it a promising candidate for human breast imaging, where conventional imaging techniques including X-ray mammography, B-mode ultrasound, and MRI suffer from low contrast, low specificity for certain breast types, and additional risks related to ionizing radiation. Though significant works have been done to push the frontier of PACT breast imaging, it is still challenging to successfully build a PACT breast ...


Image Reconstruction Of The Speed Of Sound And Initial Pressure Distributions In Ultrasound Computed Tomography And Photoacoustic Computed Tomography, Thomas Paul Matthews Dec 2017

Image Reconstruction Of The Speed Of Sound And Initial Pressure Distributions In Ultrasound Computed Tomography And Photoacoustic Computed Tomography, Thomas Paul Matthews

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) and photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) are two emerging imaging modalities that have a wide range of potential applications from pre-clinical small animal imaging to cancer screening in human subjects. USCT is typically employed to measure acoustic contrasts, including the speed of sound (SOS) distribution, while PACT typically measures optical contrasts or some related quantity such as the initial pressure distribution. Their complementary contrasts and similar implementations make USCT and PACT a natural fit for a hybrid imaging system. Still, much work remains to realize this promise. First, USCT image reconstruction methods based on the acoustic wave ...


Reconstruction Algorithms For Novel Joint Imaging Techniques In Pet, Homayoon Ranjbar Dec 2017

Reconstruction Algorithms For Novel Joint Imaging Techniques In Pet, Homayoon Ranjbar

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important functional in vivo imaging modality with many clinical applications. Its enormously wide range of applications has made both research and industry combine it with other imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The general purpose of this work is to study two cases in PET where the goal is to perform image reconstruction jointly on two data types.

The first case is the Beta-Gamma image reconstruction. Positron emitting isotopes, such as 11C, 13N, and 18F, can be used to label molecules, and tracers, such ...


Association Between Left Ventricular Mechanics And Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis In Patients With Repaired Tetralogy Of Fallot: A Cross-Sectional Study, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Arichanah Pulenthiran, Abba Mejia-Spiegeler, Gregory J. Wehner, Linyuan Jing, Richard J. Charnigo, Brandon K. Fornwalt, Mark A. Fogel Dec 2017

Association Between Left Ventricular Mechanics And Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis In Patients With Repaired Tetralogy Of Fallot: A Cross-Sectional Study, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Arichanah Pulenthiran, Abba Mejia-Spiegeler, Gregory J. Wehner, Linyuan Jing, Richard J. Charnigo, Brandon K. Fornwalt, Mark A. Fogel

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have progressive, adverse biventricular remodeling, leading to abnormal contractile mechanics. Defining the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction, such as diffuse myocardial fibrosis, may provide insights into poor long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that left ventricular (LV) diffuse fibrosis is related to impaired LV mechanics.

Methods: Patients with TOF were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance in which modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) T1-mapping and spiral cine Displacement encoding (DENSE) sequences were acquired at three LV short-axis positions. Linear mixed modeling was used to define the association between regional LV mechanics from DENSE based on regional T1-derived diffuse ...


Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar Dec 2017

Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Powder injection molding (PIM) process simulations can be performed to minimize the number of injection molding experiments by estimating material properties necessary for PIM simulations. In current work, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder-polymer binder feedstock was compounded for 45 vol. % and 52 vol. % solids loading. PIM experiments on designed micro-pillar array geometry were performed using 52 vol. % PZT. Using PIM experiments results as basis, PIM simulations were performed on designed micro-pillar array geometries to understand the effectiveness of PIM simulations with the use of estimated feedstock properties in predicting molding behavior that have micro-features. Additionally, PIM simulations were performed to ...


Egcg Protects Against 6-Ohda-Induced Neurotoxicity In A Cell Culture Model, Dan Chen, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Manju B. Reddy Nov 2017

Egcg Protects Against 6-Ohda-Induced Neurotoxicity In A Cell Culture Model, Dan Chen, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Manju B. Reddy

Manju B. Reddy

Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes severe brain dopamine depletion. Disruption of iron metabolism may be involved in the PD progression. Objective. To test the protective effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced neurotoxicity by regulating iron metabolism in N27 cells. Methods. Protection by EGCG in N27 cells was assessed by SYTOX green assay, MTT, and caspase-3 activity. Iron regulatory gene and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular iron uptake was measured using 55Fe. The EGCG protection was further tested in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry. Results. EGCG ...


Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure And Obesity Are Independently Associated With Left Ventricular Hypertrophic Remodeling In Children, Linyuan Jing, Christopher D. Nevius, Cassi M. Friday, Jonathan D. Suever, Arichanah Pulenthiran, Abba Mejia-Spiegeler, H. Lester Kirchner, William J. Cochran, Gregory J. Wehner, Aftab S. Chishti, Christopher M. Haggerty, Brandon K. Fornwalt Nov 2017

Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure And Obesity Are Independently Associated With Left Ventricular Hypertrophic Remodeling In Children, Linyuan Jing, Christopher D. Nevius, Cassi M. Friday, Jonathan D. Suever, Arichanah Pulenthiran, Abba Mejia-Spiegeler, H. Lester Kirchner, William J. Cochran, Gregory J. Wehner, Aftab S. Chishti, Christopher M. Haggerty, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Children with obesity have hypertrophic cardiac remodeling. Hypertension is common in pediatric obesity, and may independently contribute to hypertrophy. We hypothesized that both the degree of obesity and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) would independently associate with measures of hypertrophic cardiac remodeling in children.

Methods: Children, aged 8–17 years, prospectively underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and ABP monitoring. Left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to height2.7(LVMI), myocardial thickness and end-diastolic volume were quantified from a 3D LV model reconstructed from cine balanced steady state free precession images. Categories of remodeling were determined based on cutoff values for ...


High Resolution Imaging Of The Mitral Valve In The Natural State With 7 Tesla Mri, Sam E. Stephens, Serguei Liachenko, Neil B. Ingels, Jonathan F. Wenk, Morten O. Jensen Aug 2017

High Resolution Imaging Of The Mitral Valve In The Natural State With 7 Tesla Mri, Sam E. Stephens, Serguei Liachenko, Neil B. Ingels, Jonathan F. Wenk, Morten O. Jensen

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Imaging techniques of the mitral valve have improved tremendously during the last decade, but challenges persist. The delicate changes in annulus shape and papillary muscle position throughout the cardiac cycle have significant impact on the stress distribution in the leaflets and chords, thus preservation of anatomically accurate positioning is critical. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro method and apparatus for obtaining high-resolution 3D MRI images of porcine mitral valves in both the diastolic and systolic configurations with physiologically appropriate annular shape, papillary muscle positions and orientations, specific to the heart from which the valve was ...


Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman Aug 2017

Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman

Lisa Hoffman

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe neuromuscular disease that affects 1 in 3500 boys. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration that results from mutations in or loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin, from the glycoprotein membrane complex, thus increasing the susceptibility of contractile muscle to injury. To date, disease progression is typically assessed using invasive techniques such as muscle biopsies, and while there are recent reports of the use of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and optical imaging technologies to address the issue of disease progression and monitoring therapeutic intervention in dystrophic mice, our study aims to validate ...


Dual-Tuned Removable Common-Mode Current Trap For Mri, Angel G. Enriquez, Joseph V. Rispoli Aug 2017

Dual-Tuned Removable Common-Mode Current Trap For Mri, Angel G. Enriquez, Joseph V. Rispoli

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are preferred methods of gathering information from the body due to their non-invasive approach of obtaining a diagnosis. MRI can obtain spatial mappings from a region of interest, while MRS can obtain metabolic information from different elements. Dual-tuned radiofrequency (RF) coils are able to capture signals produced by both hydrogen atoms and a second atom of interest. Unwanted shield currents occur in these scans, which can cause image distortion, while the high energy dissipated can create harmful heat, which can injure the patient. These shield currents, also known as common-mode currents ...


Multi-Color Ultra-High Resolution Imaging, David A. Miller, Michael Mlodzianoski, Sheng Liu, Fang Huang Aug 2017

Multi-Color Ultra-High Resolution Imaging, David A. Miller, Michael Mlodzianoski, Sheng Liu, Fang Huang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Fluorescence microscopy, which allows multiple-color imaging, plays an important role in observing structures inside cells with high specificity. The advent of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, or nanoscopy techniques such as single-molecule switching nanoscopy (SMSN), has extended the application range of fluorescence microscopy beyond the diffraction limit, achieving up to 10-fold improvement in spatial resolution. At the same time, the recent development of expansion microscopy (ExM) allows samples to be physically expanded by 4-fold in the lateral dimensions providing another independent method to resolve structures beyond the diffraction limit. When combined, ExM-SMSN makes it possible to achieve another significant leap in resolution ...


Gui For Mri-Compatible Neural Stimulator And Recorder, Soo Han Soon, Nishant Babaria, Ranajay Mandal, Zhongming Liu Aug 2017

Gui For Mri-Compatible Neural Stimulator And Recorder, Soo Han Soon, Nishant Babaria, Ranajay Mandal, Zhongming Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) are useful tools to analyze brain activities given active stimulation. However, the electromagnetic noise from the MRI distorts the brain signal recording and damages the subject with excessive heat generated on the electrodes attached to the skin. MRI-compatible recording and stimulation systems previously developed at LIBI lab were capable of removing the electromagnetic noise during the imaging process. Previously, the hardware systems had required the integrative software that could control both circuits simultaneously and enable users to easily change recording and stimulation parameters. Graphical user interface (GUI) programmed with computer language informed ...


Nanostructured Biosensor For Tear Glucose Detection Based On Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (Bret) Mechanism., Denghuang Zhan Aug 2017

Nanostructured Biosensor For Tear Glucose Detection Based On Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (Bret) Mechanism., Denghuang Zhan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET), a sensitive, non-destructive and self-illuminated method, has been now commonly used to test protein interactions. Here, we describe a BRET sensor for non-invasively detecting glucose molecules. The sensor is made by the bioconjugation of quantum dots and recombinant protein. The recombinant protein contains the bacterial glucose binding protein (GBP) and a bioluminescent protein, Renilla luciferase (Rluc), used as the donor with the emission peak at 470 nm, which is able to excite the acceptor of BRET sensor made of cadmium tellurium quantum dots ( CdTe QDs) with the emission peak at 570 nm. The distance between ...


Segmentation Of Heart Ventricles Using Skeletal Representations, Hasana Chaudry, Toshiro Kubota Jul 2017

Segmentation Of Heart Ventricles Using Skeletal Representations, Hasana Chaudry, Toshiro Kubota

Landmark Conference Summer Research Symposium

The objective of the project is to develop practical algorithms to segment the human heart’s left and right ventricles from isotropic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). An advanced algorithm that allows for efficient analysis of the ventricles in 3D or 4D would help diagnose and treat numerous cardiac diseases and illnesses. The left ventricle is a convex-like structure whereas the right ventricle has a relatively more abstract shape. The constant blood flow in and out of the ventricles causes them to look different at any given time. Therefore, our data set is in 4D where the fourth dimension is time ...


Chelator-Free Radiolabeling Of Serrs Nanoparticles For Whole-Body Pet And Intraoperative Raman Imaging, Matthew A. Wall, Travis Shaffer, Stefan Harmsen, Darjus-Felix Tschaharganeh, Chun-Hao Huang, Scott W. Lowe, Charles Michael Drain, Moritz F. Kircher Jul 2017

Chelator-Free Radiolabeling Of Serrs Nanoparticles For Whole-Body Pet And Intraoperative Raman Imaging, Matthew A. Wall, Travis Shaffer, Stefan Harmsen, Darjus-Felix Tschaharganeh, Chun-Hao Huang, Scott W. Lowe, Charles Michael Drain, Moritz F. Kircher

Publications and Research

A single contrast agent that offers whole-body non-invasive imaging along with the superior sensitivity and spatial resolution of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) imaging would allow both pre-operative mapping and intraoperative imaging and thus be highly desirable. We hypothesized that labeling our recently reported ultrabright SERRS nanoparticles with a suitable radiotracer would enable pre-operative identification of regions of interest with whole body imaging that can be rapidly corroborated with a Raman imaging device or handheld Raman scanner in order to provide high precision guidance during surgical procedures. Here we present a straightforward new method that produces radiolabeled SERRS nanoparticles for ...


Multi-Material Mesh Representation Of Anatomical Structures For Deep Brain Stimulation Planning, Tanweer Rashid Jul 2017

Multi-Material Mesh Representation Of Anatomical Structures For Deep Brain Stimulation Planning, Tanweer Rashid

Modeling, Simulation & Visualization Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The Dual Contouring algorithm (DC) is a grid-based process used to generate surface meshes from volumetric data. However, DC is unable to guarantee 2-manifold and watertight meshes due to the fact that it produces only one vertex for each grid cube. We present a modified Dual Contouring algorithm that is capable of overcoming this limitation. The proposed method decomposes an ambiguous grid cube into a set of tetrahedral cells and uses novel polygon generation rules that produce 2-manifold and watertight surface meshes with good-quality triangles. These meshes, being watertight and 2-manifold, are geometrically correct, and therefore can be used to ...


A Review Of Autoimmune Diseases Associated With Cancer, Patricia Tai, Edward Yu, Kurian Joseph, Thomas Miale Jun 2017

A Review Of Autoimmune Diseases Associated With Cancer, Patricia Tai, Edward Yu, Kurian Joseph, Thomas Miale

Edward Yu

The focus of this review is on the relationships between autoimmune diseases and cancer from two closely related perspectives: 1.Those autoimmune diseases which are often associated with malignancies. 2.Those prevalent cancers which may increase the risks of developing autoimmune disorders. The review concludes with a brief discussion of some selected innovative approaches to cancer immunotherapy.


Robot Assisted Ultrasound Imaged Guided Interstitial Lung Brachytherapy In A Porcine Model, Richard A. Malthaner, Edward Yu, Jerry J. Battista, Chris Blake, Donal Downey, Aaron Fenster Jun 2017

Robot Assisted Ultrasound Imaged Guided Interstitial Lung Brachytherapy In A Porcine Model, Richard A. Malthaner, Edward Yu, Jerry J. Battista, Chris Blake, Donal Downey, Aaron Fenster

Edward Yu

We set out to see if permanent interstitial brachytherapy seeds could be safely and reproducibly inserted thoracoscopicaly with the ZEUS Robotic system and intraoperative ultrasound into in-vivo porcine lungs.


A Review Of Autoimmune Diseases Associated With Cancer, Patricia Tai, Edward Yu, Kurian Joseph, Thomas Miale Jun 2017

A Review Of Autoimmune Diseases Associated With Cancer, Patricia Tai, Edward Yu, Kurian Joseph, Thomas Miale

Edward Yu

The focus of this review is on the relationships between autoimmune diseases and cancer from two closely related perspectives: 1.Those autoimmune diseases which are often associated with malignancies. 2.Those prevalent cancers which may increase the risks of developing autoimmune disorders. The review concludes with a brief discussion of some selected innovative approaches to cancer immunotherapy.


Real-Time Visualization Of Magnetic Flux Densities For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation On Commodity And Fully Immersive Vr Systems, Vijay K. Kalivarapu, Ciro Serrate, Ravi L. Hadimani May 2017

Real-Time Visualization Of Magnetic Flux Densities For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation On Commodity And Fully Immersive Vr Systems, Vijay K. Kalivarapu, Ciro Serrate, Ravi L. Hadimani

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure that uses time varying short pulses of magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. In this method, a magnetic field generator (“TMS coil”) produces small electric fields in the region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. This technique can be used to excite or inhibit firing of neurons, which can then be used for treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, migraine, and depression. It is however challenging to focus the induced electric field from TMS coils to smaller regions of the brain. Since electric and ...


Metabolic Response To Stress Differentiates Heterogeneous Cancer Cells With Varying Metastatic Potential, Kinan Alhallak May 2017

Metabolic Response To Stress Differentiates Heterogeneous Cancer Cells With Varying Metastatic Potential, Kinan Alhallak

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Intratumoral heterogeneity is ubiquitously present within primary tumors and contributes to intractable behaviors such as metastasis and mutability spatiotemporally. Mounting evidence has shown that heterogeneous cell populations can adversely affect cell metabolism and metastatic potential. The cell’s only fluorescent molecules within the electron transport chain, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), can allow the quantitation of cell metabolism. We demonstrate the use of the optical redox ratio (FAD/(NADH+FAD)) to determine the metabolic behaviors of a heterogeneous panel of cells with varying metastatic programs at normal conditions and following acute hypoxia. At normal conditions, we ...


In Vivo Multi-Parametric Imaging Of Metastatic And Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer, Raisa B. Rasul May 2017

In Vivo Multi-Parametric Imaging Of Metastatic And Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer, Raisa B. Rasul

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A current issue in cancer therapy is the characterization of metastatic tumors, which can increase ease of treatment and patient trials. We present an in vivo study of metastatic (4T1) and non-metastatic (4T1-TWIST KO) breast tumor sister cell lines to understand their metabolic behavior, determine differences in two modes of imaging (reflection & transmission), and observe effect of breathing higher oxygen percentage on vascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation. After injection of 10,000 cells into mice dorsal window chambers, the glucose intake and hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured using a fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBDG) and hyperspectral trans-illumination imaging from 520-620 nm at ...


A Novel Mra-Based Framework For The Detection Of Changes In Cerebrovascular Blood Pressure., Yitzhak Atakilt Gebru May 2017

A Novel Mra-Based Framework For The Detection Of Changes In Cerebrovascular Blood Pressure., Yitzhak Atakilt Gebru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: High blood pressure (HBP) affects 75 million adults and is the primary or contributing cause of mortality in 410,000 adults each year in the United States. Chronic HBP leads to cerebrovascular changes and is a significant contributor for strokes, dementia, and cognitive impairment. Non-invasive measurement of changes in cerebral vasculature and blood pressure (BP) may enable physicians to optimally treat HBP patients. This manuscript describes a method to non-invasively quantify changes in cerebral vasculature and BP using Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) imaging.

Methods: MRA images and BP measurements were obtained from patients (n=15, M=8, F=7 ...


Optimization Of Fluorescent Imaging In The Operating Room Through Pulsed Acquisition And Gating To Ambient Background Cycling, Kristian J. Sexton, Yan Zhao, Scott C. Davis, Shudong Jiang, Brian Pogue Apr 2017

Optimization Of Fluorescent Imaging In The Operating Room Through Pulsed Acquisition And Gating To Ambient Background Cycling, Kristian J. Sexton, Yan Zhao, Scott C. Davis, Shudong Jiang, Brian Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The design of fluorescence imaging instruments for surgical guidance is rapidly evolving, and a key issue is to efficiently capture signals with high ambient room lighting. Here, we introduce a novel time-gated approach to fluorescence imaging synchronizing acquisition to the 120 Hz light of the room, with pulsed LED excitation and gated ICCD detection. It is shown that under bright ambient room light this technique allows for the detection of physiologically relevant nanomolar fluorophore concentrations, and in particular reduces the light fluctuations present from the room lights, making low concentration measurements more reliable. This is particularly relevant for the light ...


Low-Cost Optics For Field-Based Optical Biosensors, Viktoriia Kriuchkovskaia Apr 2017

Low-Cost Optics For Field-Based Optical Biosensors, Viktoriia Kriuchkovskaia

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

One of the main reasons of failures to ensure safe food production, especially in developing countries, is the lack of effective, low-cost detectors for toxic molecules. The manufacture of low-cost, easy-touse optical biosensors is expected to provide the means to detect toxic chemical and biological molecules in agricultural industry. Thus, such technologies are highly beneficial for in-field applications. The proposed approach integrates fairly sophisticated engineering concepts and low-cost parts and materials. Indeed, we employ low-cost light-emitting diode and single-board Raspberry Pi computer in order to build a fifty-dollar optical reader that can be applied to Nanotube-based biosensors. Previous research and ...


Development Of Spectroscopic Methods For Dynamic Cellular Level Study Of Biochemical Kinetics And Disease Progression, Anna M. Sitarski Mar 2017

Development Of Spectroscopic Methods For Dynamic Cellular Level Study Of Biochemical Kinetics And Disease Progression, Anna M. Sitarski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the current fundamental objectives in biomedical research is understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease progression. Recent work in genetics support the stochastic nature of disease progression on the single cell level. For example, recent work has demonstrated that cancer as a disease state is reached after the accumulation of damages that result in genetic errors. Other diseases like Huntingtons, Parkinsons, Alzheimers, cardiovascular disease are developed over time and their cellular mechanisms of disease transition are largely unknown. Modern techniques of disease characterization are perturbative, invasive and fully destructive to biological samples. Many methods need a probe or ...