Combining Multiple Models With Survival Data: The Phase Algorithm, 2010 Penn State University

#### Combining Multiple Models With Survival Data: The Phase Algorithm, Debashis Ghosh, Zheng Yuan

*Debashis Ghosh*

In many scientic studies, one common goal is to develop good prediction rules based on a set of available measurements. This paper proposes a model averaging methodology using proportional hazards regression models to construct new estimators of predicted survival probabilities. A screening step based on an adaptive searching algorithm is used to handle large numbers of covariates. The nite-sample properties of the proposed methodology is assessed using simulation studies. Application of the method to a cancer biomarker study is also given.

Author Guidelines For Reporting Scale Development And Validation Results In The Journal Of The Society For Social Work And Research, 2010 Washington University in St. Louis

#### Author Guidelines For Reporting Scale Development And Validation Results In The Journal Of The Society For Social Work And Research, Peter Cabrera-Nguyen

*Elián P. Cabrera-Nguyen*

In this invited article, Cabrera-Nguyen provides guidelines for reporting scale development and validation results. Authors' attention to these guidelines will help ensure the research reported in JSSWR is rigorous and of high quality. This article provides guidance for those using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In addition, the article provides helpful links to resources addressing structural equation modeling, multiple imputation for missing data, and a general resource for quantitative data analysis.

Accounting For Response Misclassification And Covariate Measurement Error Improves Powers And Reduces Bias In Epidemiologic Studies, 2010 Baylor Health Care System

#### Accounting For Response Misclassification And Covariate Measurement Error Improves Powers And Reduces Bias In Epidemiologic Studies, Dunlei Cheng, Adam J. Branscum, James D. Stamey

*Dunlei Cheng*

Purpose: To quantify the impact of ignoring misclassification of a response variable and measurement error in a covariate on statistical power, and to develop software for sample size and power analysis that accounts for these flaws in epidemiologic data. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation-based procedure is developed to illustrate the differences in design requirements and inferences between analytic methods that properly account for misclassification and measurement error to those that do not in regression models for cross-sectional and cohort data. Results: We found that failure to account for these flaws in epidemiologic data can lead to a substantial reduction in …

A Bayesian Approach To Sample Size Determination For Studies Designed To Evaluate Continuous Medical Tests, 2010 Baylor Health Care System

#### A Bayesian Approach To Sample Size Determination For Studies Designed To Evaluate Continuous Medical Tests, Dunlei Cheng, Adam J. Branscum, James D. Stamey

*Dunlei Cheng*

We develop a Bayesian approach to sample size and power calculations for cross-sectional studies that are designed to evaluate and compare continuous medical tests. For studies that involve one test or two conditionally independent or dependent tests, we present methods that are applicable when the true disease status of sampled individuals will be available and when it will not. Within a hypothesis testing framework, we consider the goal of demonstrating that a medical test has area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve that exceeds a minimum acceptable level or another relevant threshold, and the goals of establishing the superiority …

How A Bayesian Might Estimate The Distribution Of Cronbach’S Alpha From Ordinal-Dynamic Scaled Data A Case Study Measuring Nursing Home Resident Quality Of Life, 2010 University of Kansas Medical Center

#### How A Bayesian Might Estimate The Distribution Of Cronbach’S Alpha From Ordinal-Dynamic Scaled Data A Case Study Measuring Nursing Home Resident Quality Of Life, Byron J. Gajewski, Diane K. Boyle, Sarah Thompson

*Byron J Gajewski*

We demonstrate the utility of a Bayesian based approach for calculating intervals of Cronbach’s alpha from a psychological instrument having ordinal responses with a dynamic scale. A small number of response options on an instrument will cause traditional-based interval estimates to be biased. Ordinal-based solutions are problematic because there is no clear mechanism for handling the dynamic scale. One way to remedy the bias is to adjust with a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach adjusts the bias and allows theoretically simple calculations of Cronbach’s alpha and intervals. We demonstrate the calculations of the Bayesian approach while at the same time …

Creation Of Synthetic Discrete Response Regression Models, 2010 Arizona State University

#### Creation Of Synthetic Discrete Response Regression Models, Joseph Hilbe

*Joseph M Hilbe*

The development and use of synthetic regression models has proven to assist statisticians in better understanding bias in data, as well as how to best interpret various statistics associated with a modeling situation. In this article I present code that can be easily amended for the creation of synthetic binomial, count, and categorical response models. Parameters may be assigned to any number of predictors (which are shown as continuous, binary, or categorical), negative binomial heterogeneity parameters may be assigned, and the number of levels or cut points and values may be specified for ordered and unordered categorical response models. I …

Statistical Criteria For Selecting The Optimal Number Of Untreated Subjects Matched To Each Treated Subject When Using Many-To-One Matching On The Propensity Score, 2010 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences

#### Statistical Criteria For Selecting The Optimal Number Of Untreated Subjects Matched To Each Treated Subject When Using Many-To-One Matching On The Propensity Score, Peter C. Austin

*Peter Austin*

Propensity-score matching is increasingly being used to estimate the effects of treatments using observational data. In many-to-one (M:1) matching on the propensity score, M untreated subjects are matched to each treated subject using the propensity score. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations to examine the effect of the choice of M on the statistical performance of matched estimators. They considered matching 1–5 untreated subjects to each treated subject using both nearest-neighbor matching and caliper matching in 96 different scenarios. Increasing the number of untreated subjects matched to each treated subject tended to increase the bias in the estimated treatment effect; …

The Performance Of Different Propensity-Score Methods For Estimating Differences In Proportions (Risk Differences Or Absolute Risk Reductions) In Observational Studies, 2010 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences

#### The Performance Of Different Propensity-Score Methods For Estimating Differences In Proportions (Risk Differences Or Absolute Risk Reductions) In Observational Studies, Peter C. Austin

*Peter Austin*

Propensity score methods are increasingly being used to estimate the effects of treatments on health outcomes using observational data. There are four methods for using the propensity score to estimate treatment effects: covariate adjustment using the propensity score, stratification on the propensity score, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score. When outcomes are binary, the effect of treatment on the outcome can be described using odds ratios, relative risks, risk differences, or the number needed to treat. Several clinical commentators suggested that risk differences and numbers needed to treat are more meaningful for clinical …

Optimal Dynamic Policies For Influenza Management, 2010 University of California - Santa Barbara

#### Optimal Dynamic Policies For Influenza Management, Michael Ludkovski, Jarad Niemi

*Jarad Niemi*

Management policies for influenza outbreaks balance the expected morbidity and mortality costs versus the cost of intervention policies. We present a methodology for dynamic determination of optimal policies in a completely observed stochastic compartmental model with parameter uncertainty. Our approach is simulation-based and searches the full set of sequential control strategies. For each time point, it generates a policy map describing the optimal intervention to implement as a function of outbreak state and Bayesian parameter posteriors. As a running example, we study a stochastic SIR model with isolation and vaccination as two possible interventions. Numerical simulations based on a classic …

On K4 Of The Gaussian And Eisenstein Integers, 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

#### On K4 Of The Gaussian And Eisenstein Integers, Mathieu Dutour Sikiric, Herbert Gangl, Paul Gunnells, Jonathan Hanke, Achill Schürmann, Dan Yasaki

*Paul Gunnells*

Abstract. In this paper we investigate the structure of the algebraic K-groups K4(Z[i]) and K4(Z[ρ]), where i := √ −1 and ρ := (1 + √ −3)/2. We exploit the close connection between homology groups of GLn(R) for n 6 5 and those of related classifying spaces, then compute the former using Voronoi’s reduction theory of positive definite quadratic and Hermitian forms to produce a very large finite cell complex on which GLn(R) acts. Our main results are (i) K4(Z[i]) is a finite abelian 3-group, and (ii) K4(Z[ρ]) is trivial.

A Prospective Cohort Study Of Modifiable Risk Factors For Gestational Diabetes Among Hispanic Women: Design And Baseline Characteristics, 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

#### A Prospective Cohort Study Of Modifiable Risk Factors For Gestational Diabetes Among Hispanic Women: Design And Baseline Characteristics, Lisa Chasen-Taber, R. T. Fortner, A. Gollenberg, John Buonaccorsi, N. Dole, G. Markenson

*John Buonaccorsi*

OBJECTIVES: Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for future diabetes, with rates of GDM consistently higher in Hispanic than non-Hispanic white women. Currently recognized risk factors for GDM are absent in up to half of affected women, and studies addressing modifiable risk factors for GDM in Hispanic women are sparse. METHODS: Proyecto Buena Salud is an ongoing prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Massachusetts designed to assess physical activity, psychosocial stress, and GDM risk. Bilingual interviewers recruit prenatal care patients early in pregnancy and assess activity, trait anxiety, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms using …

Statistical Modeling Of Agatston Score In Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis (Mesa), 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

#### Statistical Modeling Of Agatston Score In Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis (Mesa), Anna Liu, S. Ma, J. Carr, W. Post, R. Kronmal

*Anna Liu*

The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is an ongoing study of the prevalence, risk factors, and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease in a multi-ethnic cohort. It provides a valuable opportunity to examine the development and progression of CAC (coronary artery calcium), which is an important risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. In MESA, about half of the CAC scores are zero and the rest are continuously distributed. Such data has been referred to as “zero-inflated data” and may be described using two-part models. Existing two-part model studies have limitations in that they usually consider parametric models only, …

Gibbs Sampling For A Bayesian Hierarchical General Linear Model, 2010 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

#### Gibbs Sampling For A Bayesian Hierarchical General Linear Model, Alicia A. Johnson, Galin L. Jones

*Alicia A. Johnson*

No abstract provided.

Existence Of Traveling Wave Solutions For A Nonlocal Reaction-Diffusion Model Of Influenza A Drift, 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

#### Existence Of Traveling Wave Solutions For A Nonlocal Reaction-Diffusion Model Of Influenza A Drift, Joaquin Riviera, Yi Li

*Yi Li*

In this paper we discuss the existence of traveling wave solutions for a nonlocal reaction-diffusion model of Influenza A proposed in Lin et. al. (2003). The proof for the existence of the traveling wave takes advantage of the different time scales between the evolution of the disease and the progress of the disease in the population. Under this framework we are able to use the techniques from geometric singular perturbation theory to prove the existence of the traveling wave.

Digraphs With Isomorphic Underlying And Domination Graphs: 4-Cycles And Pairs Of Paths, 2010 Marquette University

#### Digraphs With Isomorphic Underlying And Domination Graphs: 4-Cycles And Pairs Of Paths, Kim A. S. Factor, Larry J. Langley

*Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science Faculty Research and Publications*

A domination graph of a digraph *D*, dom(*D*), is created using the vertex set of *D*, *V*(*D*). There is an edge *uv* in dom(*D*) whenever (*u*, *z*) or (*v*, *z*) is in the arc set of *D*, *A*(*D*), for every other vertex *z* ε *V*(*D*). For only some digraphs *D* has the structure of dom(*D*) been characterized. Examples of this are tournaments and regular digraphs. The authors have characterizations for the structure of digraphs *D* for …

Gliomapredict: A Clinically Useful Tool For Assigning Glioma Patients To Specific Molecular Subtypes, 2010 National Institutes of Health

#### Gliomapredict: A Clinically Useful Tool For Assigning Glioma Patients To Specific Molecular Subtypes, Aiguo Li, Serdar Bozdag, Yuri Kotliarov, Howard A. Fine

*Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science Faculty Research and Publications*

Background: Advances in generating genome-wide gene expression data have accelerated the development of molecular-based tumor classification systems. Tools that allow the translation of such molecular classification schemas from research into clinical applications are still missing in the emerging era of personalized medicine.

Results: We developed GliomaPredict as a computational tool that allows the fast and reliable classification of glioma patients into one of six previously published stratified subtypes based on sets of extensively validated classifiers derived from hundreds of glioma transcriptomic profiles. Our tool utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA)-based approach to generate a visual representation of the analyses, quantifies …

Not Every Co-Existential Map Is Confluent, 2010 Marquette University

#### Not Every Co-Existential Map Is Confluent, Paul Bankston

*Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science Faculty Research and Publications*

A continuous surjection between compacta is co-existential if it is the second of two maps whose composition is a standard ultracopower projection. Co-existential maps are always weakly confluent, and are even monotone when the range space is locally connected; so it is a natural question to ask whether they are always confluent. Here we give a negative answer. This is an interesting question, mainly because of the fact that most theorems about confluent maps have parallel versions for co-existential maps---notably, both kinds of maps preserve hereditary indecomposability. Where the known parallels break down is in the question of chainability. It …

Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities In Northeast Ohio, 2010 Cleveland State University

#### Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities In Northeast Ohio, Mark Salling, Joseph Ahern

*All Maxine Goodman Levin School of Urban Affairs Publications*

Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities in Northeast Ohio, Planning & Action, The Center for Community Solutions, Vol. 63, No. 4 (July), 2010, pp. 12-15.

Putting Artists On The Map: A Five Part Study Of Greater Cleveland Artists' Location Decisions - Part 1: Summary Report, 2010 Cleveland State University

#### Putting Artists On The Map: A Five Part Study Of Greater Cleveland Artists' Location Decisions - Part 1: Summary Report, Mark Salling, Gregory Soltis, Charles Post, Sharon Bliss, Ellen Cyran

*All Maxine Goodman Levin School of Urban Affairs Publications*

A series of reports detailing the residential and work space location preferences of Cuyahoga county's artists.

The Beta Maxwell Distribution, 2010 Marshall University

#### The Beta Maxwell Distribution, Grace Ebunoluwa Amusan

*Theses, Dissertations and Capstones*

In this work we considered a general class of distributions gener- ated from the logit of the beta random variable. We looked at various works that have been done and discussed some of the results that were obtained. Special cases of this class include the beta-normal distribution, the beta-exponential distribution, the beta-Gumbell distribution, the beta-Weibull distribution, the beta-Pareto distribution and the beta-Rayleigh distribution. We looked at the probability distribution functions of each of these distributions and also look at some of their properties. Another special case of this family, a three-parameter beta-Maxwell distribution was dened and studied. Various properties of …