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Collisional Dynamics Of The Cesium D1 And D2 Transitions, Greg A. Pitz 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

Collisional Dynamics Of The Cesium D1 And D2 Transitions, Greg A. Pitz

Theses and Dissertations

The collisional dynamics of the 62P levels in cesium have been studied utilizing steady state laser absorption and laser induced florescence techniques. In addition the production of a blue beam produced by two photon absorption has been observed in potassium. The collisional broadening rate for cesium, λL, for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, H2, HD, D2, CH4, C2H6, CF4, and 3He are 24.13, 10.85, 18.31, 17.82, 19.74, 16.64, 20.81, 20.06, 18.04, 29.00, 26.70, 18.84, and 26.00 MHz/torr, respectively for the …


All Solid-State Mid-Ir Laser Development, Nonlinear Absorption Investigation And Laser-Induced Damage Study, Torrey J. Wagner 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

All Solid-State Mid-Ir Laser Development, Nonlinear Absorption Investigation And Laser-Induced Damage Study, Torrey J. Wagner

Theses and Dissertations

In this research, nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds are measured in Ge and GaSb, which are materials that are used in IR detectors. Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients are measured in Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 μm for the first time. At these wavelengths, nonlinear absorption is the primary damage mechanism, and damage thresholds at picosecond and nanosecond pulse widths were measured and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally measured parameters. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al …


Absolute Ground-State Nitrogen Atom Density In A N2/Ch4 Late Afterglow: Talif Experiments And Modelling Studies, Et. Es-sebbar, M.-C. Gazeau, Y. Benilan, A. Jolly, C D. Pintassilgo 2010 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Absolute Ground-State Nitrogen Atom Density In A N2/Ch4 Late Afterglow: Talif Experiments And Modelling Studies, Et. Es-Sebbar, M.-C. Gazeau, Y. Benilan, A. Jolly, C D. Pintassilgo

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Following a first study on a late afterglow in flowing pure nitrogen post discharge, we report new two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) measurements of the absolute ground-state atomic nitrogen density N(4S) and investigate the influence of methane introduced downstream from the discharge by varying the CH4 mixing ratio from 0% up to 50%. The N (4S) maximum density is about 2.2 × 1015 cm−3 in pure N2 for a residence time of 22 ms and does not change significantly for methane mixing ratio up to ~15%, while above, a drastic decrease is observed. The influence of the residence time has …


Bottom Quark Detection With The Electromagnetic Calorimeter At Alice, Christopher Ryan Brown 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Bottom Quark Detection With The Electromagnetic Calorimeter At Alice, Christopher Ryan Brown

Physics

Bottom quarks are one of the easiest ways to observe quark flow in a quark gluon plasma. For this reason, it is advantageous in a detector to have superb capabilities at detecting bottom quarks through their decay products and interactions. This paper will provide an overview of bottom quark behavior in a quark gluon plasma, as well as methods used to detect this behavior. Once this has been established, an overview of the heavy ion physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and particularly A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE), will be discussed. It will then be argued that the …


Experimental And Theoretical Studies On Nitrogen Plasma And Methane Photolysis: Implications For Laboratory Simulations Of Titan’S Atmosphere, M-C. Gazeau, Y. Benilan, E. Arzoumanian, Et. Es-sebbar, A. Jolly 2010 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Experimental And Theoretical Studies On Nitrogen Plasma And Methane Photolysis: Implications For Laboratory Simulations Of Titan’S Atmosphere, M-C. Gazeau, Y. Benilan, E. Arzoumanian, Et. Es-Sebbar, A. Jolly

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

No abstract provided.


Spectroscopic Studies Applied To Uvis Observations Of Titan, Y. Benilan, F. Capalbo, Et. Es-sebbar, N. Fray, A. Jolly, M-C. Gazeau, J-C. Guillemin, M. Schwell 2010 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Spectroscopic Studies Applied To Uvis Observations Of Titan, Y. Benilan, F. Capalbo, Et. Es-Sebbar, N. Fray, A. Jolly, M-C. Gazeau, J-C. Guillemin, M. Schwell

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

No abstract provided.


Talif Investigation And Modelling Of The Absolute N(4s) Density In A N2-Ch4 Late Afterglow, C.D. Pintassilgo, Et. Es-sebbar, Y. Benilan, M-C. Gazeau, A. Jolly 2010 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Talif Investigation And Modelling Of The Absolute N(4s) Density In A N2-Ch4 Late Afterglow, C.D. Pintassilgo, Et. Es-Sebbar, Y. Benilan, M-C. Gazeau, A. Jolly

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

The purpose of the present work is the experimental and numerical study of the absolute ground-state nitrogen atoms density N(4S) in the late afterglow of a pure N2 flowing microwave discharge in which different amounts of CH4 have been injected at 25 cm downstream from the nitrogen discharge. The absolute N(4S) concentrations have been measured using Two-photon Absorption Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TALIF), while a detailed kinetic model has been developed to simulate both the discharge and the post-discharge regions. Theoretical predictions are then compared to experimental measurements.


Combined Experimental And Theoretical Studies On Methane Photolysis At 121.6 Nm And 248 Nm- Implications On A Program Of Laboratory Simulations Of Titan’S Atmosphere, C. Romanzin, E. Arzoumanian, Et. Es-sebbar, A. Jolly, S. Perrier, M.-C. Gazeau, Y. Bénilan 2010 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Combined Experimental And Theoretical Studies On Methane Photolysis At 121.6 Nm And 248 Nm- Implications On A Program Of Laboratory Simulations Of Titan’S Atmosphere, C. Romanzin, E. Arzoumanian, Et. Es-Sebbar, A. Jolly, S. Perrier, M.-C. Gazeau, Y. Bénilan

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Methane is, together with N2, the main precursor of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry. In our laboratory, we are currently developing a program of laboratory simulations of Titan’s atmosphere, where methane is intended to be dissociated by multiphotonic photolysis at 248 nm. A preliminary study has shown that multiphotonic absorption of methane at 248 nm is efficient and leads to the production of hydrocarbons such as C2H2 (Romanzin et al., 2008). Yet, at this wavelength, little is known about the branching ratios of the hydrocarbon radicals (CH3, CH2 and CH) and their following photochemistry. This paper thus aims at investigating methane photochemistry …


Experimental Investigation Of A Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet, Asma Begum 2010 Old Dominion University

Experimental Investigation Of A Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet, Asma Begum

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The main objective of this dissertation is to understand the formation of the plasma jet from the plasma pencil, and the propagation of the plasma jet in the ambient atmosphere where the effect of the external electric field is almost zero. Before investigating the formation and propagation phenomenon of the plasma jet, common physical properties of plasma jets are determined by using the imaging technique and optical emission spectroscopy. The first goal of this dissertation is to establish the laminar helium gas flow channel through a plasma pencil.

The formation position, formation time, and the criterion of the plasma jet …


Temperature-Dependent Photoabsorption Cross-Section Of Cyano-Diacetylene In The Vacuum Uv, N. Fray, Y. Bénilan, M.-C. Gazeau, A. Jolly, M. Schwell, E. Arzoumanian, Et. Es-sebbar, T. Ferradaz, J.- C. Guillemin 2010 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)

Temperature-Dependent Photoabsorption Cross-Section Of Cyano-Diacetylene In The Vacuum Uv, N. Fray, Y. Bénilan, M.-C. Gazeau, A. Jolly, M. Schwell, E. Arzoumanian, Et. Es-Sebbar, T. Ferradaz, J.- C. Guillemin

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Using synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source, we have measured, for the first time, the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of HC5N with a spectral resolution of 0.05 nm in the region between 80 and 205 nm from 233 to 298 K. The measured cross sections are used to predict the HC5N photodestruction rate in the solar system and to model a transmission spectrum in Titan's atmosphere. Comparing the latter with that acquired by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on board the Cassini spacecraft, we have determined an upper limit of 2.7 × 10−5 on the HC5N abundance at 1100 …


Investigation Of Track-Cluster Matching Vs Track-Cell Matching In The Alice Detector At Cern, Kevin Coulombe 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Investigation Of Track-Cluster Matching Vs Track-Cell Matching In The Alice Detector At Cern, Kevin Coulombe

Physics

The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) Experiment is a detector that is one of four stationed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The goal of ALICE is to investigate the properties of the quark-gluon plasma, a new form of matter which only existed during the first microsecond of the Universe. ALICE measures the aftermath of the collision of two lead ions. Some information detected is the trajectory of the particles traveling through the tracking detectors and energy deposited in the calorimeters. Both the tracks and energy are required to determine the identities of the various particles as they travel …


Numerical Modelling Of A 10-Cm-Long Multi-Gev Laser Wakefield Accelerator Driven By A Self-Guided Petawatt Pulse, Serguei Y. Kalmykov, Sunghwan A. Yi, Arnaud Beck, Agustin F. Lifschitz, Xavier Davoine, Erik Lefebvre, Alexander Pukhov, Vladimir N. Khudik, Gennady Shvets, Steven A. Reed, Peng Dong, Xiaoming Wang, Dongsu Du, Stefan Bedacht, Rafal B. Zgadzaj, Watson Henderson, Aaron Bernstein, Gilliss Dyer, Mikael Martinez, Erhard Gaul, Todd Ditmire, Michael C. Downer 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Numerical Modelling Of A 10-Cm-Long Multi-Gev Laser Wakefield Accelerator Driven By A Self-Guided Petawatt Pulse, Serguei Y. Kalmykov, Sunghwan A. Yi, Arnaud Beck, Agustin F. Lifschitz, Xavier Davoine, Erik Lefebvre, Alexander Pukhov, Vladimir N. Khudik, Gennady Shvets, Steven A. Reed, Peng Dong, Xiaoming Wang, Dongsu Du, Stefan Bedacht, Rafal B. Zgadzaj, Watson Henderson, Aaron Bernstein, Gilliss Dyer, Mikael Martinez, Erhard Gaul, Todd Ditmire, Michael C. Downer

Serge Youri Kalmykov

The use of a short-pulse petawatt (PW) laser (sub-200 fs duration, ~ 1 micron wavelength) enables experimental realization of a self-guided, multicentimetre-long multi-GeV laser wakefield electron accelerator. A comprehensive set of numerical simulations showed that a 150 fs, 1.33 PW pulse is self- guided over 10 cm of a static filling gaseous plasma of density 1–3 x 10^{17} cm^{−3} and is stable against relativistic filamentation. A fully broken electromagnetic wake (electron density ‘bubble’) is excited over the entire interaction length. Variations of bubble size and shape associated with nonlinear evolution of the driving pulse result in self-injection of background plasma …


Holographic Visualization Of Laser Wakefields, Peng Dong, Steven A. Reed, Sunghwan A. Yi, Serguei Y. Kalmykov, Zhengyan Y. Li, Gennady Shvets, Nicholas H. Matlis, Christopher McGuffey, Stepan S. Bulanov, Vladimir Chvykov, Galina Kalintchenko, Karl Krushelnick, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Takeshi Matsuoka, Alexander G. R. Thomas, Victor Yanovsky, Michael C. Downer 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Holographic Visualization Of Laser Wakefields, Peng Dong, Steven A. Reed, Sunghwan A. Yi, Serguei Y. Kalmykov, Zhengyan Y. Li, Gennady Shvets, Nicholas H. Matlis, Christopher Mcguffey, Stepan S. Bulanov, Vladimir Chvykov, Galina Kalintchenko, Karl Krushelnick, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Takeshi Matsuoka, Alexander G. R. Thomas, Victor Yanovsky, Michael C. Downer

Serge Youri Kalmykov

We report ‘snapshots’ of laser-generated plasma accelerator structures acquired by frequency domain holography (FDH) and frequency domain shadowgraphy (FDS), techniques for visualizing quasi-static objects propagating near the speed of light. FDH captures images of sinusoidal wakes in mm-length plasmas of density 1 < n_{e} < 5 x 10^{18} cm^{−3} from phase modulations they imprint on co-propagating probe pulses. Changes in the wake structure (such as the curvature of the wavefront), caused by the laser and plasma parameter variations from shot to shot, were observed. FDS visualizes lasergenerated electron density bubbles in mm-length plasmas of density n_{e} > 10^{19} cm^{−3} using amplitude modulations they imprint on co-propagating probe pulses. Variations in the spatio-temporal structure of bubbles are inferred from corresponding variations in the shape of ‘bullets’ of probe light trapped inside them and correlated with mono-energetic electron generation. Both FDH and FDS average over structural variations that occur during propagation through the plasma medium. We explore …


Formation Of Optical Bullets In Laser-Driven Plasma Bubble Accelerators, Peng Dong, Steven A. Reed, Sunghwan A. Yi, Serguei Y. Kalmykov, Gennady Shvets, Michael C. Downer, Nicholas H. Matlis, Wim P. Leemans, Christopher McGuffey, Stepan S. Bulanov, Vladimir Chvykov, Galina Kalintchenko, Karl Krushelnick, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Takeshi Matsuoka, Alexander G. R. Thomas, Victor Yanovsky 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Formation Of Optical Bullets In Laser-Driven Plasma Bubble Accelerators, Peng Dong, Steven A. Reed, Sunghwan A. Yi, Serguei Y. Kalmykov, Gennady Shvets, Michael C. Downer, Nicholas H. Matlis, Wim P. Leemans, Christopher Mcguffey, Stepan S. Bulanov, Vladimir Chvykov, Galina Kalintchenko, Karl Krushelnick, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Takeshi Matsuoka, Alexander G. R. Thomas, Victor Yanovsky

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Electron density bubbles—wake structures generated in plasma of density n_{e} ~ 10^{19} cm^{-3} by the light pressure of intense ultrashort laser pulses—are shown to reshape weak copropagating probe pulses into optical ‘‘bullets.’’ The bullets are reconstructed using frequency-domain interferometric techniques in order to visualize bubble formation. Bullets are confined in three dimensions to plasma-wavelength size, and exhibit higher intensity, broader spectrum and flatter temporal phase than surrounding probe light, evidence of their compression by the bubble. Bullets observed at 0.8 < n_{e} < 1.2 x 10^{19} cm^{-3} provide the first observation of bubble formation below the electron capture threshold. At higher n_{e}, bullets appear with high shot-to-shot stability together with relativistic electrons that vary widely in spectrum, and help relate bubble formation to fast electron generation.


Determination Of Energy Level Excitation States Of Time Dependent Optogalvanic Signals In A Discharge Plasma, Michael Christopher Blosser 2010 Butler University

Determination Of Energy Level Excitation States Of Time Dependent Optogalvanic Signals In A Discharge Plasma, Michael Christopher Blosser

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

When tuning a laser between two excited energy levels of the atoms in a discharge plasma, the discharge current will temporarily be disturbed. This disturbance or change in current is the optogalvanic effect (OGE). The fundamental goal of this project is to determine the exponential rates in the time-dependent OGE signals. These rates are related to the collision rates for the atoms in the plasma. The OGE data will be experimentally recorded, fitted, and analyzed to extract the exponential rates related to the energy levels of the atom in gas in the discharge lamp.


Mission Analysis And Design For Space Based Inter-Satellite Laser Power Beaming, Nicholas M. Keller 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

Mission Analysis And Design For Space Based Inter-Satellite Laser Power Beaming, Nicholas M. Keller

Theses and Dissertations

This research effort develops an interdisciplinary design tool to optimize an orbit for the purpose of wirelessly beaming power from the International Space Stations (ISS) Japanese Experimental Module Exposed Facility (JEM/EF) to a target satellite. For the purpose of this initiative, the target satellite will be referred to as FalconSAT6, a reference to the proposed follow-on satellite to the U.S. Air Force Academy’s (USAFA) FalconSAT5 program. The USAFA FalconSAT program provides cadets an opportunity to design, analyze, build, test and operate small satellites to conduct Department of Defense (DoD) space missions. The tool developed for this research is designed to …


Numerical Investigation Of Statistical Turbulence Effects On Beam Propagation Through 2-D Shear Mixing Layer, James C. Bowers 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

Numerical Investigation Of Statistical Turbulence Effects On Beam Propagation Through 2-D Shear Mixing Layer, James C. Bowers

Theses and Dissertations

A methodology is developed for determining the validity of making a statistical turbulent approach using Kolmogorov theory to an aero-optical turbulent ow. Kolmogorov theory provides a stochastic method that has a greatly simplified and robust method for calculating atmospheric turbulence effects on optical beam propagation, which could simplify similar approaches to chaotic aero-optical flows. A 2-D laminar Navier-Stokes CFD Solver (AVUS) is run over a splitter plate type geometry to create an aero-optical like shear mixing layer turbulence field. A Matlab algorithm is developed to import the flow data and calculates the structure functions, structure constant, and Fried Parameter ( …


Simulation Of A Diode Pumped Alkali Laser, A Three Level Numerical Approach, Shawn W. Hackett 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

Simulation Of A Diode Pumped Alkali Laser, A Three Level Numerical Approach, Shawn W. Hackett

Theses and Dissertations

This paper develops a three level model for a continuous wave diode pumped alkali laser by creating rate equations based on a three level system. The three level system consists of an alkali metal vapor, typically Rb or Cs, pumped by a diode from the 2S1/2 state to the 2P3/2 , a collisional relaxation from 2P3/2 to 2P1/ 2 , and then lasing from 2P1/2 to 2S1/2 . The hyperfine absorption and emission cross sections for these transitions are developed in detail. Differential equations for intra-gain pump attenuation …


Accelerated Lattice Boltzmann Method For Colloidal Suspensions Rheology And Interface Morphology, Hassan Farhat 2010 Wayne State University

Accelerated Lattice Boltzmann Method For Colloidal Suspensions Rheology And Interface Morphology, Hassan Farhat

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

ACCELERATED LATTICE BOLTZMANN MODEL FOR COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS RHEOLOGY AND INTERFACE MORPHOLOGY

by

HASSAN FARHAT

July 2010

Advisor: Dr. Singh Trilochan

Co-Advisor: Dr. Joon Sang Lee

Major: Mechanical Engineering

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Colloids are ubiquitous in the food, medical, cosmetic, polymer, water purification and pharmaceutical industries. Colloids thermal, mechanical and storage properties are highly dependent on their interface morphology and their rheological behavior.

Numerical methods provide a cheap and reliable virtual laboratory for the study of colloids. However efficiency is a major concern to address when using numerical methods for practical applications.

This work introduces the main building-blocks for …


Destruction Of Α -Synuclein Based Amyloid Fibrils By A Low Temperature Plasma Jet, Erdinc Karakas, Agatha Munyanyi, Lesley Greene, Mounir Laroussi 2010 Old Dominion University

Destruction Of Α -Synuclein Based Amyloid Fibrils By A Low Temperature Plasma Jet, Erdinc Karakas, Agatha Munyanyi, Lesley Greene, Mounir Laroussi

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Amyloid fibrils are ordered beta-sheet aggregates that are associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. At present, there is no cure for these progressive and debilitating diseases. Here we report initial studies that indicate that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma can break amyloid fibrils into smaller units in vitro. The plasma was generated by the plasma pencil, a device capable of emitting a long, low temperature plasma plume/jet. This avenue of research may facilitate the development of a plasma-based medical treatment.


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