Relation Algebras, Idempotent Semirings And Generalized Bunched Implication Algebras, 2017 Chapman University

#### Relation Algebras, Idempotent Semirings And Generalized Bunched Implication Algebras, Peter Jipsen

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

This paper investigates connections between algebraic structures that are common in theoretical computer science and algebraic logic. Idempotent semirings are the basis of Kleene algebras, relation algebras, residuated lattices and bunched implication algebras. Extending a result of Chajda and Länger, we show that involutive residuated lattices are determined by a pair of dually isomorphic idempotent semirings on the same set, and this result also applies to relation algebras. Generalized bunched implication algebras (GBI-algebras for short) are residuated lattices expanded with a Heyting implication. We construct bounded cyclic involutive GBI-algebras from so-called weakening relations, and prove that the class of weakening ...

Does Logic Help Us Beat Monty Hall?, 2017 Cedarville University

#### Does Logic Help Us Beat Monty Hall?, Adam J. Hammett, Nathan A. Harold, Tucker R. Rhodes

*The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)*

The classical Monty Hall problem entails that a hypothetical game show contestant be presented three doors and told that behind one door is a car and behind the other two are far less appealing prizes, like goats. The contestant then picks a door, and the host (Monty) is to open a different door which contains one of the bad prizes. At this point in the game, the contestant is given the option of keeping the door she chose or changing her selection to the remaining door (since one has already been opened by Monty), after which Monty opens the chosen ...

From Pythagoreans And Weierstrassians To True Infinitesimal Calculus, 2017 Bar-Ilan University

#### From Pythagoreans And Weierstrassians To True Infinitesimal Calculus, Mikhail Katz, Luie Polev

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

In teaching infinitesimal calculus we sought to present basic concepts like continuity and convergence by comparing and contrasting various definitions, rather than presenting “the definition” to the students as a monolithic absolute. We hope that our experiences could be useful to other instructors wishing to follow this method of instruction. A poll run at the conclusion of the course indicates that students tend to favor infinitesimal definitions over epsilon-delta ones.

The Proscriptive Principle And Logics Of Analytic Implication, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### The Proscriptive Principle And Logics Of Analytic Implication, Thomas M. Ferguson

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The analogy between inference and mereological containment goes at least back to Aristotle, whose discussion in the *Prior Analytics* motivates the validity of the syllogism by way of talk of parts and wholes. On this picture, the application of syllogistic is merely the *analysis* of concepts, a term that presupposes—through the root ἀνά + λύω —a mereological background.

In the 1930s, such considerations led William T. Parry to attempt to codify this notion of logical containment in his system of analytic implication AI. Parry’s original system AI was later expanded to the system PAI. The hallmark of Parry’s ...

Together We Know How To Achieve: An Epistemic Logic Of Know-How, 2017 Lafayette College

#### Together We Know How To Achieve: An Epistemic Logic Of Know-How, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

*Faculty Research and Reports*

The existence of a coalition strategy to achieve a goal does not necessarily mean that the coalition has enough information to know how to follow the strategy. Neither does it mean that the coalition knows that such a strategy exists. The paper studies an interplay between the distributed knowledge, coalition strategies, and coalition "know-how" strategies. The main technical result is a sound and complete trimodal logical system that describes the properties of this interplay.

Coalition Power In Epistemic Transition Systems, 2017 Lafayette College

#### Coalition Power In Epistemic Transition Systems, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

*Faculty Research and Reports*

The paper proposes a bimodal logic that describes an interplay between coalition strategies and distributed knowledge. Unlike the existing literature, the paper assumes that a strategy must be not only executable but also verifiable. That is, the strategy of a coalition should be based only on the information distributively known by the coalition and the coalition must be able to verify the result after the strategy is executed. The main technical result of the paper is a sound and complete logical system describing all universal properties expressible in the proposed bimodal language.

Budget-Constrained Dynamics In Multiagent Systems, 2017 Illinois Wesleyan University

#### Budget-Constrained Dynamics In Multiagent Systems, Pavel Naumov, Rui Cao

*Faculty Research and Reports*

The paper introduces a notion of a budget-constrained multiagent transition system that associates two financial parameters with each transition: a pre-transition minimal budget requirement and a post-transition profit. The paper proposes a new modal language for reasoning about such a system. The language uses a modality labeled by agent as well as by budget and profit constraints.

The main technical result is a sound and complete logical system that describes all universal properties of this modality. Among these properties is a form of Transitivity axiom that captures the interplay between the budget and profit constraints.

Generalized Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs Of First Type, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Generalized Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs Of First Type, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Ali Hassan

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, motivated by the notion of generalized single valued neutrosophic graphs of first type, we defined a new neutrosophic graphs named generalized interval valued neutrosophic graphs of first type (GIVNG1) and presented a matrix representation for it and studied few properties of this new concept. The concept of GIVNG1 is an extension of generalized fuzzy graphs (GFG1) and generalized single valued neutrosophic of first type (GSVNG1).

Introducing A Theory Of Neutrosophic Evolution: Degrees Of Evolution, Indeterminacy, And Involution, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Introducing A Theory Of Neutrosophic Evolution: Degrees Of Evolution, Indeterminacy, And Involution, Florentin Smarandache

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

During the process of adaptation of a being (plant, animal, or human), to a new environment or conditions, the being partially evolves, partially devolves (degenerates), and partially is indeterminate i.e. neither evolving nor devolving, therefore unchanged (neutral), or the change is unclear, ambiguous, vague, as in neutrosophic logic. Thank to adaptation, one therefore has: evolution, involution, and indeterminacy (or neutrality), each one of these three neutrosophic components in some degree. The degrees of evolution/indeterminacy/involution are referred to both: the structure of the being (its body parts), and functionality of the being (functionality of each part, or inter-functionality ...

Neutrosophic Triplet Groups And Their Applications To Mathematical Modelling, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Triplet Groups And Their Applications To Mathematical Modelling, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K.

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The innovative notion of neutrosophic triplet groups, introduced by Smarandache and Ali in 2014-2016, happens to yield the anti-element and neutral element once the element is given. It is established that the neutrosophic triplet group collection forms the classical group under product for Zn, for some specific n. However the collection is not even closed under sum. These neutrosophic triplet groups are built using only modulo integers or Cayley tables. Several interesting properties related with them are defined. It is pertinent to record that in Zn, when n is a prime number, we cannot get a neutral element which can ...

Computation Of Shortest Path Problem In A Network With Sv-Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Computation Of Shortest Path Problem In A Network With Sv-Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this article, we present an algorithm method for finding the shortest path length between a paired nodes on a network where the edge weights are characterized by single valued triangular neutrosophic numbers. The proposed algorithm gives the shortest shortest path length from source node to destination node based on a ranking method. Finally, a numerical example is also presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

The Use Of The Pivot Pairwise Relative Criteria Importance Assessment Method For Determining The Weights Of Criteria, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### The Use Of The Pivot Pairwise Relative Criteria Importance Assessment Method For Determining The Weights Of Criteria, Florentin Smarandache, Dragisa Stanujkic, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Darjan Karabasevic, Zenonas Turskis

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The weights of evaluation criteria could have a significant impact on the results obtained by applying multiple criteria decision-making methods. Therefore, the two extensions of the SWARA method that can be used in cases when it is not easy, or even is impossible to reach a consensus on the expected importance of the evaluation criteria are proposed in this paper. The primary objective of the proposed extensions is to provide an understandable and easy-to-use approach to the collecting of respondents’ real attitudes towards the significance of evaluation criteria and to also provide an approach to the checking of the reliability ...

Quasivarieties And Varieties Of Ordered Algebras: Regularity And Exactness, 2017 Chapman University

#### Quasivarieties And Varieties Of Ordered Algebras: Regularity And Exactness, Alexander Kurz

*Engineering Faculty Articles and Research*

We characterise quasivarieties and varieties of ordered algebras categorically in terms of regularity, exactness and the existence of a suitable generator. The notions of regularity and exactness need to be understood in the sense of category theory enriched over posets.

We also prove that finitary varieties of ordered algebras are cocompletions of their theories under sifted colimits (again, in the enriched sense).

Neutrosophic Perspectives: Triplets, Duplets, Multisets, Hybrid Operators, Modal Logic, Hedge Algebras. And Applications (Second Extended And Improved), 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Perspectives: Triplets, Duplets, Multisets, Hybrid Operators, Modal Logic, Hedge Algebras. And Applications (Second Extended And Improved), Florentin Smarandache

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

This book is part of the book-series dedicated to the advances of neutrosophic theories and their applications, started by the author in 1998. Its aim is to present the last developments in the field. For the first time, we now introduce:

— Neutrosophic Duplets and the Neutrosophic Duplet Structures;

— Neutrosophic Multisets (as an extension of the classical multisets);

— Neutrosophic Spherical Numbers;

— Neutrosophic Overnumbers / Undernumbers / Offnumbers;

— Neutrosophic Indeterminacy of Second Type;

— Neutrosophic Hybrid Operators (where the heterogeneous t-norms and t-conorms may be used in designing neutrosophic aggregations);

— Neutrosophic Triplet Loop;

— Neutrosophic Triplet Function;

— Neutrosophic Modal Logic;

— and Neutrosophic Hedge Algebras.

The Refined ...

A Bipolar Single Valued Neutrosophic Isolated Graphs: Revisited, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### A Bipolar Single Valued Neutrosophic Isolated Graphs: Revisited, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Mohsin Khan

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this research paper, the graph of the bipolar single-valued neutrosophic set model (BSVNS) is proposed. The graphs of single valued neutrosophic set models is generalized by this graph. For the BSVNS model, several results have been proved on complete and isolated graphs. Adding, an important and suitable condition for the graphs of the BSVNS model to become an isolated graph of the BSVNS model has been demonstrated.

Complex Valued Graphs For Soft Computing, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Complex Valued Graphs For Soft Computing, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this book authors for the first time introduce in a systematic way the notion of complex valued graphs, strong complex valued graphs and complex neutrosophic valued graphs. Several interesting properties are defined, described and developed. Most of the conjectures which are open in case of usual graphs continue to be open problems in case of both complex valued graphs and strong complex valued graphs. We also give some applications of them in soft computing and social networks. At this juncture it is pertinent to keep on record that Dr. Tohru Nitta was the pioneer to use complex valued graphs ...

Neutrosophic Operational Research - Vol. 2, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Operational Research - Vol. 2, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Abdel Basset, Victor Chang

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Foreword John R. Edwards This book is an excellent exposition of the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to generate data analytic insights to make evidence-based decisions, to improve productivity, and to manage cost-risk and benefitopportunity in public and private sectors. The design and the content of the book make it an up-to-date and timely reference for professionals, academics, students, and employees, in particular those involved in strategic and operational decisionmaking processes to evaluate and prioritize alternatives to boost productivity growth, to optimize the efficiency of resource utilization, and to maximize the effectiveness of outputs and impacts to stakeholders. It ...

Curiozităţi Ale Funcţiilor Supermatematice, 2017 University of New Mexico

#### Curiozităţi Ale Funcţiilor Supermatematice, Florentin Smarandache, Mircea Eugen Selariu

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

No abstract provided.

Predicting Risk Of Adverse Outcomes In Knee Replacement Surgery With Reconstructability Analysis, 2017 Portland State University

#### Predicting Risk Of Adverse Outcomes In Knee Replacement Surgery With Reconstructability Analysis, Cecily Corrine Froemke, Martin Zwick

*Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations*

Reconstructability Analysis (RA) is a data mining method that searches for relations in data, especially non-linear and higher order relations. This study shows that RA can provide useful predictions of complications in knee replacement surgery.

Foreword: Special Issue On Coalgebraic Logic, 2017 Chapman University

#### Foreword: Special Issue On Coalgebraic Logic, Alexander Kurz

*Engineering Faculty Articles and Research*

The second Dagstuhl seminar on coalgebraic logics took place from October 7-12, 2012, in the Leibniz Forschungszentrum Schloss Dagstuhl, following a successful earlier one in December 2009. From the 44 researchers who attended and the 30 talks presented, this collection highlights some of the progress that has been made in the field. We are grateful to Giuseppe Longo and his interest in a special issue in Mathematical Structures in Computer Science.