Bifurcations And Resultants For Rational Maps And Dynatomic Modular Curves In Positive Characteristic, 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Bifurcations And Resultants For Rational Maps And Dynatomic Modular Curves In Positive Characteristic, Colette Lapointe

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

No abstract provided.

Explicit Composition Identities For Higher Composition Laws In The Quadratic Case, 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Explicit Composition Identities For Higher Composition Laws In The Quadratic Case, Ajith A. Nair

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The theory of Gauss composition of integer binary quadratic forms provides a very useful way to compute the structure of ideal class groups in quadratic number fields. In addition to that, Gauss composition is also important in the problem of representations of integers by binary quadratic forms. In 2001, Bhargava discovered a new approach to Gauss composition which uses 2x2x2 integer cubes, and he proved a composition law for such cubes. Furthermore, from the higher composition law on cubes, he derived four new higher composition laws on the following spaces - 1) binary cubic forms, 2) pairs of binary quadratic …

Boolean Group Structure In Class Groups Of Positive Definite Quadratic Forms Of Primitive Discriminant, 2024 University of Mary Washington

#### Boolean Group Structure In Class Groups Of Positive Definite Quadratic Forms Of Primitive Discriminant, Christopher Albert Hudert Jr.

*Student Research Submissions*

It is possible to completely describe the representation of any integer by binary quadratic forms of a given discriminant when the discriminant’s class group is a Boolean group (also known as an elementary abelian 2-group). For other discriminants, we can partially describe the representation using the structure of the class group. The goal of the present project is to find whether any class group with 32 elements and a primitive positive definite discriminant is a Boolean group. We find that no such class group is Boolean.

Rsa Algorithm, 2024 Arkansas Tech University

#### Rsa Algorithm, Evalisbeth Garcia Diazbarriga

*ATU Research Symposium*

I will be presenting about the RSA method in cryptology which is the coding and decoding of messages. My research will focus on proving that the method works and how it is used to communicate secretly.

Finite Monodromy And Artin Representations, 2024 Louisiana State University

#### Finite Monodromy And Artin Representations, Emma Lien

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

Artin representations, which are complex representations of finite Galois groups, appear in many contexts in number theory. The Langlands program predicts that Galois representations like these should arise from automorphic representations and many examples of this correspondence have been found such as in the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. This dissertation aims to make an analysis of explicitly computable examples of Artin representations from both sides of this correspondence. On the automorphic side, certain weight 1 modular forms have been shown to be related to Artin representations and an explicit analysis of their Fourier coefficients allows us to identify the …

Birkhoff Summation Of Irrational Rotations: A Surprising Result For The Golden Mean, 2024 Portland State University

#### Birkhoff Summation Of Irrational Rotations: A Surprising Result For The Golden Mean, Heather Moore

*University Honors Theses*

This thesis presents a surprising result that the difference in a certain sums of constant rotations by the golden mean approaches *exactly* 1/5. Specifically, we focus on the Birkhoff sums of these rotations, with the number of terms equal to squared Fibonacci numbers. The proof relies on the properties of continued fraction approximants, Vajda's identity and the explicit formula for the Fibonacci numbers.

Optimizing Buying Strategies In Dominion, 2024 Georgia Southern University

#### Optimizing Buying Strategies In Dominion, Nikolas A. Koutroulakis

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Dominion is a deck-building card game that simulates competing lords growing their kingdoms. Here we wish to optimize a strategy called Big Money by modeling the game as a Markov chain and utilizing the associated transition matrices to simulate the game. We provide additional analysis of a variation on this strategy known as Big Money Terminal Draw. Our results show that player's should prioritize buying provinces over improving their deck. Furthermore, we derive heuristics to guide a player's decision making for a Big Money Terminal Draw Deck. In particular, we show that buying a second Smithy is always more optimal …

Pairs Of Quadratic Forms Over P-Adic Fields, 2024 University of Kentucky

#### Pairs Of Quadratic Forms Over P-Adic Fields, John Hall

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Given two quadratic forms $Q_1, Q_2$ over a $p$-adic field $K$ in $n$ variables, we consider the pencil $\mathcal{P}_K(Q_1, Q_2)$, which contains all nontrivial $K$-linear combinations of $Q_1$ and $Q_2$. We define $D$ to be the maximal dimension of a subspace in $K^n$ on which $Q_1$ and $Q_2$ both vanish. We define $H$ to be the maximal number of hyperbolic planes that a form in $\mathcal{P}_K(Q_1, Q_2)$ splits off over $K$. We will determine which values for $(D, H)$ are possible for a nonsingular pair of quadratic forms over a $p$-adic field $K$.

The Vulnerabilities To The Rsa Algorithm And Future Alternative Algorithms To Improve Security, 2023 William & Mary

#### The Vulnerabilities To The Rsa Algorithm And Future Alternative Algorithms To Improve Security, James Johnson

*Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase*

The RSA encryption algorithm has secured many large systems, including bank systems, data encryption in emails, several online transactions, etc. Benefiting from the use of asymmetric cryptography and properties of number theory, RSA was widely regarded as one of most difficult algorithms to decrypt without a key, especially since by brute force, breaking the algorithm would take thousands of years. However, in recent times, research has shown that RSA is getting closer to being efficiently decrypted classically, using algebraic methods, (fully cracked through limited bits) in which elliptic-curve cryptography has been thought of as the alternative that is stronger than …

Further Generalizations Of Happy Numbers, 2023 Bryn Mawr College

#### Further Generalizations Of Happy Numbers, E. Simonton Williams

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

A positive integer n is defined to be happy if iteration of the function taking the sum of the squares of the digits of n eventually reaches 1. In this paper we generalize the concept of happy numbers in several ways. First we confirm known results of Grundman and Teeple and establish further results extending the known structure of happy numbers to higher powers. Then we construct a similar function expanding the definition of happy numbers to negative integers. Working with this function, we prove a range of results paralleling those already proven for traditional and generalized happy numbers. Finally, …

Divisibility Probabilities For Products Of Randomly Chosen Integers, 2023 University of Maryland

#### Divisibility Probabilities For Products Of Randomly Chosen Integers, Noah Y. Fine

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

We find a formula for the probability that the product of *n* positive integers, chosen at random, is divisible by some integer *d*. We do this via an inductive application of the Chinese Remainder Theorem, generating functions, and several other combinatorial arguments. Additionally, we apply this formula to find a unique, but slow, probabilistic primality test.

Rough Numbers And Variations On The Erdős--Kac Theorem, 2023 Dartmouth College

#### Rough Numbers And Variations On The Erdős--Kac Theorem, Kai Fan

*Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations*

The study of arithmetic functions, functions with domain N and codomain C, has been a central topic in number theory. This work is dedicated to the study of the distribution of arithmetic functions of great interest in analytic and probabilistic number theory.

In the first part, we study the distribution of positive integers free of prime factors less than or equal to any given real number y>=1. Denoting by Phi(x,y) the count of these numbers up to any given x>=y, we show, by a combination of analytic methods and sieves, that Phi(x,y)<0.6x/\log y holds uniformly for all 3<=y<=sqrt{x}, improving upon an earlier result of the author in the same range. We also prove numerically explicit estimates of the de Bruijn type for Phi(x,y) which are applicable in wide ranges.

In the second part, we turn …

On The Order-Type Complexity Of Words, And Greedy Sidon Sets For Linear Forms, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### On The Order-Type Complexity Of Words, And Greedy Sidon Sets For Linear Forms, Yin Choi Cheng

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This work consists of two parts. In the first part, we study the order-type complexity of right-infinite words over a finite alphabet, which is defined to be the order types of the set of shifts of said words in lexicographical order. The set of shifts of any aperiodic morphic words whose first letter in the purely-morphic pre-image occurs at least twice in the pre-image has the same order type as Q ∩ (0, 1), Q ∩ (0, 1], or Q ∩ [0, 1). This includes all aperiodic purely-morphic binary words. The order types of uniform-morphic ternary words were also studied, …

On The Spectrum Of Quaquaversal Operators, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### On The Spectrum Of Quaquaversal Operators, Josiah Sugarman

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In 1998 Charles Radin and John Conway introduced the Quaquaversal Tiling. A three dimensional hierarchical tiling with the property that the orientations of its tiles approach a uniform distribution faster than what is possible for hierarchical tilings in two dimensions. The distribution of orientations is controlled by the spectrum of a certain Hecke operator, which we refer to as the Quaquaversal Operator. For example, by showing that the largest eigenvalue has multiplicity equal to one, Charles Radin and John Conway showed that the orientations of this tiling approach a uniform distribution. In 2008, Bourgain and Gamburd showed that this operator …

On The Second Case Of Fermat's Last Theorem Over Cyclotomic Fields, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### On The Second Case Of Fermat's Last Theorem Over Cyclotomic Fields, Owen Sweeney

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We obtain a new simpler sufficient condition for Kolyvagin's criteria, regarding the second case of Fermat's last theorem with prime exponent p over the p-th cyclotomic field, to hold. It covers cases when the existing simpler sufficient conditions do not hold and is important for the theoretical study of the criteria.

Approaches To The Erdős–Straus Conjecture, 2023 CUNY New York City College of Technology

#### Approaches To The Erdős–Straus Conjecture, Ivan V. Morozov

*Publications and Research*

The Erdős–Straus conjecture, initially proposed in 1948 by Paul Erdős and Ernst G. Straus, asks whether the equation 4/n = 1/x + 1/y + 1/z is solvable for all n ∈ N and some x, y, z ∈ N. This problem touches on properties of Egyptian fractions, which had been used in ancient Egyptian mathematics. There exist many partial solutions, mainly in the form of arithmetic progressions and therefore residue classes. In this work we explore partial solutions and aim to expand them.

Zeros Of Modular Forms, 2023 Clemson University

#### Zeros Of Modular Forms, Daozhou Zhu

*All Dissertations*

Let $E_k(z)$ be the normalized Eisenstein series of weight $k$ for the full modular group $\text{SL}(2, \mathbb{Z})$. It is conjectured that all the zeros of the weight $k+\ell$ cusp form $E_k(z)E_\ell(z)-E_{k+\ell}(z)$ in the standard fundamental domain lie on the boundary. Reitzes, Vulakh and Young \cite{Reitzes17} proved that this statement is true for sufficiently large $k$ and $\ell$. Xue and Zhu \cite{Xue} proved the cases when $\ell=4,6,8$ with $k\geq\ell$, all the zeros of $E_k(z)E_\ell(z)-E_{k+\ell}(z)$ lie on the arc $|z|=1$. For all $k\geq\ell\geq10$, we will use the same method as \cite{Reitzes17} to locate these zeros on the arc $|z|=1$, and improve the …

Algebraic And Integral Closure Of A Polynomial Ring In Its Power Series Ring, 2023 Clemson University

#### Algebraic And Integral Closure Of A Polynomial Ring In Its Power Series Ring, Joseph Swanson

*All Dissertations*

Let R be a domain. We look at the algebraic and integral closure of a polynomial ring, R[x], in its power series ring, R[[x]]. A power series α(x) ∈ R[[x]] is said to be an algebraic power series if there exists F (x, y) ∈ R[x][y] such that F (x, α(x)) = 0, where F (x, y) ̸ = 0. If F (x, y) is monic, then α(x) is said to be an integral power series. We characterize the units of algebraic and integral power series. We show that the only algebraic power series with infinite radii of convergence are …

The Spectrum Of Nim-Values For Achievement Games For Generating Finite Groups, 2023 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

#### The Spectrum Of Nim-Values For Achievement Games For Generating Finite Groups, Bret J. Benesh, Dana C. Ernst, Nándor Sieben

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We study an impartial achievement game introduced by Anderson and Harary. The game is played by two players who alternately select previously unselected elements of a finite group. The game ends when the jointly selected elements generate the group. The last player able to make a move is the winner of the game. We prove that the spectrum of nim-values of these games is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}. This positively answers two conjectures from a previous paper by the last two authors.

One Formula For Non-Prime Numbers: Motivations And Characteristics, 2023 Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt

#### One Formula For Non-Prime Numbers: Motivations And Characteristics, Mahmoud Mansour, Kamal Hassan Prof.

*Basic Science Engineering*

Primes are essential for computer encryption and cryptography, as they are fundamental units of whole numbers and are of the highest importance due to their mathematical qualities. However, identifying a pattern of primes is not easy. Thinking in a different way may get benefits, by considering the opposite side of the problem which means focusing on non-prime numbers. Recently, researchers introduced, the pattern of non-primes in two maximal sets while in this paper, non-primes are presented in one formula. Getting one-way formula for non-primes may pave the way for further applications based on the idea of primes.