Higher Diffeology Theory, 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Higher Diffeology Theory, Emilio Minichiello

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Finite dimensional smooth manifolds have been studied for hundreds of years, and a massive theory has been built around them. However, modern mathematicians and physicists are commonly dealing with objects outside the purview of classical differential geometry, such as orbifolds and loop spaces. Diffeology is a new framework for dealing with such generalized smooth spaces. This theory (whose development started in earnest in the 1980s) has started to catch on amongst the wider mathematical community, thanks to its simplicity and power, but it is not the only approach to dealing with generalized smooth spaces. Higher topos theory is another such …

Parabolic And Non-Parabolic Surfaces With Small Or Large End Spaces Via Fenchel-Nielsen Parameters, 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Parabolic And Non-Parabolic Surfaces With Small Or Large End Spaces Via Fenchel-Nielsen Parameters, Michael Antony Pandazis

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We consider conditions on the Fenchel-Nielsen parameters of a Riemann surface X that determine whether or not a surface X is parabolic. Fix a geodesic pants decomposition of a surface and call the boundary geodesics in the decomposition cuffs. For a zero or half-twist flute surface, we prove that parabolicity is equivalent to the surface having a covering group of the first kind. Using that result, we give necessary and sufficient conditions on the Fenchel-Nielsen parameters of a half-twist flute surface X with increasing cuff lengths such that X is parabolic. As an application, we determine whether or not each …

Constructible Sandwich Cut, 2024 FIU Department of Mathematics

#### Constructible Sandwich Cut, Philip A. Son

*FIU Undergraduate Research Journal*

In mathematical measure theory, the “Ham-Sandwich” theorem states that any n objects in an n-dimensional Euclidean space can be simultaneously divided in half with a single cut by an (n-1)-dimensional hyperplane. While it guarantees its existence, the theorem does not provide a way of finding this halving hyperplane, as it is only an existence result. In this paper, we look at the problem in dimension 2, more in the style of Euclid and the antique Greeks, that is from a constructible point of view, with straight edge and compass. For two arbitrary regions in the plane, there is certainly no …

Canonical Extensions Of Quantale Enriched Categories, 2024 Chapman University

#### Canonical Extensions Of Quantale Enriched Categories, Alexander Kurz

*MPP Research Seminar*

No abstract provided.

On Distortion Of Surface Groups In Right-Angled Artin Groups, 2024 University of Arkansas

#### On Distortion Of Surface Groups In Right-Angled Artin Groups, Lucas Bridges

*Mathematical Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses*

Surfaces have long been a topic of interest for scholars inside and outside of mathe- matics. In a topological sense, surfaces are spaces which appear flat on a local scale. Surfaces in this sense have a restricted set of properties, including the behavior of loops around a surface, codified in the fundamental group.

All but 3 surface groups have been shown to embed into a class of groups called right-angled Artin groups. The method through which these embeddings are created places large restrictions on all homomorphisms from surface groups to right-angled Artin groups.

One such restriction on these homomorphisms is …

On Cheeger Constants Of Knots, 2024 California State University, San Bernardino

#### On Cheeger Constants Of Knots, Robert Lattimer

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

In this thesis, we will look at finding bounds for the Cheeger constant of links. We will do this by analyzing an infinite family of links call two-bridge fully augmented links. In order to find a bound on the Cheeger constant, we will look for the Cheeger constant of the link’s crushtacean. We will use that Cheeger constant to give us insight on a good cut for the link itself, and use that cut to obtain a bound. This method gives us a constructive way to find an upper bound on the Cheeger constant of a two-bridge fully augmented link. …

Classification Of Topological Defects In Cosmological Models, 2024 University of Mary Washington

#### Classification Of Topological Defects In Cosmological Models, Abigail Swanson

*Student Research Submissions*

In nature, symmetries play an extremely significant role. Understanding the symmetries of a system can tell us important information and help us make predictions. However, these symmetries can break and form a new type of symmetry in the system. Most notably, this occurs when the system goes through a phase transition. Sometimes, a symmetry can break and produce a tear, known as a topological defect, in the system. These defects cannot be removed through a continuous transformation and can have major consequences on the system as a whole. It is helpful to know what type of defect is produced when …

The Modular Generalized Springer Correspondence For The Symplectic Group, 2024 Louisiana State University

#### The Modular Generalized Springer Correspondence For The Symplectic Group, Joseph Dorta

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

The Modular Generalized Springer Correspondence (MGSC), as developed by Achar, Juteau, Henderson, and Riche, stands as a significant extension of the early groundwork laid by Lusztig's Springer Correspondence in characteristic zero which provided crucial insights into the representation theory of finite groups of Lie type. Building upon Lusztig's work, a generalized version of the Springer Correspondence was later formulated to encompass broader contexts.

In the realm of modular representation theory, Juteau's efforts gave rise to the Modular Springer Correspondence, offering a framework to explore the interplay between algebraic geometry and representation theory in positive characteristic. Achar, Juteau, Henderson, and Riche …

Subroups Of Coxeter Groups And Stallings Foldings, 2024 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Subroups Of Coxeter Groups And Stallings Foldings, Jake A. Murphy

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

For each finitely generated subgroup of a Coxeter group, we define a cell complex called a completion. We show that these completions characterizes the index and normality of the subgroup. We construct a completion corresponding to the intersection of two subgroups and use this construction to characterize malnormality of subgroups of right-angled Coxeter groups. Finally, we show that if a completion of a subgroup is finite, then the subgroup is quasiconvex. Using this, we show that certain reflection subgroups of a Coxeter are quasiconvex.

A Cohomological Perspective To Nonlocal Operators, 2024 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

#### A Cohomological Perspective To Nonlocal Operators, Nicholas White

*Honors Theses*

Nonlocal models have experienced a large period of growth in recent years. In particular, nonlocal models centered around a finite horizon have been the subject of many novel results. In this work we consider three nonlocal operators defined via a finite horizon: a weighted averaging operator in one dimension, an averaging differential operator, and the truncated Riesz fractional gradient. We primarily explore the kernel of each of these operators when we restrict to open sets. We discuss how the topological structure of the domain can give insight into the behavior of these operators, and more specifically the structure of their …

Spacetime Geometry Of Acoustics And Electromagnetism, 2024 Chapman University

#### Spacetime Geometry Of Acoustics And Electromagnetism, Lucas Burns, Tatsuya Daniel, Stephon Alexander, Justin Dressel

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

Both acoustics and electromagnetism represent measurable fields in terms of dynamical potential fields. Electromagnetic force-fields form a spacetime bivector that is represented by a dynamical energy–momentum 4-vector potential field. Acoustic pressure and velocity fields form an energy–momentum density 4-vector field that is represented by a dynamical action scalar potential field. Surprisingly, standard field theory analyses of spin angular momentum based on these traditional potential representations contradict recent experiments, which motivates a careful reassessment of both theories. We analyze extensions of both theories that use the full geometric structure of spacetime to respect essential symmetries enforced by vacuum wave propagation. The …

An Icosahedron For Two: A Many-Sided Look At Making A Duet, 2024 Alfred University

#### An Icosahedron For Two: A Many-Sided Look At Making A Duet, Colleen T. Wahl

*LASER Journal*

The space around our bodies is not empty or neutral. In fact, the space around our bodies is loaded with meaning and important. When we move through it, whether it be in our daily lives or a choreographer making specific choices in order to convey a message, we activate new understandings in our lives. As a dancer and choreographer, I created a duet from improvisational climbs on an icosahedron. This article discusses choreographing from the form icosahedron and connects Laban's theories of space harmony with the activation of meaning in my life.

Model Selection Through Cross-Validation For Supervised Learning Tasks With Manifold Data, 2024 Purdue University Fort Wayne

#### Model Selection Through Cross-Validation For Supervised Learning Tasks With Manifold Data, Derek Brown

*The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research*

No abstract provided.

Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, 2024 Loyola University Chicago

#### Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, Robert A. Mcnees Iv

*Physics: Faculty Publications and Other Works*

As the name suggests, these notes contain a summary of important conventions, definitions, identities, and various formulas that I often refer to. They may prove useful for researchers working in General Relativity, Supergravity, String Theory, Cosmology, and related areas.

Echolocation On Manifolds, 2024 Bucknell University

#### Echolocation On Manifolds, Kerong Wang

*Honors Theses*

We consider the question asked by Wyman and Xi [WX23]: ``Can you hear your location on a manifold?” In other words, can you locate a unique point *x* on a manifold, up to symmetry, if you know the Laplacian eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the manifold? In [WX23], Wyman and Xi showed that echolocation holds on one- and two-dimensional rectangles with Dirichlet boundary conditions using the pointwise Weyl counting function. They also showed echolocation holds on ellipsoids using Gaussian curvature.

In this thesis, we provide full details for Wyman and Xi's proof for one- and two-dimensional rectangles and we show that …

Extending Natural Mates In Euclidean 3-Space And Applications To Bertrand Pairs, 2024 Andrews University

#### Extending Natural Mates In Euclidean 3-Space And Applications To Bertrand Pairs, Yun Myung Oh, Alexander Navarro

*Faculty Publications*

In Euclidean 3-space, a family of curves, the co-successor, is motivated and then introduced in relation to the natural mate. A complete characterization of co-successors is proved, followed by an application of the co-successor towards describing Bertrand curves and their mates.

Adams Operations On The Burnside Ring From Power Operations, 2024 University of Kentucky

#### Adams Operations On The Burnside Ring From Power Operations, Lewis Dominguez

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Topology furnishes us with many commutative rings associated to finite groups. These include the complex representation ring, the Burnside ring, and the G-equivariant K-theory of a space. Often, these admit additional structure in the form of natural operations on the ring, such as power operations, symmetric powers, and Adams operations. We will discuss two ways of constructing Adams operations. The goal of this work is to understand these in the case of the Burnside ring.

Bicategorical Character Theory, 2024 University of Kentucky

#### Bicategorical Character Theory, Travis Wheeler

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

In 2007, Nora Ganter and Mikhail Kapranov defined the categorical trace, which they used to define the categorical character of a 2-representation. In 2008, Kate Ponto defined a shadow functor for bicategories. With the shadow functor, Dr. Ponto defined the bicategorical trace, which is a generalization of the symmetric monoidal trace for bicategories. How are these two notions of trace related to one another? We’ve used bicategorical traces to define a character theory for 2-representations, and the categorical character is an example.

Complete Solution Of The Lady In The Lake Scenario, 2024 Air Force Research Laboratory

#### Complete Solution Of The Lady In The Lake Scenario, Alexander Von Moll, Meir Pachter

*Faculty Publications*

In the Lady in the Lake scenario, a mobile agent, L, is pitted against an agent, M, who is constrained to move along the perimeter of a circle. L is assumed to begin inside the circle and wishes to escape to the perimeter with some finite angular separation from M at the perimeter. This scenario has, in the past, been formulated as a zero-sum differential game wherein L seeks to maximize terminal separation and M seeks to minimize it. Its solution is well-known. However, there is a large portion of the state space for which the canonical solution does not …

The Construction Of Khovanov Homology, 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

#### The Construction Of Khovanov Homology, Shiaohan Liu

*Master's Theses*

Knot theory is a rich topic in topology that studies the how circles can be embedded in Euclidean 3-space. One of the main questions in knot theory is how to distinguish between different types of knots efficiently. One way to approach this problem is to study knot invariants, which are properties of knots that do not change under a standard set of deformations. We give a brief overview of basic knot theory, and examine a specific knot invariant known as Khovanov homology. Khovanov homology is a homological invariant that refines the Jones polynomial, another knot invariant that assigns a Laurent …