Sigma_N-Correct Forcing Axioms, 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Sigma_N-Correct Forcing Axioms, Benjamin P. Goodman

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

I introduce a new family of axioms extending ZFC set theory, the Sigma_n-correct forcing axioms. These assert roughly that whenever a forcing name *a'* can be forced by a poset in some forcing class Gamma to have some Sigma_n property phi which is provably preserved by all further forcing in Gamma, then *a'* reflects to some small name such that there is already in *V* a filter which interprets that small name so that phi holds. Sigma_1-correct forcing axioms turn out to be equivalent to classical forcing axioms, while Sigma_2-correct forcing axioms for Sigma_2-definable forcing classes are consistent relative to …

Foundations Of Memory Capacity In Models Of Neural Cognition, 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

#### Foundations Of Memory Capacity In Models Of Neural Cognition, Chandradeep Chowdhury

*Master's Theses*

A central problem in neuroscience is to understand how memories are formed as a result of the activities of neurons. Valiant’s neuroidal model attempted to address this question by modeling the brain as a random graph and memories as subgraphs within that graph. However the question of memory capacity within that model has not been explored: how many memories can the brain hold? Valiant introduced the concept of interference between memories as the defining factor for capacity; excessive interference signals the model has reached capacity. Since then, exploration of capacity has been limited, but recent investigations have delved into the …

Reverse Mathematics Of Ramsey's Theorem, 2023 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Reverse Mathematics Of Ramsey's Theorem, Nikolay Maslov

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

Reverse mathematics aims to determine which set theoretic axioms are necessary to prove the theorems outside of the set theory. Since the 1970’s, there has been an interest in applying reverse mathematics to study combinatorial principles like Ramsey’s theorem to analyze its strength and relation to other theorems. Ramsey’s theorem for pairs states that for any infinite complete graph with a finite coloring on edges, there is an infinite subset of nodes all of whose edges share one color. In this thesis, we introduce the fundamental terminology and techniques for reverse mathematics, and demonstrate their use in proving Kőnig's lemma …

Minimal Sets, Union-Closed Families, And Frankl's Conjecture, 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Minimal Sets, Union-Closed Families, And Frankl's Conjecture, Christopher S. Flippen

*Theses and Dissertations*

The most common statement of Frankl's conjecture is that for every finite family of sets closed under the union operation, there is some element which belongs to at least half of the sets in the family. Despite its apparent simplicity, Frankl's conjecture has remained open and highly researched since its first mention in 1979. In this paper, we begin by examining the history and previous attempts at solving the conjecture. Using these previous ideas, we introduce the concepts of minimal sets and minimally-generated families, some ideas related to viewing union-closed families as posets, and some constructions of families involving poset-defined …

A Comparison Of Cryptographic Methods, 2022 Liberty University

#### A Comparison Of Cryptographic Methods, Christopher Gilmore

*Senior Honors Theses*

While elliptic curve cryptography and quantum cryptography are significantly different branches of cryptography, they provide a suitable reference point for comparison of the value of developing methods used in the present and investing in methods to be used in the future. Elliptic curve cryptography is quite common today, as it is generally secure and efficient. However, as the field of cryptography advances, the value of quantum cryptography’s inherent security from its basic properties should be considered, as a fully realized quantum cryptosystem has the potential to be quite powerful. Ultimately, it is of critical importance to determine the value of …

Unomaha Problem Of The Week (2021-2022 Edition), 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

#### Unomaha Problem Of The Week (2021-2022 Edition), Brad Horner, Jordan M. Sahs

*UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair*

The University of Omaha math department's Problem of the Week was taken over in Fall 2019 from faculty by the authors. The structure: each semester (Fall and Spring), three problems are given per week for twelve weeks, with each problem worth ten points - mimicking the structure of arguably the most well-regarded university math competition around, the Putnam Competition, with prizes awarded to top-scorers at semester's end. The weekly competition was halted midway through Spring 2020 due to COVID-19, but relaunched again in Fall 2021, with massive changes.

Now there are three difficulty tiers to POW problems, roughly corresponding to …

Unknowable Truths: The Incompleteness Theorems And The Rise Of Modernism, 2022 Belmont University

#### Unknowable Truths: The Incompleteness Theorems And The Rise Of Modernism, Caroline Tvardy

*Honors Scholars Collaborative Projects*

This thesis evaluates the function of the current history of mathematics methodologies and explores ways in which historiographical methodologies could be successfully implemented in the field. Traditional approaches to the history of mathematics often lack either an accurate portrayal of the social and cultural influences of the time, or they lack an effective usage of mathematics discussed. This paper applies a holistic methodology in a case study of Kurt Gödel’s influential work in logic during the Interwar period and the parallel rise of intellectual modernism. In doing so, the proofs for Gödel’s Completeness and Incompleteness theorems will be discussed as …

The Infinity Conundrum: Understanding Topics In Set Theory And The Continuum Hypothesis, 2022 The College of Wooster

#### The Infinity Conundrum: Understanding Topics In Set Theory And The Continuum Hypothesis, Sabrina Grace Helck

*Senior Independent Study Theses*

This project is concerned with articulating the necessary background in order to understand the famous result of the undecidability of the continuum hypothesis. The first chapter of this independent study discusses the foundations of set theory, stating fundamental definitions and theorems that will be used throughout the remainder of the project. The second chapter focuses on ordinal and cardinal numbers which will directly relate to the final chapter. First, there is a clear explanation of the notion of order and what it means for a set to be well-ordered. Then ordinal numbers are defined and some properties are listed and …

Cryptography Through The Lens Of Group Theory, 2022 Georgia Southern University

#### Cryptography Through The Lens Of Group Theory, Dawson M. Shores

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Cryptography has been around for many years, and mathematics has been around even longer. When the two subjects were combined, however, both the improvements and attacks on cryptography were prevalent. This paper introduces and performs a comparative analysis of two versions of the ElGamal cryptosystem, both of which use the specific field of mathematics known as group theory.

Introduction To Discrete Mathematics: An Oer For Ma-471, 2021 CUNY Queensborough Community College

#### Introduction To Discrete Mathematics: An Oer For Ma-471, Mathieu Sassolas

*Open Educational Resources*

The first objective of this book is to define and discuss the meaning of truth in mathematics. We explore **logics**, both propositional and first-order , and the construction of **proofs**, both formally and human-targeted. Using the proof tools, this book then explores some very fundamental definitions of mathematics through **set theory**. This theory is then put in practice in several applications. The particular (but quite widespread) case of **equivalence and order relations** is studied with detail. Then we introduces **sequences and proofs by induction**, followed by **number theory**. Finally, a small introduction to **combinatorics** is …

On Extensions And Restrictions Of Τ-Smooth And Τ-Maxitive Idempotent Measures, 2021 Institute of Mathematics named after V.I. Romanovsky, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

#### On Extensions And Restrictions Of Τ-Smooth And Τ-Maxitive Idempotent Measures, Muzaffar Eshimbetov

*Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences*

In the paper we investigate maps between idempotent measures spaces, τ-maxitive idempotent measures and their extensions and restrictions. For an idempotent measure we prove that its extension is τ-maxitive if and only if its restriction is τ-maxitive.

Algebraic Structures And Variations: From Latin Squares To Lie Quasigroups, 2021 Northern Michigan University

#### Algebraic Structures And Variations: From Latin Squares To Lie Quasigroups, Erik Flinn

*All NMU Master's Theses*

In this Master's Thesis we give an overview of the algebraic structure of sets with a single binary operation. Specifically, we are interested in quasigroups and loops and their historical connection with Latin squares; considering them in both finite and continuous variations. We also consider various mappings between such algebraic objects and utilize matrix representations to give a negative conclusion to a question concerning isotopies in the case of quasigroups.

Optimizing Networking Topologies With Shortest Path Algorithms, 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

#### Optimizing Networking Topologies With Shortest Path Algorithms, Jordan Sahs

*UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair*

Communication networks tend to contain redundant devices and mediums of transmission, thus the need to locate, document, and optimize networks is increasingly becoming necessary. However, many people do not know where to start the optimization progress. What is network topology? What is this “Shortest Path Problem”, and how can it be used to better my network? These questions are presented, taught, and answered within this paper. To supplement the reader’s understanding there are thirty-eight figures in the paper that are used to help convey and compartmentalize the learning process needed to grasp the materials presented in the ending sections.

In …

The Encyclopedia Of Neutrosophic Researchers - 4th Volume (2021), 2021 University of New Mexico

#### The Encyclopedia Of Neutrosophic Researchers - 4th Volume (2021), Florentin Smarandache, Maykel Leyva-Vazquez

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Este es el cuarto volumen de la Enciclopedia de Investigadores Neutróficos, editados a partir de materiales ofrecidos por los autores que respondieron a la invitación del editor. Los autores se enumeran alfabéticamente. La introducción contiene una breve historia de la neutrosófica, y en especial se su impacto en Latinoamérica junto con enlaces a los principales artículos y libros. Los conjuntos neutrosóficos, la lógica neutrosófica, la probabilidad neutrosófica, la estadística neutrosófica, el precálculo neutrosófico, el cálculo neutrosófico, la psicología neutrosófica, la sociología neutrosófica etc., están ganando una atención significativa en resolver muchos problemas de la vida real que implican incertidumbre, imprecisión, …

Theory And Application Of Hypersoft Set, 2021 University of New Mexico

#### Theory And Application Of Hypersoft Set, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Saqlain, Mohamed Abdel-Baset

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Aims and Scope Florentin Smarandache generalize the soft set to the hypersoft set by transforming the function �� into a multi-argument function. This extension reveals that the hypersoft set with neutrosophic, intuitionistic, and fuzzy set theory will be very helpful to construct a connection between alternatives and attributes. Also, the hypersoft set will reduce the complexity of the case study. The Book “Theory and Application of Hypersoft Set” focuses on theories, methods, algorithms for decision making and also applications involving neutrosophic, intuitionistic, and fuzzy information. Our goal is to develop a strong relationship with the MCDM solving techniques and to …

Solving Neutrosophic Linear Equations Systems Using Symbolic Computation (Resolucion De Sistemas De Ecuaciones Lineales Neutrosóficas Mediante Computación Simbólica), 2021 University of New Mexico

#### Solving Neutrosophic Linear Equations Systems Using Symbolic Computation (Resolucion De Sistemas De Ecuaciones Lineales Neutrosóficas Mediante Computación Simbólica), Maykel Leyva-Vazquez, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, we apply the concept of neutrosophic numbers to solve a systems of neutrophic linear equations using symbolic computation. Also, we utilize Jupyter, which is supported in Google Colaboratory for performing symbolic computation. The sympy library of Python is used to perform the process of neutrosophic computation. Systems of neutrosophic linear equations are solved through symbolic computation in Python. A case study was developed for the determination of vehicular traffic with indeterminacy. This king of computation opens new ways to deal with indeterminacy in real-world problems.

Structure, Neutrostructure, And Antistructure In Science, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Structure, Neutrostructure, And Antistructure In Science, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In any science, a classical Theorem, defined on a given space, is a statement that is 100% true (i.e. true for all elements of the space). To prove that a classical theorem is false, it is sufficient to get a single counter-example where the statement is false. Therefore, the classical sciences do not leave room for partial truth of a theorem (or a statement). But, in our world and in our everyday life, we have many more examples of statements that are only partially true, than statements that are totally true. The NeutroTheorem and AntiTheorem are generalizations and alternatives of …

Introduction To Neutrosophic Genetics, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Introduction To Neutrosophic Genetics, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophic Genetics is the study of genetics using neutrosophic logic, set, probability, statistics, measure and other neutrosophic tools and procedures. In this paper, based on the Neutrosophic Theory of Evolution (that includes degrees of Evolution, Neutrality (or Indeterminacy), and Involution) – as extension of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, we show the applicability of neutrosophy in genetics, and we present within the frame of neutrosophic genetics the following concepts: neutrosophic mutation, neutrosophic speciation, and neutrosophic coevolution.

True-False Set Is A Particular Case Of The Refined Neutrosophic Set, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### True-False Set Is A Particular Case Of The Refined Neutrosophic Set, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Borzooei, Mohseni Takallo, and Jun recently proposed a new type of set, called True-False Set [1], and they claimed it is a generalization of Neutrosophic Set [2]. We prove that this assertion is untrue. Actually it’s the opposite, the True-False Set is a particular case of the Refined Neutrosophic Set.

A Novel Framework Using Neutrosophy For Integrated Speech And Text Sentiment Analysis, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### A Novel Framework Using Neutrosophy For Integrated Speech And Text Sentiment Analysis, Florentin Smarandache, Kritika Mishra, Ilanthenral Kandasamy, Vasantha Kandasamy W.B.

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

With increasing data on the Internet, it is becoming difficult to analyze every bit and make sure it can be used efficiently for all the businesses. One useful technique using Natural Language Processing (NLP) is sentiment analysis. Various algorithms can be used to classify textual data based on various scales ranging from just positive-negative, positive-neutral-negative to a wide spectrum of emotions. While a lot of work has been done on text, only a lesser amount of research has been done on audio datasets. An audio file contains more features that can be extracted from its amplitude and frequency than a …