Information Flow Under Budget Constraints, 2018 Lafayette College

#### Information Flow Under Budget Constraints, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

*Faculty Research and Reports*

Although first proposed in the database theory as properties of functional dependencies between attributes, Armstrong's axioms capture general principles of information flow by describing properties of dependencies between sets of pieces of information. This article generalizes Armstrong's axioms to a setting in which there is a cost associated with information. The proposed logical system captures general principles of dependencies between pieces of information constrained by a given budget.

Strategic Coalitions With Perfect Recall, 2018 Lafayette College

#### Strategic Coalitions With Perfect Recall, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

*Faculty Research and Reports*

The paper proposes a bimodal logic that describes an interplay between distributed knowledge modality and coalition know-how modality. Unlike other similar systems, the one proposed here assumes perfect recall by all agents. Perfect recall is captured in the system by a single axiom. The main technical results are the soundness and the completeness theorems for the proposed logical system.

Armstrong's Axioms And Navigation Strategies, 2018 Vassar College

#### Armstrong's Axioms And Navigation Strategies, Kaya Deuser, Pavel Naumov

*Faculty Research and Reports*

The paper investigates navigability with imperfect information. It shows that the properties of navigability with perfect recall are exactly those captured by Armstrong's axioms from database theory. If the assumption of perfect recall is omitted, then Armstrong's transitivity axiom is not valid, but it can be replaced by a weaker principle. The main technical results are soundness and completeness theorems for the logical systems describing properties of navigability with and without perfect recall.

Neutrosophic Soft Rough Graphs With Application, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Soft Rough Graphs With Application, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Akram, Hafsa M. Malik, Sundas Shahzadi

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophic sets (NSs) handle uncertain information while fuzzy sets (FSs) and intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFs) fail to handle indeterminate information. Soft set theory, neutrosophic set theory, and rough set theory are different mathematical models for handling uncertainties and they are mutually related. The neutrosophic soft rough set (NSRS) model is a hybrid model by combining neutrosophic soft sets with rough sets. We apply neutrosophic soft rough sets to graphs. In this research paper, we introduce the idea of neutrosophic soft rough graphs (NSRGs) and describe different methods of their construction. We consider the application of NSRG in decision-making problems. In ...

Nn-Harmonic Mean Aggregation Operators-Based Mcgdm Strategy In A Neutrosophic Number Environment, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Nn-Harmonic Mean Aggregation Operators-Based Mcgdm Strategy In A Neutrosophic Number Environment, Florentin Smarandache, Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

A neutrosophic number (a + bI) is a significant mathematical tool to deal with indeterminate and incomplete information which exists generally in real-world problems, where a and bI denote the determinate component and indeterminate component, respectively. We define score functions and accuracy functions for ranking neutrosophic numbers. We then define a cosine function to determine the unknown weight of the criteria. We define the neutrosophic number harmonic mean operators and prove their basic properties. Then, we develop two novel multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) strategies using the proposed aggregation operators. We solve a numerical example to demonstrate the feasibility, applicability, and effectiveness ...

Statistical Analysis Of Network Change, 2018 Portland State University

#### Statistical Analysis Of Network Change, Teresa D. Schmidt, Martin Zwick

*Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations*

Networks are rarely subjected to hypothesis tests for difference, but when they are inferred from datasets of independent observations statistical testing is feasible. To demonstrate, a healthcare provider network is tested for significant change after an intervention using Medicaid claims data. First, the network is inferred for each time period with (1) partial least squares (PLS) regression and (2) reconstructability analysis (RA). Second, network distance (i.e., change between time periods) is measured as the mean absolute difference in (1) coefficient matrices for PLS and (2) calculated probability distributions for RA. Third, the network distance is compared against a reference ...

What Makes A Theory Of Infinitesimals Useful? A View By Klein And Fraenkel, 2018 Bar-Ilan University

#### What Makes A Theory Of Infinitesimals Useful? A View By Klein And Fraenkel, Vladimir Kanovei, Karin Katz, Mikhail Katz, Thomas Mormann

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

Felix Klein and Abraham Fraenkel each formulated a criterion for a theory of infinitesimals to be successful, in terms of the feasibility of implementation of the Mean Value Theorem. We explore the evolution of the idea over the past century, and the role of Abraham Robinson's framework therein.

Everyone Knows That Someone Knows: Quantifiers Over Epistemic Agents, 2018 Vassar College

#### Everyone Knows That Someone Knows: Quantifiers Over Epistemic Agents, Pavel Naumov, Jia Tao

*Faculty Research and Reports*

Modal logic S5 is commonly viewed as an epistemic logic that captures the most basic properties of knowledge. Kripke proved a completeness theorem for the first-order modal logic S5 with respect to a possible worlds semantics. A multiagent version of the propositional S5 as well as a version of the propositional S5 that describes properties of distributed knowledge in multiagent systems has also been previously studied. This article proposes a version of S5-like epistemic logic of distributed knowledge with quantifiers ranging over the set of agents, and proves its soundness and completeness with respect to a Kripke semantics.

Lighthouse Principle For Diffusion In Social Networks, 2018 Vassar College

#### Lighthouse Principle For Diffusion In Social Networks, Sanaz Azimipoor, Pavel Naumov

*Faculty Research and Reports*

The article investigates an influence relation between two sets of agents in a social network. It proposes a logical system that captures propositional properties of this relation valid in all threshold models of social networks with the same structure. The logical system consists of Armstrong axioms for functional dependence and an additional Lighthouse axiom. The main results are soundness, completeness, and decidability theorems for this logical system.

Neutrosophic Logic: The Revolutionary Logic In Science And Philosophy -- Proceedings Of The National Symposium, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Logic: The Revolutionary Logic In Science And Philosophy -- Proceedings Of The National Symposium, Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The first part of this book is an introduction to the activities of the National Symposium, as well as a presentation of Neutrosophic Scientific International Association (NSIA), based in New Mexico, USA, also explaining the role and scope of NSIA - Iraqi branch. The NSIA Iraqi branch presents a suggestion for the international instructions in attempting to organize NSIA's work. In the second chapter, the pivots of the Symposium are presented, including a history of neutrosophic theory and its applications, the most important books and papers in the advancement of neutrosophics, a biographical note of Prof. Florentin Smarandache in Arabic ...

Subset Vertex Graphs For Social Networks, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Subset Vertex Graphs For Social Networks, Florentin Smarandache, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of subset vertex graph using the vertex set as the subset of the power set P(S), S is assumed in this book to be finite; however it can be finite or infinite. We have defined two types of subset vertex graphs, one is directed and the other one is not directed. The most important fact which must be kept in record is that for a given set of vertices there exists one and only one subset vertex graph be it of type I or type II. Several important ...

Special Subset Vertex Subgraphs For Social Networks, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Special Subset Vertex Subgraphs For Social Networks, Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this book authors for the first time introduce the new notion of special subset vertex subgraph of subset vertex graphs introduced recently in [46]. These subset vertex graphs takes the vertex set values from the power set P(X) of any set X. The main speciality of these subset vertex graphs is that once a set of subsets from P(X) is given, the edges of the graph are fixed in a unique way, so for a given collection of subset vertices the graph is always unique [46]. The special subset vertex subgraphs of G are the ones, which ...

New Trends In Neutrosophic Theory And Applications Volume Ii, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### New Trends In Neutrosophic Theory And Applications Volume Ii, Florentin Smarandache, Surapati Pramanik

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophic set has been derived from a new branch of philosophy, namely Neutrosophy. Neutrosophic set is capable of dealing with uncertainty, indeterminacy and inconsistent information. Neutrosophic set approaches are suitable to modeling problems with uncertainty, indeterminacy and inconsistent information in which human knowledge is necessary, and human evaluation is needed. Neutrosophic set theory was proposed in 1998 by Florentin Smarandache, who also developed the concept of single valued neutrosophic set, oriented towards real world scientific and engineering applications. Since then, the single valued neutrosophic set theory has been extensively studied in books and monographs introducing neutrosophic sets and its applications ...

Special Issue: Algebraic Structures Of Neutrosophic Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, Or Neutrosophic Multisets, Vol. I, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Special Issue: Algebraic Structures Of Neutrosophic Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, Or Neutrosophic Multisets, Vol. I, Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang, Mumtaz Ali

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (, , ), where is an entity (i.e., element, concept, idea, theory, logical proposition, etc.), is the opposite of , while is the neutral (or indeterminate) between them, i.e., neither nor [1]. Based on neutrosophy, the neutrosophic triplets were founded; they have a similar form: (x, neut(x), anti(x), that satisfy some axioms, for each element x in a given set [2–4]. This book contains the successful invited submissions [5–56] to a special issue of Symmetry, reporting on state-of-the-art and recent advancements of neutrosophic triplets ...

Neutrosophic Linear Programming Problems, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Linear Programming Problems, Florentin Smarandache, Abdel-Nasser Hussian, Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Baset

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Smarandache presented neutrosophic theory as a tool for handling undetermined information. Wang et al. introduced a single valued neutrosophic set that is a special neutrosophic sets and can be used expediently to deal with real-world problems, especially in decision support. In this paper, we propose linear programming problems based on neutrosophic environment. Neutrosophic sets are characterized by three independent parameters, namely truth-membership degree (T), indeterminacy-membership degree (I) and falsity-membership degree (F), which are more capable to handle imprecise parameters. We also transform the neutrosophic linear programming problem into a crisp programming model by using neutrosophic set parameters. To measure the ...

Categories Of Residuated Lattices, 2018 University of Denver

#### Categories Of Residuated Lattices, Daniel Wesley Fussner

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

We present dual variants of two algebraic constructions of certain classes of residuated lattices: The Galatos-Raftery construction of Sugihara monoids and their bounded expansions, and the Aguzzoli-Flaminio-Ugolini quadruples construction of srDL-algebras. Our dual presentation of these constructions is facilitated by both new algebraic results, and new duality-theoretic tools. On the algebraic front, we provide a complete description of implications among nontrivial distribution properties in the context of lattice-ordered structures equipped with a residuated binary operation. We also offer some new results about forbidden configurations in lattices endowed with an order-reversing involution. On the duality-theoretic front, we present new results on ...

Mod Rectangular Natural Neutrosophic Numbers, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Mod Rectangular Natural Neutrosophic Numbers, Florentin Smarandache, K. Ilanthenral, W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this book authors introduce the new notion of MOD rectangular planes. The functions on them behave very differently when compared to MOD planes (square). These are different from the usual MOD planes. Algebraic structures on these MOD rectangular planes are defined and developed. However we have built only MOD interval natural neutrosophic products

Neutrosophic Operational Research - Vol. 3., 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Operational Research - Vol. 3., Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Abdel Basset, Victor Chang

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Foreword John R. Edwards This book is an excellent exposition of the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to generate data analytic insights to make evidence-based decisions, to improve productivity, and to manage cost-risk and benefitopportunity in public and private sectors. The design and the content of the book make it an up-to-date and timely reference for professionals, academics, students, and employees, in particular those involved in strategic and operational decisionmaking processes to evaluate and prioritize alternatives to boost productivity growth, to optimize the efficiency of resource utilization, and to maximize the effectiveness of outputs and impacts to stakeholders. It ...

Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Florentin Smarandache, Jun Ye, Yanhui Guo

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The notion of a neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCI-number is considered in the first article (“Neutrosophic Quadruple BCK/BCI-Algebras”, by Young Bae Jun, Seok-Zun Song, Florentin Smarandache, and Hashem Bordbar), and a neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCI-algebra, which consists of neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCI-numbers, is constructed. Several properties are investigated, and a (positive implicative) ideal in a neutrosophic quadruple BCK-algebra and a closed ideal in a neutrosophic quadruple BCI-algebra are studied. Given subsets A and B of a BCK/BCI-algebra, the set NQ(A,B), which consists of neutrosophic quadruple BCK/BCInumbers with a condition, is established. Conditions for the set NQ ...

Spanning Tree Problem With Neutrosophic Edge Weights, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Spanning Tree Problem With Neutrosophic Edge Weights, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Arindam Dey, Le Hoang Son

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophic set and neutrosophic logic theory are renowned theories to deal with complex, not clearly explained and uncertain real life problems, in which classical fuzzy sets/models may fail to model properly. This paper introduces an algorithm for finding minimum spanning tree (MST) of an undirected neutrosophic weighted connected graph (abbr. UNWCG) where the arc/edge lengths are represented by a single valued neutrosophic numbers. To build the MST of UNWCG, a new algorithm based on matrix approach has been introduced. The proposed algorithm is compared to other existing methods and finally a numerical example is provided.