Weak Binding To The A2re Rna Rigidifies Hnrnpa2 Rrms And Reduces Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation And Aggregation, Veronica H. Ryan, Scott Watters, Joshua Amaya, Balabhadra Khatiwada, Vincenzo Venditti, Mandar T. Naik, Nicolas L. Fawzi
hnRNPA2 is a major component of mRNA transport granules in oligodendrocytes and neurons. However, the structural details of how hnRNPA2 binds the A2 recognition element (A2RE) and if this sequence stimulates granule formation by enhancing phase separation of hnRNPA2 has not yet been studied. Using solution NMR and biophysical studies, we find that each of the two individual RRMs retain the domain structure observed in complex with RNA but are not rigidly confined (i.e. they move independently) in solution in the absence of RNA. hnRNPA2 RRMs bind the minimal rA2RE11 weakly but at least, and most likely, two hnRNPA2 ...
Isolation, Structure Elucidation, And Synthesis Of Natural Products From Marine Cyanobacteria, 2020 Duquesne University
Isolation, Structure Elucidation, And Synthesis Of Natural Products From Marine Cyanobacteria, Keren Solomon
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This thesis describes the isolation, structure elucidation, and synthesis of natural products from marine cyanobacteria. A crude extract from a cyanobacterium collected in Curacao showed selective affinity for the dopamine D5 receptor in a screen against a panel of CNS receptors. Due to the high similarity of the D5 and D1 receptor, to date there are no known ligands that differentiate them. Attempts to purify the compound responsible for this affinity led to the isolation of the known compound caylobolide A. A second extract from a cyanobacterium collected in Panama underwent bioassay-guided fractionation and yielded the novel ...
Separation And Identification Of Permethylated Glycan Isomers By Reversed Phase Nanolc-Nsi-Msn [Preprint], 2020 University of Georgia
Separation And Identification Of Permethylated Glycan Isomers By Reversed Phase Nanolc-Nsi-Msn [Preprint], Simone Kurz, M. Osman Sheikh, Shan Lu, Lance Wells, Michael Tiemeyer
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
High performance liquid chromatography has been employed for decades to enhance detection sensitivity and quantification of complex analytes within biological mixtures. Among these analytes, glycans released from glycoproteins and glycolipids have been characterized as underivatized or fluorescently tagged derivatives by HPLC coupled to various detection methods. These approaches have proven extremely useful for profiling the structural diversity of glycoprotein and glycolipid glycosylation but require the availability of glycan standards and secondary orthogonal degradation strategies to validate structural assignments. A robust method for HPLC separation of glycans as their permethylated derivatives, coupled with in-line MSn fragmentation to assign structural features independent ...
Visualization Without Vision – How Blind And Visually Impaired Students And Researchers Engage With Molecular Structures, 2020 University of California, Davis
Visualization Without Vision – How Blind And Visually Impaired Students And Researchers Engage With Molecular Structures, Croix J. Laconsay, Henry B. Wedler, Dean J. Tantillo
Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities
This article examines the tools and techniques currently available that enable blind and visually impaired (BVI) individuals to visualize three-dimensional objects used in learning chemistry concepts. How BVI individuals engage with and visualize molecular structure is discussed and recent tactile (or haptic) and auditory methods for visualization of various chemistry concepts are summarized. Remaining challenges for chemistry education researchers are described with the aim of highlighting the potential value of educational research in further enabling BVI students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.
Chemical Manipulation Of Macrophages: Nanomaterial And Molecular Approaches, 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Chemical Manipulation Of Macrophages: Nanomaterial And Molecular Approaches, Joseph Hardie
Macrophages, phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, are the body’s first line of defense against pathogens and are responsible for tissue maintenance. Macrophages are capable of sensing and internalizing external stimuli, and in response change their morphology and phenotype accordingly. Because macrophages are integral to immune function and tissue maintenance, dysregulation of macrophage behavior is associated with a range of diseases including infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, atherosclerosis, and more. Because of the implications of macrophage failure, there is interest in creating new materials to manipulate macrophage behavior for a therapeutic effect. In this thesis, I describe the application ...
Synthesis Of The Natural Alkaloids Angustureine, Cuspareine, Galipeine, Galipinine Using Α-Aminocycloalkyl Copper Reagents, 2020 Kennesaw State University
Synthesis Of The Natural Alkaloids Angustureine, Cuspareine, Galipeine, Galipinine Using Α-Aminocycloalkyl Copper Reagents, Zane Bertoli
Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses
Tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) are a group of N-heterocyclic molecules derived from natural sources. They show a wide range of interesting biological activity and have been the basis for a variety of different medications including antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs. The Hancock alkaloids, Galipinine, Galipeine, Cuspareine and Angustureine, are natural 1,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline compounds that are found in the South American Angostura tree. Extracts containing these alkaloids have been used to treat fever, dysentery and other ailments. Interestingly, These compounds have shows in vitro antimalarial activity. However, it does not appear in the literature that they have been evaluated for their ...
Synthesis And Evaluation Of Novel Biologically Active Compounds, 2020 University of New Orleans
Synthesis And Evaluation Of Novel Biologically Active Compounds, Madhurima Das
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
SCP-1, a potent derivative of acetaminophen, exhibits significantly diminished hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity relative to acetaminophen and nitrate ester derivatives of acetaminophen. It was therefore of interest to explore the development of nitric oxide donor analogs of SCP-1 to identify compounds that could have enhanced analgesic and/or antipyretic activity while taking advantage of the very low liver and kidney toxicity inherent to SCP-1. In this project, a series of nitrate ester analogues of the SCP-1 were prepared as potential nitric oxide donors. The synthesis of SCP analogs was achieved by triflic acid catalyzed O-acylation of SCP-1 with chloroalkanoyl chlorides followed ...
Flavonoid And Cannabidiol Neural Glyoxalase Pathway Enhancement Against Aging And Alzheimer’S Disease, 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Flavonoid And Cannabidiol Neural Glyoxalase Pathway Enhancement Against Aging And Alzheimer’S Disease, Joel R. Frandsen
Theses & Dissertations
Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative condition featuring neural cell death and a decline in cognitive capacity caused by elevated inflammation and production of reactive oxygen species. The glyoxalase pathway is an endogenous antioxidant system that neutralizes reactive methylglyoxal through sequential reactions. Dysfunction of the glyoxalase pathway contributes to oxidative stress and the accumulation of inflammatory metabolic byproducts. Plant-produced compounds with antioxidant activity can enhance endogenous antioxidant pathways and protect cells from elevated ROS production. We hypothesize that flavonoids and limited Cannabis Sativa-produced cannabidiol can enhance glyoxalase pathway function through regulation of antioxidant and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways to prevent ...
Silver-Catalyzed Synthesis Of Disubstituted Fluorinated Isoxazoles, 2020 University of Mississippi
Silver-Catalyzed Synthesis Of Disubstituted Fluorinated Isoxazoles, Micah Stewart
The presence of fluorine can provide organic compounds with useful biological properties, such as increased metabolic stability and drug uptake. Because of these advantages, fluorinated compounds make up about 30% of the drug industry. However, fluorination of complex molecules is difficult due to fluorine’s high electronegativity.
Fluorinated isoxazoles are of particular interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Isoxazoles are five-membered heterocycles with oxygen and nitrogen in the 1, 2 positions that are able to engage in interactions unavailable to other ring structures, conferring advantageous biological properties upon compounds containing them. However, there are limited synthetic routes for fluorinated isoxazoles, and ...
Isolation, Identification, And Investigation Of A Novel Bioactive Furanocoumarin From Leaves Of Amyris Elemifera, 2020 University of Mississippi
Isolation, Identification, And Investigation Of A Novel Bioactive Furanocoumarin From Leaves Of Amyris Elemifera, Amy K. Bracken
Plants produce biologically active compounds that humans have utilized for many agricultural applications. Amyris elemifera was investigated due to the known bioactivity of its family, Rutaceae, and its use in medicines in tribes of the Bahamas. Biotage® and TLC guided fractionation of the EtOAc, hexane, and MeOH extracts of the leaves of Amyris elemifera yielded bioactive compounds. Most significantly, a novel furanocoumarin, 8-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-marmesin acetate (1), and its analog 8-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-marmesin (2), were isolated. The structures were identified via NMR and X-ray crystallography techniques; the X-ray crystal structure for 1 was reported for the first time, and the ...
Approaches Towards The Synthesis Of Ketamine Metabolites, 2020 University of Mississippi
Approaches Towards The Synthesis Of Ketamine Metabolites, Ann K. Patrick
Major Depressive disorder (MDD) plagues society and stands at the forefront of research as MDD affects approximately 16% of the population. Pharmaceutical drugs, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been used for MDD treatment and remain a popular option today. However, current antidepressant treatments have proven to be ineffective in just less than half of the patients. Research continues with the goal to better understand the mechanisms of the pathology of depression and to search for other treatment options. For example, the stress-neurogenesis hypothesis investigates the role of stress and decreased neuroplasticity within MDD.
Supporting the stress-neurogenesis hypothesis ...
Allelic Discrimination Between Circulating Tumor Dna Fragments Enabled By A Multiplex-Qpcr Assay Containing Dna-Enriched Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Miranda N. Emaus, Jared L. Anderson
Multiplex amplification of DNA can be highly valuable in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis due to the sheer number of potential mutations. However, commercial ctDNA extraction methods struggle to preconcentrate low concentrations of DNA and require multiple sample handling steps. Recently, magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) have been used to extract DNA and were integrated with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). However, in previous studies, DNA could not be preconcentrated from plasma and only one fragment could be amplified per reaction. In this study, MILs were utilized as DNA extraction solvents and directly integrated into a multiplex-qPCR buffer to simultaneously ...
Magnetic Ionic Liquids As Solvents For Rna Extraction And Preservation, 2020 Iowa State University
Magnetic Ionic Liquids As Solvents For Rna Extraction And Preservation, Chenghui Zhu, Marcelino Varona, Jared L. Anderson
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is particularly sensitive to enzymatic degradation by endonucleases prior to sample analysis. In-field preservation has been a challenge for RNA sample preparation. Very recently, hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) have shown significant promise in the area of RNA extraction. In this study, MILs were synthesized and employed as solvents for the extraction and preservation of RNA in aqueous solution. RNA samples obtained from yeast cells were extracted and preserved by the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium tris(hexafluoroacetylaceto)cobaltate(II) ([P66614+][Co(hfacac)3–]) and trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium tris(phenyltrifluoroacetylaceto)cobaltate(II) ([P66614+][Co(Phtfacac)3–]) MIL with a ...
Determination Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Non-Protein Amino Acids And Characterization Of Multimers Of Carbamazepine, Gwendylan Turner
Undergraduate Honors Theses
This study has two seemingly unrelated parts that come together remarkably in displaying the comprehensive interplay between chemical structure and properties as well as the variety of analytical applications of mass spectrometry.
The first part of this study describes the determination of thermodynamic properties of several non-protein amino acids using the extended kinetic method. This is a continuation of work started in the Poutsma lab in Spring of 2017. The non-protein amino acids (NPA) studied here hold notable relevance in their unique ability to be mis-incorporated into peptide chains, as shown by the Hartman group at Virginia Commonwealth University.[1 ...
Rna Therapeutics: Informational Drugs As A Pandemic Response Tool, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Rna Therapeutics: Informational Drugs As A Pandemic Response Tool, Anastasia Khvorova
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Seminars
This presentation, hosted by the Community Engagement and Research Section, University of Massachusetts Medical School Center for Clinical and Translational Science, describes the development of siRNA-based approaches for modulation of COVID-19 in the lung in a three-month time frame.
This talk was the second in the COVID-19 Research Community Forum webinar series, a collaboration of the four federally-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awardees (CTSA) in Massachusetts, that provided an opportunity for community members, institutions and other organizations to be part of the discussions surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The MA CTSAs, consisting of the UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science ...
Computational Chemistry - Ulk 101, 2020 Olivet Nazarene University
Computational Chemistry - Ulk 101, Michaela Montpas
Scholar Week 2016 - present
Autophagy is a process that generates the necessary building components for cells by cytoplasmic breakdown of unnecessary materials (Martin, Celano, Solitro, Gunaydin, Scott, et. al., 2018). This is a survival technique for cells in times of stress, especially during periods of nutrient starvation. Cancer cells, unfortunately, benefit from this process due to their ability to flourish in nutrient-starved environments, becoming resistant to therapy. The primary protein in mammals responsible for this process is a serine/threonine kinase called ULK 1 (unc-51 like autophagy initiating kinase 1). As such, inhibitors of ULK 1 can be used in cancer therapies in order ...
Research And Review Of Polymethyl-Methacrylate Copolymers In The Development Of Enhanced Pharmaceutical Delivery Systems, Jake Dyess
Senior Honors Theses
The following thesis shall primarily explore the current research regarding the implementation of modifiable microscopic and nanoscopic polymer particles as novel pharmaceutical delivery systems. Polymethacrylate-based copolymers, such as EudragitTM, are sensitive to alterations in pH levels, becoming increasingly more soluble in response to an increase in pH. The selective solubility and modifiable nature of these polymers allows for greater flexibility of treatment options for patients (Patra et al., 2017). The wide range of functionality of polymethacrylate (PMA) may provide solutions to challenges relating to the current treatment and therapy of certain conditions. Research indicates that PMA based micro- and ...
To Probe Full And Partial Activation Of Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors By Pan-Agonist Chiglitazar Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations., Holli-Joi Sullivan, Xiaoyan Wang, Shaina Nogle, Siyan Liao, Chun Wu
Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics
Chiglitazar is a promising new-generation insulin sensitizer with low reverse effects for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and has shown activity as a nonselective pan-agonist to the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (i.e., full activation of PPARγ and a partial activation of PPARα and PPARβ/δ). Yet, it has no high-resolution complex structure with PPARs and its detailed interactions and activation mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we docked chiglitazar into three experimentally resolved crystal structures of hPPAR subtypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, followed by 3 μs molecular dynamics simulations for each system. Our MM-GBSA ...
Avoiding Drug Resistance By Substrate Envelope-Guided Design: Toward Potent And Robust Hcv Ns3/4a Protease Inhibitors, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Avoiding Drug Resistance By Substrate Envelope-Guided Design: Toward Potent And Robust Hcv Ns3/4a Protease Inhibitors, Ashley N. Matthew, Jacqueto Zephyr, Nageswara Rao Desaboini, Mina Henes, Wasih Kamran, Klajdi Kosovrasti, Adam Hedger, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Jennifer Timm, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects millions of people worldwide, causing chronic liver disease that can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplant. In the last several years, the advent of direct-acting antivirals, including NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), has remarkably improved treatment outcomes of HCV-infected patients. However, selection of resistance-associated substitutions and polymorphisms among genotypes can lead to drug resistance and in some cases treatment failure. A proactive strategy to combat resistance is to constrain PIs within evolutionarily conserved regions in the protease active site. Designing PIs using the substrate envelope is a rational strategy to decrease the susceptibility ...
Assessing The Correlation Of Microscopy-Based And Volumetry-Based Measurements For Resin Swelling In A Range Of Potential Greener Solvents For Spps, 2020 Technological University Dublin
Assessing The Correlation Of Microscopy-Based And Volumetry-Based Measurements For Resin Swelling In A Range Of Potential Greener Solvents For Spps, Jordan K. Magtaan, Marc Devocelle, Fintan Kelleher
The degree of resin swelling in a particular solvent system is one of the critical parameters for SPPS, and for solid phase synthesis, in general. Methods used for measuring the degree of resin swelling include microscopy-based and volumetry-based methods. This study describes, and compares, the use of both methods for a number of commercially available resins commonly used in SPPS, with a range of solvents which have been identified in the literature as “greener” than DCM, DMF and NMP. The results were analysed by statistical methods and a significant correlation between the two distinct methods has been demonstrated for the ...