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Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Commons

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Eggshell And Environmental Bacteria Contribute To The Intestinal Microbiota Of Growing Chickens, Joel J. Maki, Elizabeth A. Bobeck, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft 2020 Iowa State University

Eggshell And Environmental Bacteria Contribute To The Intestinal Microbiota Of Growing Chickens, Joel J. Maki, Elizabeth A. Bobeck, Matthew J. Sylte, Torey Looft

Animal Science Publications

Background: The initial intestinal microbiota acquired from different sources has profound impacts on animal health and productivity. In modern poultry production practices, the source(s) of the establishing microbes and their overall contribution during development of gastrointestinal tract communities are still unclear. Using fertilized eggs from two independent sources, we assessed the impact of eggshell- and environmental-associated microbial communities on the successional processes and bacterial community structure throughout the intestinal tract of chickens for up to 6 weeks post-hatch.

Results: Culturing and sequencing techniques identified a viable, highly diverse population of anaerobic bacteria on the eggshell. The jejunal, ileal, and ...


Dietary Supplementation With Sugar Beet Fructooligosaccharides And Garlic Residues Promotes Growth Of Beneficial Bacteria And Increases Weight Gain In Neonatal Lambs, Narciso M. Quijada, Raúl Bodas, Jose M. Lorenzo, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, Marta Hernández 2020 Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL)

Dietary Supplementation With Sugar Beet Fructooligosaccharides And Garlic Residues Promotes Growth Of Beneficial Bacteria And Increases Weight Gain In Neonatal Lambs, Narciso M. Quijada, Raúl Bodas, Jose M. Lorenzo, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, Marta Hernández

Animal Science Publications

The proper development of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is critical for newborn ruminants. This microbiota is susceptible to modification by diverse external factors (such as diet) that can lead to long-lasting results when occurring in young ruminants. Dietary supplementation with prebiotics, ingredients nondigestible and nonabsorbable by the host that stimulate the growth of beneficial GIT bacteria, has been applied worldwide as a potential approach in order to improve ruminant health and production yields. However, how prebiotics affect the GIT microbiota during ruminants’ early life is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of milk supplementation with a combination ...


Developing Microbial Based Process To Produce High Value Natural Antimicrobial (Glyceollin) In Soybeans And Pullulan From Sucrose, Andrea Zavadil 2020 South Dakota State University

Developing Microbial Based Process To Produce High Value Natural Antimicrobial (Glyceollin) In Soybeans And Pullulan From Sucrose, Andrea Zavadil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glyceollin is a secondary metabolite produced under stress conditions by soybean to act as a plant defender to pathogen attack. The antimicrobial nature of glyceollin makes it a promising natural alternative to antibiotics if incorporated into livestock feed. However, production of glyceollin is highly variable, dependent on soybean variety, and fungal elicitor used as inoculum. Our study compares two fungal spore elicitors, Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus sojae on soybeans of diverse maturity level, and fungal susceptibility to determine highest glyceollin titer. Spore inoculation with T. reesei elicited highest glyceollin titers of 2.42±0.20 mg/g at 120 h ...


Community-Driven Metadata Standards For Agricultural Microbiome Research, J. P. Dundore-Arias, E. A. Eloe-Fadrosh, L. M. Schriml, Gwyn A. Beattie, F. P. Brennan, P. E. Busby, R. B. Calderon, S. C. Castle, J. B. Emerson, S. E. Everhart, K. Eversole, K. E. Frost, J. R. Herr, A. I. Huerta, A. S. Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. K. Kalil, J. E. Leach, J. Leonard, J. E. Maul, B. Prithiviraj, M. Potrykus, N. R. Redekar, J. A. Rojas, K. A. T. Silverstein, D. J. Tomso, S. G. Tringe, B. A. Vinatzer, L. L. Kinkel 2020 California State University, Monterey Bay

Community-Driven Metadata Standards For Agricultural Microbiome Research, J. P. Dundore-Arias, E. A. Eloe-Fadrosh, L. M. Schriml, Gwyn A. Beattie, F. P. Brennan, P. E. Busby, R. B. Calderon, S. C. Castle, J. B. Emerson, S. E. Everhart, K. Eversole, K. E. Frost, J. R. Herr, A. I. Huerta, A. S. Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. K. Kalil, J. E. Leach, J. Leonard, J. E. Maul, B. Prithiviraj, M. Potrykus, N. R. Redekar, J. A. Rojas, K. A. T. Silverstein, D. J. Tomso, S. G. Tringe, B. A. Vinatzer, L. L. Kinkel

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Accelerating the pace of microbiome science to enhance crop productivity and agroecosystem health will require transdisciplinary studies, comparisons among datasets, and synthetic analyses of research from diverse crop management contexts. However, despite the widespread availability of crop-associated microbiome data, variation in field sampling and laboratory processing methodologies, as well as metadata collection and reporting, significantly constrains the potential for integrative and comparative analyses. Here we discuss the need for agriculture-specific metadata standards for microbiome research, and propose a list of “required” and “desirable” metadata categories and ontologies essential to be included in a future minimum information metadata standards checklist for ...


Investigating Links Between Soil Microbial Structure And Function In Three Major Plant Communities Across Temporal Scales Of Arctic Alaska, Kaj Lynoe 2020 South Dakota State University

Investigating Links Between Soil Microbial Structure And Function In Three Major Plant Communities Across Temporal Scales Of Arctic Alaska, Kaj Lynoe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arctic microbial systems continue to get attention today as our understanding regarding their structure and function in a changing system is paramount to C feedbacks with warming and changes in precipitation. Plant communities and microbial community processes across the Arctic landscape are central to understanding tundra ecosystem processes because environmental conditions and plant community structure drive microbial cycling of soil organic matter. Here, we want to understand how soil microbial respiration, mineralization, biomass, and community composition are linked to three Alaskan tundra plant communities, namely Shrub, Tussock, and Sedge tundra and the seasonal variability in this system. A total of ...


Diversity Analysis Of Soil Fungus Communities In Disturbed, Nursery, And Mature Forest Conditions, Dana Whitmore 2020 Central Washington University

Diversity Analysis Of Soil Fungus Communities In Disturbed, Nursery, And Mature Forest Conditions, Dana Whitmore

All Master's Theses

Populations of soil fungi were examined in Derby Canyon Natives, Coeur d’Alene Forest Service nursery, Swamp Lake, and the Keechelus Lake wildlife overcrossing soils. All sampling sites were connected by their relation to the revegetation and native soil plug inoculation of the wildlife overpass. This study was an effort to describe soil fungi communities present on the overpass before plant introduction, those that plants would be bringing in their pots, and the fungi that could be introduced via soil plug transplantation. DNA was extracted from soil samples, then sequenced using next-generation sequencing methods, allowing for the analysis of species ...


Marked Changes In Diversity And Relative Activity Of Picoeukaryotes With Depth In The World Ocean, Caterina R. Giner, Massimo C. Pernice, Vanessa Balagué, Carlos M. Duarte, Josep M. Gasol, Ramiro Logares, Ramon Massana 2020 Edith Cowan University

Marked Changes In Diversity And Relative Activity Of Picoeukaryotes With Depth In The World Ocean, Caterina R. Giner, Massimo C. Pernice, Vanessa Balagué, Carlos M. Duarte, Josep M. Gasol, Ramiro Logares, Ramon Massana

ECU Publications Post 2013

Microbial eukaryotes are key components of the ocean plankton. Yet, our understanding of their community composition and activity in different water layers of the ocean is limited, particularly for picoeukaryotes (0.2–3 µm cell size). Here, we examined the picoeukaryotic communities inhabiting different vertical zones of the tropical and subtropical global ocean: surface, deep chlorophyll maximum, mesopelagic (including the deep scattering layer and oxygen minimum zones), and bathypelagic. Communities were analysed by high-tthroughput sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene (V4 region) as represented by DNA (community structure) and RNA (metabolism), followed by delineation of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga 2019 University of Maine

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić 2019 University of Ljubljana

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

The current work extends the phenotypic characterization of a bacterial culture collection obtained from white, yellow, grey or pink microbial cave wall colonies that are common in the caves of Slovenian Karst. We have determined antibiotic resistance to 22 natural and synthetic antibiotics in 69 isolates from the microbial mats. Thirty-eight isolates (52%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics; another 27 isolates (37%) were resistant to 6-10 antibiotics; and 7 isolates (0.1%) were resistant to 11-17 antibiotics. We screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by growing cave isolates on five different media and overlaying individual cultures with ten Gram-positive and ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-ameen Dr. 2019 Dep. Biology/Plant Pathology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


Performance Study Of The Membrane Based Layered Double Hydroxides ‘Znal-Gh’ In The Purification Of Groundwater, Jaouad Zerhouni, Omar Qabaqous, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Mohammed Naciri Bennani, Najib Tijani 2019 University of Moulay Ismail, Morocco

Performance Study Of The Membrane Based Layered Double Hydroxides ‘Znal-Gh’ In The Purification Of Groundwater, Jaouad Zerhouni, Omar Qabaqous, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Mohammed Naciri Bennani, Najib Tijani

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The objective of this work is focused on the preparation and characterization of plan microfiltration membrane Zn3Al-Gh and the study of their efficiency in the treatment of ground water. This membrane was carried by using the support of the clay such as Ghassoul ‘Gh’ prepared by using dry uniaxial compaction method. The layered double hydroxides (LDH) based on Zn3Al-CO3with molar ratio (Zn2+/Al3+=3) was deposited on support by direct co-precipitation method.

The characterizations of the membrane LDH-Gh ‘Zn3Al-Gh’ and deposited layer Zn3Al-CO3, was done by scanning ...


Characterization Of Bacterial Communities In Biscayne Bay Through Genomic Analysis, Eric Fortman 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Characterization Of Bacterial Communities In Biscayne Bay Through Genomic Analysis, Eric Fortman

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Biscayne Bay is a shallow oligotrophic estuary in Southeast Florida. Channelization of rivers, and dredging of canals has greatly altered the historical flow of fresh water into the bay. This, coupled with the rise of a sprawling urban & suburban development, has greatly increased the nutrient load in the bay. This study examined the bacterial community at 14 stations throughout Biscayne Bay —6 stations were located at the mouths of canals; 1 upstream-canal station; 6 stations in the center of the bay; and one ocean influenced station, located near the entrance to the bay. One liter, surface water samples were taken monthly for one year. The 16S rRNA gene was used to identify bacterial community composition. There were 19,680 Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) identified across all 146 samples. Salinity and total phosphorous ...


Species Richness And Ecological Diversity Of Myxomycetes And Myxomycete-Like Organisms In The Tropical Forests Of Brazil, Isadora Lima Coelho 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Species Richness And Ecological Diversity Of Myxomycetes And Myxomycete-Like Organisms In The Tropical Forests Of Brazil, Isadora Lima Coelho

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical rain forests cover less than two percent of Earth's surface, yet they sustain the greatest diversity of living organisms on the planet. Tropical rain forests cover nearly 73% of the Brazilian territory and besides harboring some of the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet, this vast area also houses about 83% of the Brazilian population. Approximately 175 million people live in urban and rural areas with fragments of coverage of these biomes which contributes to the loss of biodiversity that rapidly increases over the years. Furthermore, the majority of the taxonomic and ecological efforts to describe and protect ...


The Effect Of Historic Shipwrecks On Sediment Microbiomes In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Melissa Brock 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Historic Shipwrecks On Sediment Microbiomes In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Melissa Brock

Master's Theses

Microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed across all aquatic habitats, but it is the environmental conditions of a habitat that determine which microorganisms can thrive in terms of abundance or metabolic activity. Habitats that experience consistent physical and chemical environmental conditions repeatedly favor specific taxonomic groups which may result in a microbial assemblage that is commonly associated with that habitat (i.e., a core microbiome). Core microbiomes have been identified for a variety of natural marine habitats including methane seeps, wood falls, octocoral, and deep-sea sediments. However, it was unknown if the presence of man-made structures on the seafloor, including historic shipwrecks ...


Freshwater Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins And Other Cyanobacterial Neurotoxins In New York Lakes, Zacharias J. Smith 2019 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Freshwater Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins And Other Cyanobacterial Neurotoxins In New York Lakes, Zacharias J. Smith

Dissertations and Theses

Cyanobacterial blooms occur worldwide and produce a range of harmful compounds. While most attention had focused on the hepatoxic microcystins, other cyanobacterial toxins such as the neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) and anatoxins (ATXs) may threaten environmental health.

Anatoxins (ATXs) are potent nicotinic agonists that can cause death within minutes. While the distribution of anatoxin-a has been evaluated in lakes, two derivatives, homo- anatoxin and dihydro-anatoxin, have not been evaluated.

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) are lethal neurotoxins with more than 60 known variants. While originally identified in marine systems, PSTs are frequently detected in freshwaters. The distribution of ...


Use Of Uav Imagery And Nutrient Analyses For Estimation Of The Spatial And Temporal Contributions Of Cattle Dung To Nutrient Cycling In Grazed Ecosystems, Amanda Shine 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Use Of Uav Imagery And Nutrient Analyses For Estimation Of The Spatial And Temporal Contributions Of Cattle Dung To Nutrient Cycling In Grazed Ecosystems, Amanda Shine

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Nutrient inputs from cattle dung are crucial drivers of nutrient cycling processes in grazed ecosystems. These inputs are important both spatially and temporally and are affected by variables such as grazing strategy, water location, and the nutritional profile of forage being grazed. Past research has attempted to map dung deposition patterns in order to more accurately estimate nutrient input, but the large spatial extent of a typical pasture and the tedious nature of identifying and mapping individual dung pats has prohibited the development of a time- and cost-effective methodology. The first objective of this research was to develop and validate ...


Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, 2019 Kennesaw State University

Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans

Symposium of Student Scholars

White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is responsible for the extensive mortality of bats in the United States. In an effort to develop tools to reduce bat mortality attributed to WNS, an in vitro experiment was conducted to quantify the inhibitory effects of select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as explore potential synergistic activities. The experiment involved exposing mycelial plugs of P. destructans to various concentrations of B23 as well as B23 and decanal together at equimolar ratios. Measurements of the plugs were taken over the course of the 13 day experiment allowing the ...


Inferred Function And Dynamics Of Microbial Communities From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Deepesh Tourani 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Inferred Function And Dynamics Of Microbial Communities From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Deepesh Tourani

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities, or microbiomes, are the major drivers of global biogeochemical cycles, acting as primary producers and decomposers across the water column in the oceans. Thus, they reflect changes in physicochemical properties and nutrient composition of the ocean. However, this correlation between ecological changes and the function of marine microbiomes is poorly understood. Large-scale oceanic events such as the bottom-water oxygen-depleted zone (i.e., “dead zone”) and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) render the ecosystem fragile. These events decrease survival rates of pelagic and coastal macrofauna and affect the biodiversity of the region. As ...


#39 - Extended-Spectrum Beta (Β) Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Flat Creek Water Samples, Luis Vidals, Maria Mayorga-Gutierrez 2019 University of North Georgia

#39 - Extended-Spectrum Beta (Β) Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Flat Creek Water Samples, Luis Vidals, Maria Mayorga-Gutierrez

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Antibiotics have played a major role in containing bacterial infections. Extended spectrum beta (β) lactamases, better known as ESBLs, are enzymes produced by the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae that inhibit the activity of many common antibiotics used today such as penicillin. The genes that encode for ESBLs are bla genes and are plasmid encoded. Thus, they can be easily transferred to different species of bacteria via horizontal transmission. In this study, freshwater samples were collected upstream and downstream of a water treatment plant and were tested for ESBL-producing bacteria. A total of 12 colonies were isolated and DNA extraction was performed ...


Changes In Soil Microbial Communities After Long-Term Warming Exposure, William G. Rodríguez-Reillo 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Changes In Soil Microbial Communities After Long-Term Warming Exposure, William G. Rodríguez-Reillo

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial metabolism is a key controller of ecosystem processes (e.g., carbon cycling). However, we are only starting to identify the molecular mechanisms and feedback in response to long-term warming. My dissertation integrates multi-omics techniques to capture changes in soil microbial communities after long-term warming exposure. The research projects leverage three warming sites (i.e., SWaN, Barre Woods, and Prospect Hill) located in Western Massachusetts at Harvard Forest. These sites provided a unique experimental setup to better understand microbes in response to long-term temperature change. For the three research projects, we delved into the (i) microbial biodiversity across all three ...


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