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Monitoring Lake Sinclair, Margaret Blackledge 2021 Georgia College

Monitoring Lake Sinclair, Margaret Blackledge

Graduate Research Posters

Algae, a polyphyletic group of aquatic primary producers, play a great part in earth’s biosphere. They produce half of the world’s oxygen and are major contributors to aquatic biodiversity. When conditions are favorable to a species, algae will bloom. Some algal species will produce algal toxins during a bloom as a potential mechanism to concentrate carbon. Due to the integral part they play in aquatic food webs, nutrient cycling and the potential for harmful algal blooms, algal communities are monitored to determine the health and safety of aquatic environments. Lake Sinclair in middle Georgia is a good model ...


Microaerophilic Oxidation Of Fe(Ii) Coupled With Simultaneous Carbon Fixation And As(Iii) Oxidation And Sequestration In Karstic Paddy Soil, Hui Tong, Chunju Zheng, Bing Li, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Chengshuai Liu, Manjia Chen, Yafei Xia, Yuhui Liu, Zengping Ning, Fangbai Li, Xinbin Feng 2021 Guangdong Academy of Sciences

Microaerophilic Oxidation Of Fe(Ii) Coupled With Simultaneous Carbon Fixation And As(Iii) Oxidation And Sequestration In Karstic Paddy Soil, Hui Tong, Chunju Zheng, Bing Li, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Chengshuai Liu, Manjia Chen, Yafei Xia, Yuhui Liu, Zengping Ning, Fangbai Li, Xinbin Feng

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are often chemolithoautotrophs, and the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides they form could immobilize arsenic (As). If such microbes are active in karstic paddy soils, their activity would help increase soil organic carbon and mitigate As contamination. We therefore used gel-stabilized gradient systems to cultivate microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria from karstic paddy soil to investigate their capacity for Fe(II) oxidation, carbon fixation, and As sequestration. Stable isotope probing (SIP) demonstrated the assimilation of inorganic carbon at a maximum rate of 8.02 mmol C m-2 d-1. Sequencing revealed that Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus, Hyphomicrobium, Kaistobacter, Mesorhizobium ...


Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham 2021 University of Akron

Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Caves are generally formed by the erosion and/or dissolution of rock and its subsequent removal by water. Iron ore caves (IOCs) form despite being hosted by relatively insoluble and weathering-resistant rock. Due to the discovery of a microbial community behind the walls of these caves, it was hypothesized that these bacteria could be responsible for speleogenesis. Iron ore exists in an oxidized (Fe(III)) state, but reduced (Fe(II)) form is soluble. It was further reasoned that the bacteria might be able to reduce Fe(III) through direct metabolic activity, which uses iron as an electron acceptor. Here we ...


The Impact Of Stand Age And Fertilization On The Soil Microbiome Of Miscanthus × Giganteus, Lanying Ma, Fernando Igne Rocha, Jaejin Lee, Jinlyung Choi, Mauricio Tejera, Thanwalee Sooksa-Nguan, Nicholas Boersma, Andy VanLoocke, Emily Heaton, Adina Howe 2021 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Stand Age And Fertilization On The Soil Microbiome Of Miscanthus × Giganteus, Lanying Ma, Fernando Igne Rocha, Jaejin Lee, Jinlyung Choi, Mauricio Tejera, Thanwalee Sooksa-Nguan, Nicholas Boersma, Andy Vanloocke, Emily Heaton, Adina Howe

Agronomy Publications

Yield of the perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus has shown an inconsistent and unpredictable response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet fertilization underpins the crop’s environmental and economic sustainability. The interactions among soil microbial communities, N availability, and Miscanthus × giganteus and management may explain changes in plant productivity. In this study, soil samples from different stand ages of Miscanthus × giganteus in a replicated chronosequence field trial were used to investigate the effects of stand age and N fertilizer rates on microbial community structure. We hypothesized that there is a definable Miscanthus × giganteus soil microbiome and that this community varies significantly with ...


Impact Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Conyza Canadensis Drought Responses And Possible Mechanisms, Kian G.M. Speck, Ylva Lekberg, Anna Sala 2021 University of Montana, Missoula

Impact Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Conyza Canadensis Drought Responses And Possible Mechanisms, Kian G.M. Speck, Ylva Lekberg, Anna Sala

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important plant mutualists that can facilitate plant responses to various environmental stressors, such as drought. A plant that may benefit from AMF-induced drought tolerance is Conyza canadensis due to its ability to thrive in dry conditions and its high colonization rate. However, no studies have researched C. canadensis in this context and the exact mechanisms of AMF-induced drought tolerance are still unknown.
  • To better understand if and how AMF facilitate drought response in C. canadensis, we conducted a greenhouse experiment comparing the response of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants to three watering levels. We measured dry ...


Continuous In Situ Soil Nitrate Sensors: The Importance Of High‐Resolution Measurements Across Time And A Comparison With Salt Extraction‐Based Methods, Yunjiao Zhu, Yuncong Chen, Md. Azahar Ali, Liang Dong, Xinran Wang, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, James C. Schnable, Michael J. Castellano 2021 Iowa State University

Continuous In Situ Soil Nitrate Sensors: The Importance Of High‐Resolution Measurements Across Time And A Comparison With Salt Extraction‐Based Methods, Yunjiao Zhu, Yuncong Chen, Md. Azahar Ali, Liang Dong, Xinran Wang, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, James C. Schnable, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Soil NO3– affects microbial processes, plant productivity, and environmental N losses. However, the ability to measure soil NO3– is limited by labor‐intensive sampling and laboratory analyses. Hence, temporal variation in soil solution NO3– concentration is poorly understood. We evaluated a new potentiometric sensor that continuously measures soil solution NO3– concentration with unprecedented specificity due to a novel membrane that serves as a barrier to interfering anions. First, we compared sensor and salt extraction‐based measurements of soil NO3– in well‐controlled laboratory conditions. Second, using 60 d of in situ soil NO3– measurements every 10 s, we quantified temporal ...


Biological Control And Microbial Ecology Draft Genome Sequence Data Of Glutamicibacter Sp. Fbe-19, A Bacterium Antagonistic To The Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila, Benzhong Fu, Olakunle Olawole, Gwyn A. Beattie 2021 Iowa State University

Biological Control And Microbial Ecology Draft Genome Sequence Data Of Glutamicibacter Sp. Fbe-19, A Bacterium Antagonistic To The Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila, Benzhong Fu, Olakunle Olawole, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Glutamicibacter sp.FBE-19 was isolated based on its strong antagonism to the cucurbit bacterial blight pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila on plates. Members of the Glutamicibacter genus can promote plant growth under saline conditions and antagonize fungi on plates via chitinolytic activity; however, their production of antibacterial compounds has not been examined. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain FBE-19. The genome is 3.85 Mbp with a G+C content of 60.1% and comprises 3,791 genes. Genes that may contribute to its antagonistic activity include genes for the secondary metabolites stenothricin, salinosporamide A, a second β-lactone compound, and ...


Investigating The Impact Of Environmentally Relevant Imidazole Concentrations On The Antifungal Susceptibility And Community Composition Of Soil Fungi, Farhaan Kanji 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Impact Of Environmentally Relevant Imidazole Concentrations On The Antifungal Susceptibility And Community Composition Of Soil Fungi, Farhaan Kanji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miconazole and clotrimazole are environmentally-persistent drugs that are entrained into crop soils through the application of biosolids. There is concern that environmental exposure to such azole antifungals, which inhibit fungal growth by disrupting the production of the fungal cell membrane component ergosterol, promotes resistance in clinically or agriculturally relevant fungi. Thus, either environmentally-relevant or excessive levels of these drugs were applied to microplots over ten years and compared with drug-free plots. Overall, ergosterol quantification, plates counts, and identification of >250 fungal isolates showed lower fungal counts and species richness in plots receiving excessive drug amounts. In addition, fungi from treated ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu 2020 Binghamton University

Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

Parasites and pathogens have significant roles in host population control, and thus host-parasite interactions affect biodiversity. The important question reviewed in this paper is how changes in temperature due to climate change affect host-parasite interactions. There is mounting evidence that elevated temperatures have both beneficial and detrimental effects on parasites and independently on hosts. These independent changes result in altered host-parasite dynamics through various mechanisms. If elevated temperatures enhance parasite survival, risk of disease transmission among hosts is enhanced as well. This enhancement is dependent on temperature-induced shifts in the host lifecycle, as asynchrony in host and parasite development can ...


Incidence Of Antibiotic Resistance And Plasmid Content In Freshwater Beach Sand And Water And Clinical Urinary Tract Infection Escherichia Coli Isolates, Robert F. White 2020 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Incidence Of Antibiotic Resistance And Plasmid Content In Freshwater Beach Sand And Water And Clinical Urinary Tract Infection Escherichia Coli Isolates, Robert F. White

Biology Theses

Antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria have been found in environmental ecosystems including beach sand and water, and pose a serious threat to the mitigation of human and animal disease. The presence of antibiotic residues in the environment, fueled by wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff, may produce selective pressure on introduced microbes such as Escherichia coli, leading to the production of AR populations. This study characterized and compared the antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmid content of E. coli isolated from a freshwater beach and clinical urinary tract infection (UTI) samples. A higher level of antibiotic resistance was expected in clinical (UTI) Escherichia coli ...


Molecular Detection Of Host-Specific Fecal Bacteria In Three Major Watersheds Of Piedmont Georgia, Muhammad Amar 2020 Georgia College

Molecular Detection Of Host-Specific Fecal Bacteria In Three Major Watersheds Of Piedmont Georgia, Muhammad Amar

Biology Theses

Abstract

Fecal pollution is a major concern in creeks and rivers. The aim of this study was to enumerate fecal coliform bacteria and identify the source of contamination using Microbial Source Tracking at three different creeks (Mountain Oak, Long Cane, and Ulcohatchee) in the Piedmont region of Georgia. Data collected in this research will be used to formulate watershed rehabilitation plans to decrease the transfer of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into these creeks. Samples were collected at several sites along the creeks (4 sites at Mountain Oak, 10 sites at Long Cane, and 5 sites at Ulcohatchee). The site locations ...


Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Symbionts within marine sponges are actively participating in the biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the role of symbiont microbes in the sulfur cycle remains a mystery. This study measured the abundance of microbes within the genus Cinachyrella before and after exposure to hydrogen sulfide. A four-part study was conducted: a) five-hour drop experiments, b) vertical distribution experiments, c) five-hour uptake experiments, and d) long-term exposure experiments. The five-hour drop experiment utilized a microsensor to measure sulfide levels, which was lowered 1.0 mm every thirty minutes for a total of 5 hours. Three trials were performed, each with one sponge and ...


Transparent Soil Microcosms For Live-Cell Imaging And Non-Destructive Stable Isotope Probing Of Soil Microorganisms, Kriti Sharma, Marton Palatinszky, Georgi Nikolov, David Berry, Elizabeth A. Shank 2020 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Transparent Soil Microcosms For Live-Cell Imaging And Non-Destructive Stable Isotope Probing Of Soil Microorganisms, Kriti Sharma, Marton Palatinszky, Georgi Nikolov, David Berry, Elizabeth A. Shank

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Microscale processes are critically important to soil ecology and biogeochemistry yet are difficult to study due to soil's opacity and complexity. To advance the study of soil processes, we constructed transparent soil microcosms that enable the visualization of microbes via fluorescence microscopy and the non-destructive measurement of microbial activity and carbon uptake in situ via Raman microspectroscopy. We assessed the polymer Nafion and the crystal cryolite as optically transparent soil substrates. We demonstrated that both substrates enable the growth, maintenance, and visualization of microbial cells in three dimensions over time, and are compatible with stable isotope probing using Raman ...


The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton 2020 University of Akron

The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton

International Journal of Speleology

Although molecular approaches can identify members of microbial communities in the environment, genomic information does not necessarily correlate with environmental phenotype. Understanding functional roles can be done by cultivating representative species, yet the culturablility of bacteria from caves remains low, at 0.02%, limiting our understanding of microbial community interactions and processes. We have investigated several factors influencing culturability of bacteria from a single sample location in Maxwelton Sink Cave, WV, USA. Extended incubation of inoculated plates showed a significant increase in colony counts from two to four weeks, indicating that extended incubations increase culturability. There were no significant differences ...


Metabolic Interactions In Microbial Communities, Elizabeth A. Shank 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Metabolic Interactions In Microbial Communities, Elizabeth A. Shank

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The Shank laboratory studies the chemical and physical interactions of microbes with each other and their hosts. Microbes live everywhere, and their activities can have profound impacts on their hosts as well as on ecosystem‐level processes. How microbes interact within these communities, however, remains largely unknown. We are fascinated by the idea that microbes are able to generate and secrete chemical cues (known as specialized or secondary metabolites) that can act as interspecies signals to influence the physiology and metabolism of their microbial neighbors, and thus contribute to the stability and functioning of complex microbial communities. Our research dissects ...


Characterizing The Diversity Of The Eukaryotic Microbiome In Marine Crustacean Zooplankton., Rose-Lynne Savage 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Diversity Of The Eukaryotic Microbiome In Marine Crustacean Zooplankton., Rose-Lynne Savage

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Understanding zooplankton productivity is critical for modeling marine food web function, of which one poorly known factor is the influence of zooplankton symbionts. Zooplankton protist symbiont diversity is underestimated due to the limited surveys and techniques previously used. Using 18S V4 metabarcoding, I characterized the eukaryotic microbiomes associated with crustacean zooplankton from the northern Strait of Georgia, BC. Apostome ciliates were most abundant in all hosts except for cyclopoid copepods, which were dominated by Syndiniales. Most symbiont lineages were more abundant in one or two hosts, suggesting some degree of host preference. Microbiome data also provided information on diet, confirming ...


Trace Metal Availability Affects Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Microbial Functional Group Abundance In Freshwater Wetland Sediments, George Giannopoulos, Katherine R. Hartop, Bonnie L. Brown, Bongkeun Song, Lars Elsgaard, Rima B. Franklin 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Trace Metal Availability Affects Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Microbial Functional Group Abundance In Freshwater Wetland Sediments, George Giannopoulos, Katherine R. Hartop, Bonnie L. Brown, Bongkeun Song, Lars Elsgaard, Rima B. Franklin

VIMS Articles

We investigated the effects of trace metal additions on microbial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycling using freshwater wetland sediment microcosms amended with micromolar concentrations of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe), and all combinations thereof. In addition to monitoring inorganic N transformations (NO3, NO2, N2O, NH4+) and carbon mineralization (CO2, CH4), we tracked changes in functional gene abundance associated with denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZ), dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA; nrfA), and methanogenesis (mcrA). With regards to N cycling, greater availability of Cu led to more complete denitrification (i.e., less N ...


Molecular Trade-Offs In Soil Organic Carbon Composition At Continental Scale, Steven J. Hall, Chenglong Ye, Samantha R. Weintraub, William C. Hockaday 2020 Iowa State University

Molecular Trade-Offs In Soil Organic Carbon Composition At Continental Scale, Steven J. Hall, Chenglong Ye, Samantha R. Weintraub, William C. Hockaday

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The molecular composition of soil organic carbon remains contentious. Microbial-, plant-, and fire-derived compounds may each contribute, but do they vary predictably among ecosystems? Here we present carbon functional groups and molecules from a diverse spectrum of North American surface mineral soils, primarily collected from the National Ecological Observatory Network, quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a molecular mixing model. Soils varied widely in relative contributions of carbohydrate, lipid, protein, lignin, and char-like carbon, but each compound class had similar overall abundance. Three principal component axes explained 90% of the variance in carbon composition: the first showed a tradeoff ...


Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. de Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria de Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo de Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano 2020 Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Background: The impact of extreme changes in weather patterns in the economy and humanity welfare are some of the biggest challenges that our civilization is facing. From the anthropogenic activities that contribute to climate change, reducing the impact of farming activities is a priority, since its responsible for up to 18% of greenhouse gases linked to such activities. To this end, we tested if the ruminal and fecal microbiomes components of 52 Brazilian Nelore bulls, belonging to two experimental groups based on the feed intervention, conventional (A) and byproducts based diet (B), could be used as biomarkers for methane (CH ...


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