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Full-Text Articles in Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool May 2021

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool

Student Theses

The presence of Legionella pneumophila was assessed using a cultivation-based approach in New York City waterways, a freshwater portion of the lower Hudson River Estuary near Kingston NY, and in urban and suburban street water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 51% of brackish New York City Estuary samples, most with concentrations near minimum detection (=>1 organism/ mL). In contrast, it was detected in 22% of suburban freshwater Hudson River Estuary samples. Levels of the bacterium were found to be higher during wet weather compared to dry weather in the highly dense urban setting, but not in the less dense suburban ...


Evidence For Perchlorate-Coupled Molybdenum And Nickel Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Co Oxidation And Characterization Of Novel Perchlorate-Reducing Haloarchaea, Marisa Russell Myers May 2021

Evidence For Perchlorate-Coupled Molybdenum And Nickel Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Co Oxidation And Characterization Of Novel Perchlorate-Reducing Haloarchaea, Marisa Russell Myers

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Carbon monoxide (CO) has been exploited as a microbial energy source for much of life’s evolutionary history. A phylogenetically diverse array of microorganisms can oxidize CO using two distinct CO dehydrogenases, molybdenum-dependent (Mo-CODH) and nickel-dependent (Ni-CODH). Aerobes and facultative organisms contain Mo-CODHs which allow them to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor in addition to alternatives such as nitrate and sulfate. Obligate anaerobic organisms contain Ni-CODHs, which oxidize CO at elevated concentrations, but cannot utilize oxygen. In systems where organic matter deposits are limited or absent, atmospheric trace gases such as CO are thought to assist in supporting the ...


Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle May 2021

Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background/Questions/Methods

The introduction of the Chinese chestnut blight in 1904 decimated native American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) populations. In this study we aim to: 1) document the location of individual chestnuts in our vicinity; 2) document healthy versus blight infected individuals; 3) characterize putative differences in the soil microbiome between infected and non-infected individuals, as well as between chestnuts and hardwood neighbors. With this information we hope to provide new insights into mechanisms that may enhance blight and fungal resistance in American chestnuts through the understanding of the interactions between the trees and their surrounding soil microbiome ...


Fungi Associated With Herbaceous Plants In Coastal Northern California, Greg Huffman May 2021

Fungi Associated With Herbaceous Plants In Coastal Northern California, Greg Huffman

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Biological Sciences Master's Theses

The presence of fungal species associated with herbaceous plants was monitored in coastal Marin County, California, USA. The research involved a combination of field sampling surveys and data collection using a stratified random design, pathogen identification through microbiological and molecular analysis, and descriptive analysis and ordination of results. A total of two years of repeated sampling (four times a year) was organized to allow for the detection of seasonal differences in pathogen presence on aerial plant parts. The objective of this study was to identify microbial species present on herbaceous plants using ITS1 sequence analysis. Throughout March of 2018 to ...


Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer May 2021

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically ...


Resistance Of The Freshwater Microbiome To A Combination Of Pesticides, Gabriel Hooper May 2021

Resistance Of The Freshwater Microbiome To A Combination Of Pesticides, Gabriel Hooper

Senior Honors Theses

Pesticides are used prevalently throughout the United States and can negatively affect non-target organisms. Rain run-off can move multiple pesticides into freshwater ecosystems and bring them in contact with non-target organisms that have variable tolerances to pollution. This study seeks to improve our understanding of how an acute exposure to a combination of pesticides may restructure microbial communities by examining the microbiome before and after a 48-hour exposure to 2000 ppb of herbicides (glyphosate, atrazine, and 2,4-D). Pesticide exposure did not significantly alter the alpha or beta diversity of the sample types, which demonstrates the ability of freshwater microbiomes ...


Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec Apr 2021

Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean calcite dissolution and precipitation are often considered as strictly geochemical processes. The active involvement of microbes in these processes is commonly underestimated in the literature due to general oligotrophic conditions in caves, except in particular cave conditions, such as sulfidic caves and moonmilk deposits, where the presence of microbes likely plays a key role in mineral deposition. Here, we study the possible involvement of microbes from Postojna Cave, Slovenia, in carbonate dissolution (litholysis) and precipitation (lithogenesis). Microbes were sampled from small pools below hydrologically diverse drip sites and incubated on polished limestone tablets at 10 and 20°C for ...


Microplastics: Nacogdoches County’S Hidden Threat, Jordan Stanford, Sydney Matlock, Courtney Sims, Samantha Montes Apr 2021

Microplastics: Nacogdoches County’S Hidden Threat, Jordan Stanford, Sydney Matlock, Courtney Sims, Samantha Montes

Undergraduate Research Conference

Microplastics and their threat to marine environments are well known, but studies in freshwater environments are few and far between. Microplastics can be created by the breaking down of plastics or in the process of making plastics. They affect biological lifeforms in a multitude of ways, water temperature, permeability of the sediment. Pollution in Texas waterways have motivated groups like the Environmental Protection Agency, Trash Free Texas, and Environment Texas to get involved. The objectives of this study are two analyze Bonita and La Nana Bayou for microplastic presence and to educate and create awareness for Nacogdoches County on microplastics ...


Seasonal Variation Of E. Coli Abundance And Antibiotic Resistance Patterns In Water And Sediment Samples From Two Creeks With Different Potential Fecal Contamination Sources., James S. Zumhagen, Timothy Gsell Apr 2021

Seasonal Variation Of E. Coli Abundance And Antibiotic Resistance Patterns In Water And Sediment Samples From Two Creeks With Different Potential Fecal Contamination Sources., James S. Zumhagen, Timothy Gsell

GSU Research Day

Escherichia coli has served as the primary indicator for fecal contamination for the past 30 years, but more recent studies suggest that this bacteria may survive the cold weather in the soil making it difficult to tell whether it is new contamination or old contamination. Studies have found that exposure to various contaminants such as heavy metals, water treatment chemicals, agricultural runoff, fecal contamination, and antibiotics, creates an increase in the resistance of the microbes exposed to it. Wastewater treatment facilities, animal hospitals and wastewater sites increase the bacterial load and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria residing bacteria ...


Niche Differentiation Of Bacteria And Fungi In Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Of Different Habitats In A Temperate Coniferous Forest: A Metaproteomic Approach, Robert Starke, Rubén López Mondéjar, Zander Rainer Human, Diana Navrátilová, Martina Štursová, Tomáš Větrovský, Heather M. Olson, Daniel J. Orton, Stephen J. Callister, Mary S. Lipton, Adina Howe, Lee Ann Mccue, Christa Pennacchio, Igor Grigoriev, Petr Baldrian Apr 2021

Niche Differentiation Of Bacteria And Fungi In Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Of Different Habitats In A Temperate Coniferous Forest: A Metaproteomic Approach, Robert Starke, Rubén López Mondéjar, Zander Rainer Human, Diana Navrátilová, Martina Štursová, Tomáš Větrovský, Heather M. Olson, Daniel J. Orton, Stephen J. Callister, Mary S. Lipton, Adina Howe, Lee Ann Mccue, Christa Pennacchio, Igor Grigoriev, Petr Baldrian

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Temperate coniferous forests sustain the highest levels of biomass of all terrestrial ecosystems and belong to the major carbon sinks on Earth. However, the community composition and its functional diversity depending on the habitat have yet to be unveiled. Here, we analyzed the proteomes from litter, plant roots, rhizosphere, and bulk soil in a temperate coniferous forest at two time points to improve the understanding of the interplay between bacterial and eukaryotic communities in different habitats. Our metaproteomic approach yielded a total of 139,127 proteins that allowed to differentiate the contribution of microbial taxa to protein expression as well ...


Distribution, Diversity, And Biogeography Of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Uptake By Microbial Communities In Soils And Sediments, Amber N. Depoy Mar 2021

Distribution, Diversity, And Biogeography Of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Uptake By Microbial Communities In Soils And Sediments, Amber N. Depoy

LSU Master's Theses

Carbon monoxide (CO) is primarily known for being a toxic gas. However, CO is used by microorganisms as an electron or carbon source in a variety of respiratory processes. Different kinds of microorganisms utilize CO aerobically and anaerobically, using two distinct CO dehydrogenases (CODHs). Aerobes oxidize CO using a molybdenum-dependent dehydrogenase (Mo-CODH), while anaerobes utilize a nickel-dependent CO dehydrogenase (Ni-CODH). Studies of the biochemistry and microbiology of aerobic and anaerobic CO oxidation are extensive, but relatively little is known about the ecology of anaerobic CO oxidation. In an effort to test new hypotheses about the ecology of anaerobic CO oxidation ...


How Historic Shipwrecks Influence Dispersal Of Deep-Sea Microbiomes, Rachel Moseley Mar 2021

How Historic Shipwrecks Influence Dispersal Of Deep-Sea Microbiomes, Rachel Moseley

Master's Theses

This thesis investigates how historic shipwrecks potentially shape dispersal of deep-sea microbiomes. Processes impacting dispersal of microbiomes around artificial structures in the ocean and how they connect to other deep-sea habitats is unknown. Dispersal processes are explained for some macroorganisms by theories in ecology, specifically the Theory of Island Biogeography and the Wooden Stepping Stone hypothesis. These have not been investigated for microorganisms, and thus this work will probe if they are applicable to microbial biogeography in this habitat. Experiments were conducted to establish new “island-like” features in near proximity (25-125 m) to wooden-hulled historic shipwrecks in the northern Gulf ...


A Comparison Of Intertidal Metazoan Biodiversity Between Previously Oiled Sheared And Intact Marsh Margins And Between Multiple Salinity Zones In The Coastal Marshes Of Louisiana, Patrick M. Rayle Mar 2021

A Comparison Of Intertidal Metazoan Biodiversity Between Previously Oiled Sheared And Intact Marsh Margins And Between Multiple Salinity Zones In The Coastal Marshes Of Louisiana, Patrick M. Rayle

LSU Master's Theses

Marshes in Louisiana are under threat from numerous natural and anthropogenic sources. A consequence of these threats are sheared marsh margins, which result from the impact of storm surge on previously oiled, weakened marsh. These conditions occurred in Louisiana marshes after Hurricane Isaac in 2012 followed the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, particularly in the shorelines surrounding Bay Jimmy. The second and third chapters of this thesis focus on the differences in biodiversity between the sheared and intact marsh margins in impacted sites in Bay Jimmy. Metabarcoding methods were used to determine community composition of the sediment within marsh ...


Disproportionate Ch4 Sink Strength From An Endemic, Sub-Alpine Australian Soil Microbial Community, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Marcela Hernández, Marc G. Dumont, Lachlan J. Ingram, Mark A. Adams Mar 2021

Disproportionate Ch4 Sink Strength From An Endemic, Sub-Alpine Australian Soil Microbial Community, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Marcela Hernández, Marc G. Dumont, Lachlan J. Ingram, Mark A. Adams

Agronomy Publications

Soil-to-atmosphere methane (CH4) fluxes are dependent on opposing microbial processes of production and consumption. Here we use a soil–vegetation gradient in an Australian sub-alpine ecosystem to examine links between composition of soil microbial communities, and the fluxes of greenhouse gases they regulate. For each soil/vegetation type (forest, grassland, and bog), we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 fluxes and their production/consumption at 5 cm intervals to a depth of 30 cm. All soils were sources of CO2, ranging from 49 to 93 mg CO2 m−2 h−1. Forest soils were strong ...


Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe Mar 2021

Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe

International Journal of Speleology

The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, thus the search for novel antimicrobial compounds has become a continuous necessity. Underexplored and extreme environments, such as cave ecosystems, have been identified as a promising potential source for the discovery of novel microorganisms with novel antimicrobial compounds (AMC). This study presents the first cave microbiological investigation in Sri Lanka, with a special preference for bioprospecting of novel AMC. The cave sediment characterization demonstrated the presence of close to strong acidic conditions (pH 3.1 – 3.3) and thus indicates the possibility of isolating acidophilic microorganisms. Eight cave wall/ceiling ...


Evaluation Of Humic Fertilizers Applied At Full And Reduced Nitrogen Rates On Kentucky Bluegrass Quality And Soil Health, Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Nick E. Christians Feb 2021

Evaluation Of Humic Fertilizers Applied At Full And Reduced Nitrogen Rates On Kentucky Bluegrass Quality And Soil Health, Alex J. Lindsey, Adam W. Thoms, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, Nick E. Christians

Agronomy Publications

Soil health and sustainable management practices have garnered much interest within the turfgrass industry. Among the many practices that enhance soil health and sustainability are applying soil additives to enhance soil biological activity and reducing nitrogen (N) inputs—complimentary practices. A two-year study was conducted to investigate if reduced N fertilizer rates applied with humic substances could provide comparable turfgrass quality as full N rates, and whether humic fertilizers would increase biological aspects of soil health (i.e., microbial biomass and activity). Treatments included synthetic fertilizer with black gypsum (SFBG), poly-coated humic-coated urea (PCHCU; two rates), urea + humic dispersing granules ...


Metabolomics-Based Analysis Of Miniature Flask Contents Identifies Tobacco Mixture Use Among The Ancient Maya, Mario Zimmermann, Korey J. Brownstein, Luis Pantoja Díaz, Iliana Ancona Aragón, Scott R. Hutson, Barry Kidder, Shannon Tushingham, David R. Gang Jan 2021

Metabolomics-Based Analysis Of Miniature Flask Contents Identifies Tobacco Mixture Use Among The Ancient Maya, Mario Zimmermann, Korey J. Brownstein, Luis Pantoja Díaz, Iliana Ancona Aragón, Scott R. Hutson, Barry Kidder, Shannon Tushingham, David R. Gang

Anthropology Faculty Publications

A particular type of miniature ceramic vessel locally known as “veneneras” is occasionally found during archaeological excavations in the Maya Area. To date, only one study of a collection of such containers successfully identified organic residues through coupled chromatography–mass spectrometry methods. That study identified traces of nicotine likely associated with tobacco. Here we present a more complete picture by analyzing a suite of possible complementary ingredients in tobacco mixtures across a collection of 14 miniature vessels. The collection includes four different vessel forms and allows for the comparison of specimens which had previously formed part of museum exhibitions with ...


Assessment Of Chlorine Resistance Enterobacter Cloacae Isolated From Water Storage Tanks In Sulaimaniyah City-Iraq, Hastyar H. Najmuldeen Jan 2021

Assessment Of Chlorine Resistance Enterobacter Cloacae Isolated From Water Storage Tanks In Sulaimaniyah City-Iraq, Hastyar H. Najmuldeen

Passer Journal

This study was designed to determine the extent of contamination of water storage tanks by non-lactose fermenter Enterobacter spp, and to characterize the chlorine and antibiotic resistance status. Moreover, to find the correlation between biofilm formation and resistance to chlorine. For this purpose, a total of 60 water samples were collected from residential and restaurant water storage tanks. Bacterial analysis and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the samples were assessed by the Most Probable Number (MPN) and Vitek 2 compact tests, respectively. The biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining method and chlorine resistance test by microdilution technique.

Obtained results ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Strain Ss-5, A Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacterium Isolated From The Salton Sea, A Shallow, Saline, Endorheic Rift Lake Located On The San Andreas Fault In California, Denis Trubitsyn, Caroline L. Monteil, Corey Geurink, Viviana Morillo Lopez, Luiz Gonzaga Paula De Almeida, Ana Tereza Ribeiro De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Abreu, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Christopher T. Lefevre Jan 2021

Complete Genome Sequence Of Strain Ss-5, A Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacterium Isolated From The Salton Sea, A Shallow, Saline, Endorheic Rift Lake Located On The San Andreas Fault In California, Denis Trubitsyn, Caroline L. Monteil, Corey Geurink, Viviana Morillo Lopez, Luiz Gonzaga Paula De Almeida, Ana Tereza Ribeiro De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Abreu, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Christopher T. Lefevre

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

© 2021 American Society for Microbiology. All rights reserved. We report the 3.7-Mb genome sequence of strain SS-5, a magnetotactic, sulfur-oxidizing rod and member of the family Chromatiaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria, which biomineralizes membrane-bound, elongated, prismatic octahedral, magnetite nanocrystals. This genome sequence brings further diversity for understanding the origin and evolution of magnetotaxis and magnetosome biomineralization.


The Effect Of An Acidified-Gypsum Mixture On Broiler Litter Urease-Producing Bacteria And Nitrogen Mineralization, Taylor Chapman, Christopher D. Burt, Dave Bachoon, Miguel L. Cabrera, Christopher Horacek Jan 2021

The Effect Of An Acidified-Gypsum Mixture On Broiler Litter Urease-Producing Bacteria And Nitrogen Mineralization, Taylor Chapman, Christopher D. Burt, Dave Bachoon, Miguel L. Cabrera, Christopher Horacek

Graduate Research Posters

Broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) production is one of the largest agricultural sectors in the state of Georgia. Broiler litter produced by broiler facilities is rich in organic nitrogen (N), specifically urea, which can be mineralized by poultry litter urease-producing bacteria (PLUP) forming ammoniacal-N (NH3/NH4+). A large portion of NH3/NH4+ can be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas, which negatively impacts bird health and profitability. The release of NH3 from litter is strongly influenced by the pH of the litter. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has been suggested as a potential amendment to reduce ...


Monitoring Lake Sinclair, Margaret Blackledge Jan 2021

Monitoring Lake Sinclair, Margaret Blackledge

Graduate Research Posters

Algae, a polyphyletic group of aquatic primary producers, play a great part in earth’s biosphere. They produce half of the world’s oxygen and are major contributors to aquatic biodiversity. When conditions are favorable to a species, algae will bloom. Some algal species will produce algal toxins during a bloom as a potential mechanism to concentrate carbon. Due to the integral part they play in aquatic food webs, nutrient cycling and the potential for harmful algal blooms, algal communities are monitored to determine the health and safety of aquatic environments. Lake Sinclair in middle Georgia is a good model ...


Microaerophilic Oxidation Of Fe(Ii) Coupled With Simultaneous Carbon Fixation And As(Iii) Oxidation And Sequestration In Karstic Paddy Soil, Hui Tong, Chunju Zheng, Bing Li, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Chengshuai Liu, Manjia Chen, Yafei Xia, Yuhui Liu, Zengping Ning, Fangbai Li, Xinbin Feng Jan 2021

Microaerophilic Oxidation Of Fe(Ii) Coupled With Simultaneous Carbon Fixation And As(Iii) Oxidation And Sequestration In Karstic Paddy Soil, Hui Tong, Chunju Zheng, Bing Li, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Chengshuai Liu, Manjia Chen, Yafei Xia, Yuhui Liu, Zengping Ning, Fangbai Li, Xinbin Feng

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are often chemolithoautotrophs, and the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides they form could immobilize arsenic (As). If such microbes are active in karstic paddy soils, their activity would help increase soil organic carbon and mitigate As contamination. We therefore used gel-stabilized gradient systems to cultivate microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria from karstic paddy soil to investigate their capacity for Fe(II) oxidation, carbon fixation, and As sequestration. Stable isotope probing (SIP) demonstrated the assimilation of inorganic carbon at a maximum rate of 8.02 mmol C m-2 d-1. Sequencing revealed that Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus, Hyphomicrobium, Kaistobacter, Mesorhizobium ...


Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham Jan 2021

Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Caves are generally formed by the erosion and/or dissolution of rock and its subsequent removal by water. Iron ore caves (IOCs) form despite being hosted by relatively insoluble and weathering-resistant rock. Due to the discovery of a microbial community behind the walls of these caves, it was hypothesized that these bacteria could be responsible for speleogenesis. Iron ore exists in an oxidized (Fe(III)) state, but reduced (Fe(II)) form is soluble. It was further reasoned that the bacteria might be able to reduce Fe(III) through direct metabolic activity, which uses iron as an electron acceptor. Here we ...


The Impact Of Stand Age And Fertilization On The Soil Microbiome Of Miscanthus × Giganteus, Lanying Ma, Fernando Igne Rocha, Jaejin Lee, Jinlyung Choi, Mauricio Tejera, Thanwalee Sooksa-Nguan, Nicholas Boersma, Andy Vanloocke, Emily Heaton, Adina Howe Jan 2021

The Impact Of Stand Age And Fertilization On The Soil Microbiome Of Miscanthus × Giganteus, Lanying Ma, Fernando Igne Rocha, Jaejin Lee, Jinlyung Choi, Mauricio Tejera, Thanwalee Sooksa-Nguan, Nicholas Boersma, Andy Vanloocke, Emily Heaton, Adina Howe

Agronomy Publications

Yield of the perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus has shown an inconsistent and unpredictable response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet fertilization underpins the crop’s environmental and economic sustainability. The interactions among soil microbial communities, N availability, and Miscanthus × giganteus and management may explain changes in plant productivity. In this study, soil samples from different stand ages of Miscanthus × giganteus in a replicated chronosequence field trial were used to investigate the effects of stand age and N fertilizer rates on microbial community structure. We hypothesized that there is a definable Miscanthus × giganteus soil microbiome and that this community varies significantly with ...


Impact Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Conyza Canadensis Drought Responses And Possible Mechanisms, Kian G.M. Speck, Ylva Lekberg, Anna Sala Jan 2021

Impact Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Conyza Canadensis Drought Responses And Possible Mechanisms, Kian G.M. Speck, Ylva Lekberg, Anna Sala

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important plant mutualists that can facilitate plant responses to various environmental stressors, such as drought. A plant that may benefit from AMF-induced drought tolerance is Conyza canadensis due to its ability to thrive in dry conditions and its high colonization rate. However, no studies have researched C. canadensis in this context and the exact mechanisms of AMF-induced drought tolerance are still unknown.
  • To better understand if and how AMF facilitate drought response in C. canadensis, we conducted a greenhouse experiment comparing the response of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants to three watering levels. We measured dry ...


Continuous In Situ Soil Nitrate Sensors: The Importance Of High‐Resolution Measurements Across Time And A Comparison With Salt Extraction‐Based Methods, Yunjiao Zhu, Yuncong Chen, Md. Azahar Ali, Liang Dong, Xinran Wang, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, James C. Schnable, Michael J. Castellano Jan 2021

Continuous In Situ Soil Nitrate Sensors: The Importance Of High‐Resolution Measurements Across Time And A Comparison With Salt Extraction‐Based Methods, Yunjiao Zhu, Yuncong Chen, Md. Azahar Ali, Liang Dong, Xinran Wang, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, James C. Schnable, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Soil NO3– affects microbial processes, plant productivity, and environmental N losses. However, the ability to measure soil NO3– is limited by labor‐intensive sampling and laboratory analyses. Hence, temporal variation in soil solution NO3– concentration is poorly understood. We evaluated a new potentiometric sensor that continuously measures soil solution NO3– concentration with unprecedented specificity due to a novel membrane that serves as a barrier to interfering anions. First, we compared sensor and salt extraction‐based measurements of soil NO3– in well‐controlled laboratory conditions. Second, using 60 d of in situ soil NO3– measurements every 10 s, we quantified temporal ...


Biological Control And Microbial Ecology Draft Genome Sequence Data Of Glutamicibacter Sp. Fbe-19, A Bacterium Antagonistic To The Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila, Benzhong Fu, Olakunle Olawole, Gwyn A. Beattie Jan 2021

Biological Control And Microbial Ecology Draft Genome Sequence Data Of Glutamicibacter Sp. Fbe-19, A Bacterium Antagonistic To The Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila, Benzhong Fu, Olakunle Olawole, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Glutamicibacter sp.FBE-19 was isolated based on its strong antagonism to the cucurbit bacterial blight pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila on plates. Members of the Glutamicibacter genus can promote plant growth under saline conditions and antagonize fungi on plates via chitinolytic activity; however, their production of antibacterial compounds has not been examined. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain FBE-19. The genome is 3.85 Mbp with a G+C content of 60.1% and comprises 3,791 genes. Genes that may contribute to its antagonistic activity include genes for the secondary metabolites stenothricin, salinosporamide A, a second β-lactone compound, and ...


Investigating The Impact Of Environmentally Relevant Imidazole Concentrations On The Antifungal Susceptibility And Community Composition Of Soil Fungi, Farhaan Kanji Dec 2020

Investigating The Impact Of Environmentally Relevant Imidazole Concentrations On The Antifungal Susceptibility And Community Composition Of Soil Fungi, Farhaan Kanji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miconazole and clotrimazole are environmentally-persistent drugs that are entrained into crop soils through the application of biosolids. There is concern that environmental exposure to such azole antifungals, which inhibit fungal growth by disrupting the production of the fungal cell membrane component ergosterol, promotes resistance in clinically or agriculturally relevant fungi. Thus, either environmentally-relevant or excessive levels of these drugs were applied to microplots over ten years and compared with drug-free plots. Overall, ergosterol quantification, plates counts, and identification of >250 fungal isolates showed lower fungal counts and species richness in plots receiving excessive drug amounts. In addition, fungi from treated ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel Dec 2020

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu Dec 2020

Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

Parasites and pathogens have significant roles in host population control, and thus host-parasite interactions affect biodiversity. The important question reviewed in this paper is how changes in temperature due to climate change affect host-parasite interactions. There is mounting evidence that elevated temperatures have both beneficial and detrimental effects on parasites and independently on hosts. These independent changes result in altered host-parasite dynamics through various mechanisms. If elevated temperatures enhance parasite survival, risk of disease transmission among hosts is enhanced as well. This enhancement is dependent on temperature-induced shifts in the host lifecycle, as asynchrony in host and parasite development can ...