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Robustness Of The Healthcare Utilization Results From The Rotavirus Efficacy And Safety Trial (Rest) Evaluating The Human-Bovine (Wc3) Reassortant Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine (Rv5), Robbin Itzler, Gary Koch, David O. Matson, Leif Gothefors, Pierre Van Damme, Mark J. DiNubile, Penny M. Heaton 2010 Old Dominion University

Robustness Of The Healthcare Utilization Results From The Rotavirus Efficacy And Safety Trial (Rest) Evaluating The Human-Bovine (Wc3) Reassortant Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine (Rv5), Robbin Itzler, Gary Koch, David O. Matson, Leif Gothefors, Pierre Van Damme, Mark J. Dinubile, Penny M. Heaton

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Background: The Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial was a placebo-controlled Phase III study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a three-dose pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) including its effect on healthcare utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). The per-protocol (PP) analyses, which counted events occurring 14 days after dose 3 among infants without protocol violations, have already been published. This paper evaluates the consistency of the healthcare utilization results based on the modified intention to treat (MITT) analyses with the PP analyses. The MITT analyses include all infants receiving at least one dose of vaccine or placebo and follow-up begins after …


Method For Identification Of Virulence Determinants, Raul G. Barletta, Beth Harris 2010 Lincoln, NE

Method For Identification Of Virulence Determinants, Raul G. Barletta, Beth Harris

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Disclosed are methods for the determination of virulence determinants in bacteria and in particular bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. Also disclosed are compositions and methods for stimulating an immune response in an animal using bacteria and virulence determinants identified by the methods of the present invention.


Ectoparasites Of Bats In Mongolia (Ischnopsyllidae, Nycteribiidae, Cimicidae And Spinturnicidae), Ingo Sceffler, Dietrich Dolch, Jargalsaikhan Ariunbold, Nyamsuren Batsajchan, Andreas Abraham, Klaus Thiele 2010 University of Potsdam

Ectoparasites Of Bats In Mongolia (Ischnopsyllidae, Nycteribiidae, Cimicidae And Spinturnicidae), Ingo Sceffler, Dietrich Dolch, Jargalsaikhan Ariunbold, Nyamsuren Batsajchan, Andreas Abraham, Klaus Thiele

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

For large parts of the world, the knowledge of bat ectoparasites is still scanty. Regarding Mongolia, only few studies exist to date. This paper analyzes results from extensive captures between 2005-2008, carried out in different sites of Mongolia. Discussed ectoparasites include bat fleas, (Ischnopsyllidae), bat flies (Nycteribiidae), and bat bugs (Cimicidae) and spinturnicid mites (Spinturnicidae). A number of species found in this study were new records for Mongolia, and for many species additional sites were reported. For some bat species, the spectrum and frequency of larger ectoparasites could be determined for the first time.


Distribution Of Fleas (Siphonaptera) In Bird-Nests, Bird Siphonaptera On Mammalia And The Medical Importance Of Interspecific Flea Transmission In Mongolia, Daniel Kiefer, K. Pfister, D. Tserennorov, D. Otgonbaatar, Ravčigijn Samjaa, D. Sumjaa, E. G. Burmeister, Mathias S. Kiefer 2010 Ludwig-Maximilians-University

Distribution Of Fleas (Siphonaptera) In Bird-Nests, Bird Siphonaptera On Mammalia And The Medical Importance Of Interspecific Flea Transmission In Mongolia, Daniel Kiefer, K. Pfister, D. Tserennorov, D. Otgonbaatar, Ravčigijn Samjaa, D. Sumjaa, E. G. Burmeister, Mathias S. Kiefer

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Starting in the 1960s of the last century a huge amount of material from mammals and birds was collected in Mongolia. The according results were published in Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei, Volume 1-10, and represented on conferences in Halle, Moscow, Irkutsk, Ulaanbaatar, Bratislava and the Entomological Review St. Petersburg.

A big part of the collected material consisted of ectoparasites analyzed by experts from Mongolia, Germany, England, Russia, Poland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia resulting in newly described species along with zoogeographical and ecological profiles.

During the years 1974-2007 material from 321 nests of 38 bird taxa were obtained. 157 …


Current State Of Ixodidae Research In Mongolia, Daniel Kiefer, K. Pfister, D. Tserennorov, G. Bolormaa, D. Otgonbaatar, Ravčigijn Samjaa, E. G. Burmeister, Mathias S. Kiefer 2010 Ludwig-Maximilians-University

Current State Of Ixodidae Research In Mongolia, Daniel Kiefer, K. Pfister, D. Tserennorov, G. Bolormaa, D. Otgonbaatar, Ravčigijn Samjaa, E. G. Burmeister, Mathias S. Kiefer

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

Our research presents the Ixodidae-fauna in Mongolia. The current taxonomic state in Mongolia shows 19 Ixodidae taxa extracted in 308 locations from 115 bird and mammal species. In 1980, the species Ixodes persulcatus SCHULZE, 1930 and Ixodes berlesei Birula, 1895 were detected in Inget Tolgoi and Ixodes laguri OLENEV, 1929 on Meriones unguiculatus 10 km southeast of Ulaanbaatar for the first time. In 2000 the species Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844 was detected in the Selenge-river area and Argas (Argas) vulgaris FILIPPOVA, 1961 was detected in the Gobi area. From the collection of M. and A. STUBBE 1 N …


How Birds Combat Ectoparasites, Dale H. Clayton, Jennifer A. H. Koop, Christopher W. Harbison, Brett R. Moyer, Sarah E. Bush 2010 University of Utah

How Birds Combat Ectoparasites, Dale H. Clayton, Jennifer A. H. Koop, Christopher W. Harbison, Brett R. Moyer, Sarah E. Bush

H. W. Manter Laboratory Library Materials

Birds are plagued by an impressive diversity of ectoparasites, ranging from feather-feeding lice, to feather-degrading bacteria. Many of these ectoparasites have severe negative effects on host fitness. It is therefore not surprising that selection on birds has favored a variety of possible adaptations for dealing with ectoparasites. The functional significance of some of these defenses has been well documented. Others have barely been studied, much less tested rigorously. In this article we review the evidence--or lack thereof--for many of the purported mechanisms birds have for dealing with ectoparasites. We concentrate on features of the plumage and its components, as well …


New Species In The Genus Monoecocesuts (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) From Neotropical Rodents (Caviidae And Sigmodontidae), Terry Haverkost, Scott Lyell Gardner 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

New Species In The Genus Monoecocesuts (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) From Neotropical Rodents (Caviidae And Sigmodontidae), Terry Haverkost, Scott Lyell Gardner

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

Anoplocephalid cestodes have a worldwide distribution, but relatively few species are known from South American rodents. By examining the collections of the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology and the United States National Parasite Collection, 6 new species of Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914, are described, along with a redescription of Monoecocestus mackiewiczi Schmidt and Martin, 1978, based on the type specimens. The discussion includes commentary about uterine development, an important taxonomic character of the family, the vaginal dilation in immature segments (a character of potential taxonomic importance), and the implication of host usage to the evolutionary history and biogeography of species …


Genbank, Dennis A. Benson, Ilene Karasch-Mizrachi, David J. Lipman, James Ostell, Eric W. Sayers 2010 United States National Library of Medicine

Genbank, Dennis A. Benson, Ilene Karasch-Mizrachi, David J. Lipman, James Ostell, Eric W. Sayers

H. W. Manter Laboratory Library Materials

GenBank(R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 380,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data …


Induction Of Interferon And Interferon Signaling Pathways By Replication Of Defective Interfering Particle Rna In Cells Constitutively Expressing Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication Proteins, Debasis Panda, Phat X. Dinh, Lalit Beura, Asit K. Pattnaik 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Induction Of Interferon And Interferon Signaling Pathways By Replication Of Defective Interfering Particle Rna In Cells Constitutively Expressing Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication Proteins, Debasis Panda, Phat X. Dinh, Lalit Beura, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

We show here that replication of defective interfering (DI) particle RNA in HEK293 cells stably expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication proteins potently activates interferon (IFN) and IFN signaling pathways through upregulation of IFN- promoter, IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter, and NF-κB promoter activities. Replication of DI particle RNA, not mere expression of the viral replication proteins, was found to be critical for induction of IFN and IFN signaling. The stable cells supporting replication of DI RNA described in this report will be useful in further examining the innate immune signaling pathways and the host cell functions in viral genome …


Immunomodulatory Effect Of Host And Fungal Eicosanoids During Host-Pathogen Interactions With Candida Albicans, Gitanjali Kundu 2010 Wayne State University

Immunomodulatory Effect Of Host And Fungal Eicosanoids During Host-Pathogen Interactions With Candida Albicans, Gitanjali Kundu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, poses a significant clinical threat to immunocompromised patients. Diseases associated with this fungus ranges from superficial mucosal infection to life-threatening systemic candidiasis. The mechanisms by which Candida persists at mucosal surfaces in the face of an adaptive response are unclear. Candida produces immunomodulatory oxylipins that cross-react functionally with host eicosanoids, which are considered to play important role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Our objective was to characterize the role of prostaglandins produced by the host and this fungus during host pathogen interactions, both in vitro with dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, and …


Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Hematopoietic cell lineages are best described in terms of distinct progenitors with limited differentiative capacity. To distinguish cell lineages, it is necessary to define progenitors and induce their differentiation in vitro. We previously reported in vitro development of immature dendritic-like cells (DCs) in long-term cultures (LTCs) of murine spleen, and in cocultures of spleen or bone marrow (BM) over splenic endothelial cell lines derived from LTCs. Cells produced are phenotypically distinct CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)CD8(-)MHC-II(-) cells, tentatively named L-DCs. Here we delineate L-DC progenitors as different from known DC progenitors in BM and DC precursors in spleen. The progenitor is contained within the …


The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson 2009 University of Rhode Island

The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson

David R. Nelson

Background: The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a limited-genome organism that must obtain many of its biochemical building blocks, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), from its tick or vertebrate host. GlcNAc can be imported into the cell as a monomer or dimer (chitobiose), and the annotation for several B. burgdorferi genes suggests that this organism may be able to degrade and utilize chitin, a polymer of GlcNAc. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to utilize chitin in the absence of free GlcNAc, and we attempted to identify genes involved in the process. We also examined the …


Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Dendritic cells (DC) are known to develop from macrophage dendritic progenitors (MDP) in bone marrow (BM), which give rise to conventional (c)DC and monocytes, both dominant antigen presenting cell (APC) subsets in spleen. This laboratory has however defined a distinct dendritic-like cell subset in spleen (L-DC), which can also be derived in long-term cultures of spleen. In line with the restricted in vitro development of only L-DC in these stromal cultures, we questioned whether self-renewing HSC or progenitors exist in spleen with restricted differentiative capacity for only L-DC. Neonatal spleen and BM were compared for their ability to reconstitute mice …


Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Background Spleen as a lymphoid tissue is specialized for monitoring blood and mounting immunity against blood-borne antigens. Antigen-presenting cells present in spleen commonly develop from bone marrow-derived precursors that enter blood circulation. However, a distinct splenic myeloid antigen-presenting cell subset described in this laboratory, namely “dendritic-like cells” (L-DC), has been hypothesized not to share a bone marrow origin. Methods In this study, the presence of endogenous hematopoietic progenitors in spleen was investigated by transplanting intact spleen into allotype-distinct recipients and monitoring development of progeny cells in grafted tissues. Results Successful engraftment of donor spleens was achieved for up to 4 …


Contributions Of Francisella Tularensis Subsp. Novicida Chitinases And Sec Secretion System To Biofilm Formation On Chitin, Jeffrey J. Margolis, Sahar H. El-Etr, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Emily Moore, Richard Robinson, Amy Rasley, Alfred M. Spormann, Denise M. Monack 2009 Stanford University School of Medicine

Contributions Of Francisella Tularensis Subsp. Novicida Chitinases And Sec Secretion System To Biofilm Formation On Chitin, Jeffrey J. Margolis, Sahar H. El-Etr, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Emily Moore, Richard Robinson, Amy Rasley, Alfred M. Spormann, Denise M. Monack

Jeffrey Margolis

Francisella tularensis, the zoonotic cause of tularemia, can infect numerous mammals and other eukaryotes.
Although studying F. tularensis pathogenesis is essential to comprehending disease, mammalian infection is
just one step in the ecology of Francisella species. F. tularensis has been isolated from aquatic environments and
arthropod vectors, environments in which chitin could serve as a potential carbon source and as a surface for
attachment and growth. We show that F. tularensis subsp. novicida forms biofilms during the colonization of
chitin surfaces. The ability of F. tularensis to persist using chitin as a sole carbon source is dependent on
chitinases, …


Prevalence Of Scabies And Head Lice Among Children In A Welfare Home In Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Jamaiah Ibrahim 2009 University of Malaya

Prevalence Of Scabies And Head Lice Among Children In A Welfare Home In Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Jamaiah Ibrahim

Jamaiah Ibrahim

This is a survey of 120 children for scabies and head lice infestations in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang. Children from this welfare home (Rumah Kanak-Kanak Taman Bakti, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) were randomly selected. Majority of them were Malays (72.5%) and the rest were Indians. The infestation rates were highest in the 10-12 years age group with 46% and 70% for scabies and head lice respectively. Head lice was more commonly seen in girls (65%) than boys (29%). Scabies was more commonly seen in boys (50%) than girls (16%). Overall prevalence rate for scabies was 31% and for …


An Intervention To Prevent Symptoms Associated With Hepatitis C: A Pilot Study, Donna M. Zucker 2009 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

An Intervention To Prevent Symptoms Associated With Hepatitis C: A Pilot Study, Donna M. Zucker

Donna M. Zucker

The objectives of this study were to (a) pilot test instruments measuring fatigue and quality of life (QOL); (b) pilot test an exercise intervention; and (c) estimate the effect size of this intervention relative to completion of combination therapy, fatigue, QOL, and walking distance in 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C about to begin interferon alpha and ribavirin treatment. Alpha reliabilities for both the Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and Hepatitis Quality of Life Questionnaire were moderately high. Power analyses of all outcome measures indicated a small effect size and sample size estimate of 30–40 per group to achieve power of …


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