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Immunology of Infectious Disease Commons

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Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two …


Enterobactin-Based Immune Interventions Against Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, Huiwen Wang 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Enterobactin-Based Immune Interventions Against Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, Huiwen Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Enterobactin (Ent)-mediated iron acquisition is critical for many Gram-negative bacteria to survive in the host. Given the bacteriostatic effect of lipocalin-2 resulting from its potent Ent-binding ability, immune interventions directly targeting Ent is a promising antimicrobial strategy against Gram-negative bacterial infections. Moreover, hyperimmune egg yolk antibody is an emerging passive immune agent for the control of bacterial infections. Oral administration of anti-Ent egg yolk antibody may confer passive immune protection against Ent-dependent enteric pathogens. In this dissertation study, multidisciplinary approaches in conjunction with different model systems (in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo) were used to …


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in …


Insights To Protein Pathogenicity From The Lens Of Protein Evolution, Janelle Nunez-Castilla 2022 Florida International University

Insights To Protein Pathogenicity From The Lens Of Protein Evolution, Janelle Nunez-Castilla

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As protein sequences evolve, differences in selective constraints may lead to outcomes ranging from sequence conservation to structural and functional divergence. Evolutionary protein family analysis can illuminate which protein regions are likely to diverge or remain conserved in sequence, structure, and function. Moreover, nonsynonymous mutations in pathogens may result in the emergence of protein regions that affect the behavior of pathogenic proteins within a host and host response. I aimed to gain insight on pathogenic proteins from cancer and viruses using an evolutionary perspective. First, I examined p53, a conformationally flexible, multifunctional protein mutated in ~50% of human cancers. Multifunctional …


Maternal Responses In The Face Of Infection Risk, Patricia C. Lopes, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Chathuni Liyanage, Ursula K. Beattie, L. Michael Romero 2022 Chapman University

Maternal Responses In The Face Of Infection Risk, Patricia C. Lopes, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Chathuni Liyanage, Ursula K. Beattie, L. Michael Romero

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When animals are sick, their physiology and behavior change in ways that can impact their offspring. Research is emerging showing that infection risk alone can also modify the physiology and behavior of healthy animals. If physiological responses to environments with high infection risk take place during reproduction, it is possible that they lead to maternal effects. Understanding whether and how high infection risk triggers maternal effects is important to elucidate how the impacts of infectious agents extend beyond infected individuals and how, in this way, they are even stronger evolutionary forces than already considered. Here, to evaluate the effects of …


Mathematical Model Of Immune-Inflammatory Response In Covid-19 Patients, Quiyana M. Murphy 2022 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mathematical Model Of Immune-Inflammatory Response In Covid-19 Patients, Quiyana M. Murphy

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Fine-Mapping Of Human Antibody Specificity In Response To Natural Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection Utilized To Inform Vaccines Against Adhesion Factors, Amanda L. Collar 2022 University of New Mexico

Fine-Mapping Of Human Antibody Specificity In Response To Natural Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection Utilized To Inform Vaccines Against Adhesion Factors, Amanda L. Collar

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the causative pathogen for the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and can cause serious medical consequences in women, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. For these reasons, a Ct vaccine is urgently needed, yet, its development remains a significant challenge. One barrier to producing a Ct vaccine is the gap in knowledge of protective immune responses for Ct infection, including the role that antibodies may play. Therefore, I aimed to characterize the human antibody response to natural urogenital Ct infection in women using Deep Sequence-Coupled Biopanning. Further, I leveraged these findings to …


Innate Immunity In The Pathobiology And Treatment Of Infectious And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Mai Mostafa 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Innate Immunity In The Pathobiology And Treatment Of Infectious And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Mai Mostafa

Theses & Dissertations

Mononuclear phagocytes (MPs; monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) are the governors of innate immunity which is the body’s first line of defense against microbial pathogens. They act beneficial or detrimental. They are crucial for an effective non-specific immune response to invading pathogens by engulfing, destroying, then eliciting an adaptive specific immune response. Given their pivotal functions in the host immune defense, studying MP immune responses in disease is paramount important for understanding disease pathobiology and uncovering therapeutic strategies.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the driver of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst …


Gut Commensals Modulate Siv/Shiv Pathogenesis And Therapeutics, Samuel Johnson 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Gut Commensals Modulate Siv/Shiv Pathogenesis And Therapeutics, Samuel Johnson

Theses & Dissertations

Despite significant advancements in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), ongoing inflammation in the brain and gut remain two of the most significant hurdles in the health of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Additionally, a viral reservoir in each compartment inhibits cure efforts by allowing rapid viral rebound following cART interruption. Emerging understanding of the gut-brain axis (GBA) implicates each compartment in the modulation of the other in a complex bi-directional interaction mediated by vagus innervation, circulating lymphocytes, and microbiome composition and biproducts. Using multiple models of the simian (and simian-human) immunodeficiency virus (SIV/SHIV) and therapeutic intervention, I present how …


Evaluation Of The Humoral/Fc-Mediated Immune Responses To An Adenovirus-26 Viral Vector/Gp140 Subunit Combined Vaccine Regimen As A Prophylactic Hiv-1, Nathan E. Adam 2022 Cedarville University

Evaluation Of The Humoral/Fc-Mediated Immune Responses To An Adenovirus-26 Viral Vector/Gp140 Subunit Combined Vaccine Regimen As A Prophylactic Hiv-1, Nathan E. Adam

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Background and Introduction: HIV is one of the most problematic pandemics to date, currently infecting upwards of 38 million people worldwide (“The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic,” 2020). Although infection and mortality rates have generally decreased, current prophylactic (preventive) measures against HIV-1 acquisition have shown major weaknesses that could be remedied with a vaccine (Pitisuttuthum & Marovich, 2020). Manufacturing an effective, prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, however, is not without challenges - namely design/selection of vaccine-delivered immunogens (antigens) and elicitation of proper immune responses to HIV-1 antigens (Ng’uni et al., 2020). Fortunately, despite past, unsuccessful research, studies within the past 10-15 years have begun …


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing …


Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research efforts were directed toward the structure and functionality of a protein, designated SpoIIE [11], which previously has been shown to regulate C. difficile peptide utilization in addition to sporulation and toxin release. The SpoIIE protein is found in all spore-forming gram-positive bacteria and is a crucial component in activation of transcription factors and septum formation thus affecting the regulation and timing of spore development [11,12]. A truncated form of the SpoIIE protein named SpoIIE∆TM was used in an effort to determine the structure of an important but uncharacterized linker domain of the protein. If the structure and specific …


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 …


Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner 2022 Clemson University

Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner

All Theses

Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus found ubiquitously in the environment including in the air we breathe. Though not a threat to most people, immunodeficient or immunosuppressed individuals are at risk for developing severe infection, including the life-threatening condition of invasive aspergillosis. The hematopoietic cell specific GTPase protein Rac2 is associated with major roles in innate immune defense. Currently Rac2 has been demonstrated to be crucial for survival against a variety of infections. Here, we use a rac2 null mutant zebrafish line and morpholino approaches to elucidate roles of Rac2 in mounting the macrophage host defense response against A. fumigatus infection. …


A Mechanistic Study On The Immunological Effects Of A Novel Anti-Schistosomal Compound, Caleb M. Sandall, Paul H. Davis 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A Mechanistic Study On The Immunological Effects Of A Novel Anti-Schistosomal Compound, Caleb M. Sandall, Paul H. Davis

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Schistosomiasis is a condition caused by a parasitic worm infection that is one of the primary neglected tropical diseases. It infects approximately 250 million people every year, and it causes the second largest economic impact from any parasitic disease. There exists a treatment for Schistosomiasis; however, it is ineffective against the juvenile stages of the worm. A novel drug has been developed that has been illustrated to have efficacy against all stages of worm infection. However, before this drug can be utilized, its method of action must be determined. Preliminary single cell transcriptomic data from our lab suggests that our …


Covid Susceptibility And Severity Correlation With The Ace2 Gene, Natalie Taylor 2022 University of Southern Maine

Covid Susceptibility And Severity Correlation With The Ace2 Gene, Natalie Taylor

Thinking Matters Symposium

A wide spectrum of susceptibility and severity of infection has been observed among COVID-19 patients. While some individuals remain unaffected by the Sars-Cov-2 virus, others have contracted the virus multiple times with varying levels of severity. This poster reviews some of the research demonstrating a link between the susceptibility of the Sars-Cov- 2 virus and the severity of infection, and a specific gene called ACE2. The ACE2 gene encodes an angiotensin-converting enzyme that acts as a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain of the coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. ACE2 presents numerous amino acid variants …


Physician's Attitudes On Pulmonary Rehabilitation Following Covid-19: A Brief Perspective From A Developing Country, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Felix, María José Farfán Bajaña, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho, Alanna Barrios-Ruiz, Jack Michel 2022 Universidad Espíritu Santo, Samborondón, Ecuador

Physician's Attitudes On Pulmonary Rehabilitation Following Covid-19: A Brief Perspective From A Developing Country, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda, Emanuel Vanegas, Miguel Felix, María José Farfán Bajaña, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Genesis Camacho, Alanna Barrios-Ruiz, Jack Michel

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Despite the uncertainty about the follow up of COVID-19 survivors, there is a growing body of evidence supporting specific interventions including pulmonary rehabilitation, which may lead to a reduced hospital stay and improved overall respiratory function. The aim of this short report was to assess the attitudes toward pulmonary rehabilitation following COVID-19 among Ecuadorian physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which a 5-question survey was used to assess the level of agreement to specific statements with a 5-point Likert scale. Out of the 282 participants, 48.2% (n=136) were male, with a mean of 12.6 (SD=11.3) years of experience. More …


Understanding Exosomal Extracellular Vesicles And Morphine In The Neuropathology Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Differential Zika Virus Strain-Associated Pathology, Allen Caobi 2022 Florida International University

Understanding Exosomal Extracellular Vesicles And Morphine In The Neuropathology Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Differential Zika Virus Strain-Associated Pathology, Allen Caobi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exosomal Extracellular Vesicles (xEVs), integral to intercellular communication and regulation of immune responses, have functional effects based on their contents, which they transport to neighboring cells. However, in the context of infection, EV cargo can be modulated, by either infected or uninfected cells. We hypothesize that CNS-associated neuropathology, is partially, due to the cargo transported by the exosomes. We theorize that the cargo released from infected cell-derived xEVs may either facilitate or inhibit viral neuropathogenicity. Here we investigated xEVs in the case of two neurotropic viruses, Zika virus (ZIKV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The hallmark characteristic of ZIKV-infection is …


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses …


Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl 2022 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Meta-Analysis Of Transcriptomic Datasets For The Investigation Of Differential Expression In Hantavirus-Infected Human Tissue, John Krapohl

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


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