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Impact Of The C-Mybe308g Mutation On Mouse Myelopoiesis And Dendritic Cell Development, Peter Papathanasiou, Sawang Petvises, Ying-Ying Hey, Andrew C Perkins, Helen C O'Neill 2017 Australian National University

Impact Of The C-Mybe308g Mutation On Mouse Myelopoiesis And Dendritic Cell Development, Peter Papathanasiou, Sawang Petvises, Ying-Ying Hey, Andrew C Perkins, Helen C O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Booreana mice carrying the c-Myb308G point mutation were analyzed to determine changes in early hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and among mature cells in the periphery. This point mutation led to increased numbers of early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), with a subsequent reduction in the development of B cells, erythroid cells, and neutrophils, and increased numbers of myeloid cells and granulocytes. Myelopoiesis was further investigated by way of particular subsets affected. A specific question addressed whether booreana mice contained increased numbers of dendritic-like cells (L-DC subset) recently identified in the spleen, since L-DCs arise in vitro by direct ...


Compartmentalized Camp Responses To Prostaglandin Ep2 Receptor Activation In Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells, Shailesh R. Agarwal, Kathryn Miyashiro, Htun Latt, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Robert D. Harvey 2017 University of Nevada, Reno

Compartmentalized Camp Responses To Prostaglandin Ep2 Receptor Activation In Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells, Shailesh R. Agarwal, Kathryn Miyashiro, Htun Latt, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Robert D. Harvey

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background and Purpose

Previous studies indicate that prostaglandin EP2 receptors (EP2Rs) selectively couple to adenylyl cyclase type 2 (AC2) in non-lipid raft domains of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, where they regulate specific cAMP-dependent responses. The goal of the present study was to identify the cellular microdomains where EP2Rs stimulate cAMP production.

Experimental Approach

FRET-based cAMP biosensors were targeted to different subcellular locations of primary human ASM cells. The Epac2-camps biosensor, which expresses throughout the cell, was used to measure bulk cytoplasmic responses. Epac2-MyrPalm and Epac2-CAAX were used to measure responses associated with lipid raft and non-raft regions of the ...


Novel Oncogenic Roles And Regulations Of Histone Demethylase Phf8 In Prostate Cancer, Peterson Kariuki Maina 2017 University of Iowa

Novel Oncogenic Roles And Regulations Of Histone Demethylase Phf8 In Prostate Cancer, Peterson Kariuki Maina

Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in American men. Although initial androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) confers a five year survival rate of 99%, the relapse of metastatic and drug resistant PCa (CRPC- Castration-Resistant PCa) continues to account for most deaths. How certain PCa cells develop into CRPC is the key question in the field. In addressing it, attention has focused on epigenetic factors that contribute to CRPC development. Herein we investigated the role and regulation of histone demethylase PHF8 during PCa neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) and progression into CRPC. We utilized bioinformatic analyses and biochemical approaches in PCa/CRPC ...


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


The Localization And Function Of Novel Tetrahymena Thermophila Cytoskeletal Genes Bbc29 And Bbc39, Emily K. Moore, Nicole C. Zanolli 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Localization And Function Of Novel Tetrahymena Thermophila Cytoskeletal Genes Bbc29 And Bbc39, Emily K. Moore, Nicole C. Zanolli

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Ciliary function is known to play an important role in many human conditions, including chronic sinus and pulmonary diseases and problems with infertility. Cilia are cytoskeletal structures that protrude from the cell body to facilitate movement. Ciliary structure is conserved throughout eukaryotes, from unicellular to multicellular organisms, including humans. A clear understanding the proteins that compose cilia and how they interact with one another will increase our knowledge about important cytoskeletal elements. Because cilia are difficult to study in multicellular organisms, the unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila serves as a useful model for the study of cytoskeletal genes, due to their ...


Rapamycin Increases Length And Mechanosensory Function Of Primary Cilia In Renal Eptihelial And Vascular Endothelial Cells, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Viviana P. Ferreira, Surya M. Nauli 2016 Chapman University

Rapamycin Increases Length And Mechanosensory Function Of Primary Cilia In Renal Eptihelial And Vascular Endothelial Cells, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Viviana P. Ferreira, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia arebiophysically-sensitive organelles responsible for sensing fluid-flow and transducing this stimulus into intracellular responses. Previous studies have shown that the primary cilia mediate flow-induced calcium influx, and sensitivity of cilia function to flow is correlated to cilia length. Cells with abnormal cilia length or function can lead to a host of diseases that are collectively termed as ciliopathies. Rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), has been demonstrated to be a potential pharmacological agent against the aberrant mTOR signaling seen in ciliopathies such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Here we look ...


Visualizing A Plant Cell, Rudaba R. Hasan 2016 Siddiqui’s International School

Visualizing A Plant Cell, Rudaba R. Hasan

The STEAM Journal

Why visualizing science is important, especially as a school student.


Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2016 University of Toledo

Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Although primary cilia have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of embryonic mouse heart, their presence and function in adult mouse heart remains controversial. In this study, the presence of primary cilia in adult mouse heart was investigated. The presence of primary cilia was initially demonstrated in the surface of cardiac cells of mouse hearts from both young and adult mice by immunostaining with acetylated α-tubulin, a ciliary structural marker. The presence of cardiac primary cilia in 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month old mice was further confirmed by staining heart tissues with an antibody against pericentrin, a ...


Leukocyte Telomere Length In Relation To 17 Biomarkers Of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study Of Us Adults, David Rehkopf, Belinda L. Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth Blackburn, Ami R. Zota, Janet Wojcicki, Elissa Epel 2016 George Washington University

Leukocyte Telomere Length In Relation To 17 Biomarkers Of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study Of Us Adults, David Rehkopf, Belinda L. Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth Blackburn, Ami R. Zota, Janet Wojcicki, Elissa Epel

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a putative biological marker of immune system age, and there are demonstrated associations between LTL and cardiovascular disease. This may be due in part to the relationship of LTL with other biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, the strength of associations between LTL and adiposity, metabolic, proinflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers has not been systematically evaluated in a United States nationally representative population.

Methods and Findings

We examined associations between LTL and 17 cardiovascular biomarkers, including lipoproteins, blood sugar, circulatory pressure, proinflammatory markers, kidney function, and adiposity measures, in adults ages 20 to 84 ...


Peroxiredoxin Catalysis At Atomic Resolution, Arden Perkins, Derek Parsonage, Kimberly J. Nelson, O. Maduka Ogba, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Leslie B. Poole, P. Andrew Karplus 2016 Oregon State University

Peroxiredoxin Catalysis At Atomic Resolution, Arden Perkins, Derek Parsonage, Kimberly J. Nelson, O. Maduka Ogba, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Leslie B. Poole, P. Andrew Karplus

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous cysteine-based peroxidases that guard cells against oxidative damage, are virulence factors for pathogens, and are involved in eukaryotic redox regulatory pathways. We have analyzed catalytically active crystals to capture atomic resolution snapshots of a PrxQ-subfamily enzyme (from Xanthomonas campestris) proceeding through thiolate, sulfenate, and sulfinate species. These analyses provide structures of unprecedented accuracy for seeding theoretical studies, and show novel conformational intermediates giving insight into the reaction pathway. Based on a highly non-standard geometry seen for the sulfenate intermediate, we infer that the sulfenate formation itself can strongly promote local unfolding of the active site to ...


Adult Stem Cells In The Trachea And Tracheal Submucosal Glands, Thomas John Lynch 2016 University of Iowa

Adult Stem Cells In The Trachea And Tracheal Submucosal Glands, Thomas John Lynch

Theses and Dissertations

Breathing is essential for human life, yet tens of millions of people in the U.S. alone suffer from lung diseases. With each breath, lungs are exposed to the external environment. Inhaled air first passes through the trachea, bronchi, and finally the bronchioles before it reaches the alveoli where gases are exchanged. A barrier of epithelial cells protects the airways. In addition, epithelial glands also secrete protein-rich fluids onto the airway surfaces to help maintain sterility. Injury, disease, or other factors can damage these cells, and regiospecific stem cells (SCs) can divide to replace them. However, many important details about ...


The Clinical, Biochemical And Genetic Features Associated With Rmnd1-Related Mitochondrial Disease., Yi Shiau Ng, Charlotte L Alston, Daria Diodato, Andrew A Morris, Nicole Ulrick, Stanislav Kmoch, +several additional authors 2016 George Washington University

The Clinical, Biochemical And Genetic Features Associated With Rmnd1-Related Mitochondrial Disease., Yi Shiau Ng, Charlotte L Alston, Daria Diodato, Andrew A Morris, Nicole Ulrick, Stanislav Kmoch, +Several Additional Authors

Neurology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the RMND1 (Required for Meiotic Nuclear Division protein 1) gene have recently been linked to infantile onset mitochondrial disease characterised by multiple mitochondrial respiratory chain defects.

METHODS: We summarised the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic investigation of an international cohort of affected individuals with RMND1 mutations. In addition, we reviewed all the previously published cases to determine the genotype-phenotype correlates and performed survival analysis to identify prognostic factors.

RESULTS: We identified 14 new cases from 11 pedigrees that harbour recessive RMND1 mutations, including 6 novel variants: c.533C>A, p.(Thr178Lys); c.565C>T, p.(Gln189*); c ...


Neddylation Promotes Stress Granule Assembly, Aravinth Kumar Jayabalan, Anthony Sanchez, Ra Young Park, Sang Pil Yoon, Gum-Yong Kang, Je-Hyun Baek, Paul Anderson, Younghoon Kee, Takbum Ohn 2016 Chosun University

Neddylation Promotes Stress Granule Assembly, Aravinth Kumar Jayabalan, Anthony Sanchez, Ra Young Park, Sang Pil Yoon, Gum-Yong Kang, Je-Hyun Baek, Paul Anderson, Younghoon Kee, Takbum Ohn

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ibonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do ...


Genetic Analysis Reveals A Hierarchy Of Interactions Between Polycystin-Encoding Genes And Genes Controlling Cilia Function During Left-Right Determination, Daniel T. Grimes, Jennifer L. Keynton, Maria T. Buenavista, Xingjian Jin, Saloni H. Patel, Shinohara Kyosuke, Jennifer Vibert, Debbie J. Williams, Hiroshi Hamada, Rohana Hussain, Surya M. Nauli, Dominic P. Norris 2016 MRC Harwell

Genetic Analysis Reveals A Hierarchy Of Interactions Between Polycystin-Encoding Genes And Genes Controlling Cilia Function During Left-Right Determination, Daniel T. Grimes, Jennifer L. Keynton, Maria T. Buenavista, Xingjian Jin, Saloni H. Patel, Shinohara Kyosuke, Jennifer Vibert, Debbie J. Williams, Hiroshi Hamada, Rohana Hussain, Surya M. Nauli, Dominic P. Norris

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This ‘nodal flow’ is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we ...


Hypertonicity: Pathophysiologic Concept And Experimental Studies, Christos Argyropoulos, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Dominic S. Raj, Deepak Malhotra, Emmanuel I. Agaba, +5 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Hypertonicity: Pathophysiologic Concept And Experimental Studies, Christos Argyropoulos, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Dominic S. Raj, Deepak Malhotra, Emmanuel I. Agaba, +5 Additional Authors

Medicine Faculty Publications

Disturbances in tonicity (effective osmolarity) are the major clinical disorders affecting cell volume. Cell shrinking secondary to hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and even death. Quantitative management of hypertonic disorders is based on formulas computing the volume of hypotonic fluids required to correct a given level of hypertonicity. These formulas have limitations. The major limitation of the predictive formulas is that they represent closed system calculations and have been tested in anuric animals. Consequently, the formulas do not account for ongoing fluid losses during development or treatment of the hypertonic disorders. In addition, early comparisons of serum osmolality changes predicted ...


New Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Dental Epithelial Stem Cell Maintenance, Growth And Craniofacial Morphogenesis, Zhao Sun 2016 University of Iowa

New Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Dental Epithelial Stem Cell Maintenance, Growth And Craniofacial Morphogenesis, Zhao Sun

Theses and Dissertations

The regenerative tissues such as hair follicles, intestine and teeth have a particular microenvironment known as “stem cell niche” which houses stem cells and act as a signaling center to control stem cell fate. The precise and timely regulation of stem cell renewal and differentiation is essential for tissue formation, growth and homeostasis over the course of a lifetime. However, the molecular underpinning to control this regulation is poorly understood. To address this issue, we use the continuously growing mouse incisor as a model to study the gene regulatory network which controls dental epithelial stem cell (DESC) maintenance, growth and ...


Ampa-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery In Premature Rabbits With Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Preeti Dohare, Muhammad T. Zia, Ehsan Ahmed, Asad Ahmed, Vivek Yadala, Praveen Ballabh 2016 New York Medical College

Ampa-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery In Premature Rabbits With Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Preeti Dohare, Muhammad T. Zia, Ehsan Ahmed, Asad Ahmed, Vivek Yadala, Praveen Ballabh

NYMC Faculty Publications

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants leads to cerebral inflammation, reduced myelination of the white matter, and neurological deficits. No therapeutic strategy exists against the IVH-induced white matter injury. AMPA-kainate receptor induced excitotoxicity contributes to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) damage and hypomyelination in both neonatal and adult models of brain injury. Here, we hypothesized that IVH damages white matter via AMPA receptor activation, and that AMPA-kainate receptor inhibition suppresses inflammation and restores OPC maturation, myelination, and neurologic recovery in preterm newborns with IVH. We tested these hypotheses in a rabbit model of glycerol-induced IVH and evaluated the expression of AMPA ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky 2016 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of these preparatory course set of learning objectives is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

These 40+ learning objectives to prepare for Human Anatomy and Physiology can be downloaded and played in a desktop, or laptop (windows exe file).

The entire course has four parts:

Each learning objective is followed by a set of multiple choice question similar to those found later in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course.

The organization and ...


Polycaprolactone Microfibrous Scaffolds To Navigate Neural Stem Cells, Farrokh Sharifi, Bhavika B. Patel, Adam K. Dzuilko, Reza Montazami, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Nastaran Hashemi 2016 Iowa State University

Polycaprolactone Microfibrous Scaffolds To Navigate Neural Stem Cells, Farrokh Sharifi, Bhavika B. Patel, Adam K. Dzuilko, Reza Montazami, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Nastaran Hashemi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Fibrous scaffolds have shown promise in tissue engineering due to their ability to improve cell alignment and migration. In this paper, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers are fabricated in different sizes using a microfluidic platform. By using this approach, we demonstrated considerable flexibility in ability to control the size of the fibers. It was shown that the average diameter of the fibers was obtained in the range of 2.6–36.5 μm by selecting the PCL solution flow rate from 1 to 5 μL min–1 and the sheath flow rate from 20 to 400 μL min–1 in the ...


Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox 2015 University of Maine

Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory study investigated three aspects of introductory undergraduate biology students’ understanding about cells. The study, which took place at the University of Maine with voluntary students in Basic Biology (“BIO100”) in the summer and fall of 2009, examined (1) students’ pre-course perceptions of cells as they exist in a living context and (2) gains in students’ perception and knowledge about cells after completing the one-semester course (BIO100). Results are based on lecture exam scores, pre-post surveys developed as a part of this thesis, and interviews with two groups of biology students. A total of 498 students participated in the ...


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