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Articles 1 - 30 of 138

Full-Text Articles in Cell Anatomy

Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang Aug 2022

Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa2.x) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The activation of KCa2.3 channels induces hyperpolarization, which augments Ca2+ signaling in endothelial cells. Cilia are specialized Ca2+ signaling compartments. Here, we identified compound 4 that potentiates human KCa2.3 channels selectively. The subtype selectivity of compound 4 for human KCa2.3 over rat KCa2.2a channels relies on an isoleucine residue in the HA/HB helices. Positive modulation of KCa2.3 channels by compound 4 increased flow-induced Ca2 ...


Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons May 2022

Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations ...


The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez Apr 2022

The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez

Thinking Matters Symposium

In a clinical setting, some patients are exposed to an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, paclitaxel. Cancerous cells undergo rapid, continuous cell division without control. Chemotherapy treatments try to slow and stop the uncontrollable cell division cycles and eliminate cancerous cells in the process. Paclitaxel serves as a treatment for some types of cancers, including lung, melanoma, bladder, and esophageal. Because it targets the cytoskeleton, paclitaxel can also influence cell migration. This project utilizes a cellular migration assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to analyze the effects of paclitaxel on the movement of cells and on the cytoskeleton of neuroglia rat cells with ...


Utilization Of Bioinformatics And Immunocytochemistry To Examine Gap Junction Expression In Breast Cancers Cells, Jasmine D. Carter, Giovanni Reyes, Abeeha K. Choudhary, Eric A. Albrecht Apr 2022

Utilization Of Bioinformatics And Immunocytochemistry To Examine Gap Junction Expression In Breast Cancers Cells, Jasmine D. Carter, Giovanni Reyes, Abeeha K. Choudhary, Eric A. Albrecht

Symposium of Student Scholars

Utilization of Bioinformatics and Immunocytochemistry to Examine Gap Junction Expression in Breast Cancers Cells.

Jasmine D. Carter1, Giovanni Reyes1, Abeeha Choudhary2 and Eric A. Albrecht1

Breast cancer is known for its diverse clinical classifications and expressing different levels of membrane proteins such as ion channels and gap junctions. This diversity allows more variations in cell polarization, which can lead to enhanced directional ion fluxes in certain breast cancer subtypes. We utilized the interactive web portal UALCAN to evaluate the gene expression data of gap junctions, ion exchange channels and cytoskeletal proteins in breast cancer tissues. Our ...


Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra Apr 2022

Feasibility Of Tubulin As A Control For Gene Expression Following Transfection In Mouse Monocyte/Macrophage-Like Cells, Ankita Chabra

St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects

Transfection, which is the ability to modify host cells’ genetic content, has broad application in studying normal cellular processes, molecular mechanism of disease and gene therapy. There are several transfection techniques, and all require either a control or a reference gene. Commonly used controls for transfection experiments are housekeeping genes, which maintain expression for a given cell/tissue, experimental conditions, and treatment. However, recent research has uncovered that expression levels of housekeeping genes may vary depending on the gene, cell type and experimental conditions. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that housekeeping genes are inadequate internal standards for measuring gene ...


Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran Feb 2022

Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole Jan 2022

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli Dec 2021

Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ciliary extracellular vesicles (ciEVs), released from primary cilia, contain functional proteins that play an important role in cilia structure and functions. We have recently shown that ciEVs and cytosolic extracellular vesicles (cyEVs) have unique and distinct biomarkers. While ciEV biomarkers have shown some interactions with known ciliary proteins, little is known about the interaction of ciEV proteins with proteins involved in ciliopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we reveal for the first time the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the top five ciEVs biomarkers with ciliopathy and Alzheimer disease (AD) proteins. These results support the growing evidence of the critical physiological roles ...


Cryo-Em Structure Of Mechanosensitive Channel Ynai Using Sma2000: Challenges And Opportunities, Claudio Catalano, Danya Ben-Hail, Weihua Qiu, Paul Blount, Amedee Des Georges, Youzhong Guo Oct 2021

Cryo-Em Structure Of Mechanosensitive Channel Ynai Using Sma2000: Challenges And Opportunities, Claudio Catalano, Danya Ben-Hail, Weihua Qiu, Paul Blount, Amedee Des Georges, Youzhong Guo

Publications and Research

Mechanosensitive channels respond to mechanical forces exerted on the cell membrane and play vital roles in regulating the chemical equilibrium within cells and their environment. Highresolution structural information is required to understand the gating mechanisms of mechanosensitive channels. Protein-lipid interactions are essential for the structural and functional integrity of mechanosensitive channels, but detergents cannot maintain the crucial native lipid environment for purified mechanosensitive channels. Recently, detergent-free systems have emerged as alternatives for membrane protein structural biology. This report shows that while membrane-active polymer, SMA2000, could retain some native cell membrane lipids on the transmembrane domain of the mechanosensitive-like YnaI channel ...


Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel Oct 2021

Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel

Masters Theses

All cells carry the genetic machinery required to commit cell suicide; a process known as programmed cell death (PCD). While the ability to initiate PCD serves a number of useful purposes during development and homeostasis, misregulation of PCD is the underlying basis of most human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity disorders and neurodegeneration. Using the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta as a model organism, the Schwartz lab at UMass has demonstrated that PCD requires de novo gene expression and has cloned many death-associated genes. One of these genes encodes a novel protein that was named Acheron after one of the rivers of ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky Aug 2021

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan May 2021

The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan

Honors Scholar Theses

Many types of cells crawl on solid surfaces by amoeboid locomotion. Membrane protrusions, such as pseudopods, are generated by outward directed forces and the cell body retracts to allow the cell to migrate on the surface. The movement can be random, or can be directional in response to diffusible (chemotaxis) or surface associated signals (haptotaxis). It has been known for some time that chemotactic signals also lead to an increase in overall cell speed (chemokinesis), however the mechanism of this speed increase is unknown. This project investigates the cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell speed by ligands ...


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell May 2021

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich May 2021

Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich

Student Theses and Dissertations

Although non-essential, glycine plays an important role in major metabolic reactions and is most known for its anti-inflammatory effects. An accumulation of contemporary research has shown that glycine is able to stabilize membrane potential using glycine receptors at the cellular level and to protect mitochondrial function directly, whether it is from inflammation, heavy metal poisoning, or ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. In this research, the existence of a hypothetical mitochondrial glycine receptor is examined. Immunofluorescence imaging was used to examine the presence of the glycine receptor subunits alpha 1 and alpha 2 in both non- differentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines. The preliminary ...


Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison Apr 2021

Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison

Campus Research Day

I will be presenting a research study on the comparison of the histology of normal skin versus the histology of individuals with Psoriasis.


Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan Feb 2021

Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Regulatory RNAs contribute to gene expression control in bacteria. Antisense RNAs (asRNA) are a class of regulatory RNAs that are transcribed from opposite strands of their target genes. Typically, these untranslated transcripts bind to cognate mRNAs and rapidly regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this article, we review asRNAs that modulate bacterial fitness and increase virulence. We chose examples that underscore the variety observed in nature including, plasmid- and chromosome-encoded asRNAs, a riboswitch-regulated as RNA, and as RNAs that require other RNAs or RNA binding proteins for stability and activity. We explore how as RNAs improve bacterial fitness ...


Patterns Of Cilia Gene Dysregulations In Major Psychiatric Disorders, Wedad Alhassen, Siwei Chen, Marquis Vawter, Brianna Kay Robbins, Henry Nguyen, Thant Nyi Myint, Yumiko Saito, Anton Schulmann, Surya M. Nauli, Olivier Civelli, Pierre Baldi, Amal Alachkar Jan 2021

Patterns Of Cilia Gene Dysregulations In Major Psychiatric Disorders, Wedad Alhassen, Siwei Chen, Marquis Vawter, Brianna Kay Robbins, Henry Nguyen, Thant Nyi Myint, Yumiko Saito, Anton Schulmann, Surya M. Nauli, Olivier Civelli, Pierre Baldi, Amal Alachkar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia function as cells' antennas to detect and transduce external stimuli and play crucial roles in cell signaling and communication. The vast majority of cilia genes that are causally linked with ciliopathies are also associated with neurological deficits, such as cognitive impairments. Yet, the roles of cilia dysfunctions in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders have not been studied. Our aim is to identify patterns of cilia gene dysregulation in the four major psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD). For this purpose, we acquired differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the ...


Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman Jan 2021

Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Human subtelomeric DNA regulates the length and stability of adjacent telomeres that are critical for cellular function, and contains many gene/pseudogene families. Large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and associated structural variation in human subtelomeres has made complete sequencing and assembly of these regions difficult to impossible for many loci, complicating or precluding a wide range of genetic analyses to investigate their function.

Results: We present a hybrid assembly method, NanoPore Guided REgional Assembly Tool (NPGREAT), which combines Linked-Read data with ultralong nanopore reads spanning subtelomeric segmental duplications to potentially overcome these difficulties. Linked-Read sets identified by matches with ...


Unconventional Constituents And Shared Molecular Architecture Of The Melanized Cell Wall Of C. Neoformans And Spore Wall Of S. Cerevisiae, Christine Chrissian, Coney Pei-Chin Lin, Emma Camacho, Arturo Casadevall, Aaron M. Neiman, Ruth E. Stark Dec 2020

Unconventional Constituents And Shared Molecular Architecture Of The Melanized Cell Wall Of C. Neoformans And Spore Wall Of S. Cerevisiae, Christine Chrissian, Coney Pei-Chin Lin, Emma Camacho, Arturo Casadevall, Aaron M. Neiman, Ruth E. Stark

Publications and Research

The fungal cell wall serves as the interface between the cell and the environment. Fungal cell walls are composed largely of polysaccharides, primarily glucans and chitin, though in many fungi stress-resistant cell types elaborate additional cell wall structures. Here, we use solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare the architecture of cell wall fractions isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae spores and Cryptococcus neoformans melanized cells. The specialized cell walls of these two divergent fungi are highly similar in composition. Both use chitosan, the deacetylated derivative of chitin, as a scaffold on which a polyaromatic polymer, dityrosine and melanin, respectively, is assembled ...


Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari Oct 2020

Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway possesses immense potential in silencing any gene in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes. FDA Approval of siRNA therapeutics in recent years garnered a new hope in siRNA therapeutics. However, their therapeutic use is limited by several challenges. siRNAs, being negatively charged, are membrane-impermeable and highly unstable in the systemic circulation. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the extracellular barriers, including enzymatic degradation of siRNAs by serum endonucleases and RNAases, rapid renal clearance, membrane impermeability, and activation of the immune system. Besides, we have thoroughly described ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De Sep 2020

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham Aug 2020

Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar Jul 2020

Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Cyp1a-Mediated Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylation Activity In The Rat Kidney Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ethoxyresorufin (ER)-O-deethylation (EROD) activity has been widely used to assess cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity. The kinetics of CYP1A activity have been well characterized in the liver microsomes. However, studies in kidney microsomes are limited due to the much lower EROD activity in this organ. Here, we developed and validated a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the characterization of the EROD activity in the rat kidney microsomes. In a 50 µL reaction mixture, rat kidney microsomes (0.25 mg/mL) were incubated with ER (0.1–5 µM) and NADPH (1 mM) for 10 min. Acidic solvents, such ...


Allosteric Regulation At The Crossroads Of New Technologies: Multiscale Modeling, Networks, And Machine Learning, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Guang Hu, Peng Tao Jul 2020

Allosteric Regulation At The Crossroads Of New Technologies: Multiscale Modeling, Networks, And Machine Learning, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Guang Hu, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Allosteric regulation is a common mechanism employed by complex biomolecular systems for regulation of activity and adaptability in the cellular environment, serving as an effective molecular tool for cellular communication. As an intrinsic but elusive property, allostery is a ubiquitous phenomenon where binding or disturbing of a distal site in a protein can functionally control its activity and is considered as the “second secret of life.” The fundamental biological importance and complexity of these processes require a multi-faceted platform of synergistically integrated approaches for prediction and characterization of allosteric functional states, atomistic reconstruction of allosteric regulatory mechanisms and discovery of ...


Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli Jun 2020

Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are shown to have membrane swelling, also known as ciliary bulbs. However, the role of these structures and their physiological relevance remains unknown. Here, it is reported that a ciliary bulb has extracellular vesicle (EV)‐like characteristics. The ciliary extracellular‐like vesicle (cELV) has a unique dynamic movement and can be released by mechanical fluid force. To better identify the cELV, differential multidimensional proteomic analyses are performed on the cELV. A database of 172 cELV proteins is generated, and all that examined are confirmed to be in the cELV. Repressing the expression of these proteins in vitro and ...


Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah Jun 2020

Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Entamoeba spp. in particular E.histolytica is the main reason of human amoebiasis. The molecular mechanism of its pathogenicity is poorly understood, therefore the aim this study is to investigate these mechanism on both molecular and ultrastructure levels. Tight junction (TJ) genes Claudin-1 (Cldn1) and Occludin (Ocln) were investigated by real time PCR and the pathological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the result showed that the gene expression levels of TJ genes were significantly high in rats infected with E. histolytica E. dispar and E. moshkovskii after 28, 14, 7 days in compare with ...


Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli May 2020

Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that regulate cell cycle and signaling pathways. In addition to its association with cancer, dysfunction of primary cilia is responsible for the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and other ciliopathies. Because the association between cilia formation or length and cell cycle or division is poorly understood, we here evaluated their correlation in this study. Using Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) technique, we showed that PKD and the cancer/tumorigenic epithelial cells PC3, DU145, and NL20-TA were associated with abnormal ploidy. We also showed that PKD and the cancer epithelia were highly proliferative. Importantly, the cancer epithelial ...


Mitochondrial Deletions And Their Disease-Causing Effects, Austin Bell May 2020

Mitochondrial Deletions And Their Disease-Causing Effects, Austin Bell

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The mitochondria perform a plethora of important functions within the cell, with one of the most paramount being ATP production. Deregulation of its function can have dire consequences on cellular functions. Mutations such as deletions within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause disease within the patients affected. These diseases often affect children, causing symptoms such as gradual loss of eyesight and hearing, diabetes, and other problems that lower the quality of life. The mitochondria are also very dynamic organelles that undergo rounds of fission and fusion to keep up with the metabolic needs of cells, necessitating a homeostatic balance between ...


Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles Isolated From Human Milk Using A Precipitation-Based Method, Diana C. Bickmore, John Miklavcic Mar 2020

Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles Isolated From Human Milk Using A Precipitation-Based Method, Diana C. Bickmore, John Miklavcic

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EV) function in intercellular communication, and those in human milk may confer immunologic benefits to infants. Methods of EV isolation such as ultracentrifugation (UC) may not be feasible for the study of EVs in human milk due to the need for large sample volume. A technique to isolate EVs from a small volume of human milk using a precipitation reagent is described herein. Electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and semi-quantitative antibody array were conducted to confirm isolation of human milk EVs. Count, size, protein content, and fatty acid quantification of EVs were determined. This isolation technique yielded 8 ...


Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis Jan 2020

Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Acidosis is a key driver for many diseases, including cancer, sepsis, and stroke. The spatiotemporal dynamics of dysregulated pH across disease remain elusive, and current diagnostic strategies do not provide localization of pH alterations. We sought to explore if PET imaging using hydrophobic cyclic peptides that partition into the cellular membrane at low extracellular pH (denoted as pH [low] insertion cycles, or pHLIC) can permit accurate in vivo visualization of acidosis. Methods: Acid-sensitive cyclic peptide c[E4W5C] pHLIC was conjugated to bifunctional maleimide-NO2A and radiolabeled with 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h). C57BL/6J mice were ...