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Articles 1 - 30 of 140

Full-Text Articles in Cell Anatomy

The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan May 2021

The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan

Honors Scholar Theses

Many types of cells crawl on solid surfaces by amoeboid locomotion. Membrane protrusions, such as pseudopods, are generated by outward directed forces and the cell body retracts to allow the cell to migrate on the surface. The movement can be random, or can be directional in response to diffusible (chemotaxis) or surface associated signals (haptotaxis). It has been known for some time that chemotactic signals also lead to an increase in overall cell speed (chemokinesis), however the mechanism of this speed increase is unknown. This project investigates the cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell speed by ligands ...


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell May 2021

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich May 2021

Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich

Student Theses

Although non-essential, glycine plays an important role in major metabolic reactions and is most known for its anti-inflammatory effects. An accumulation of contemporary research has shown that glycine is able to stabilize membrane potential using glycine receptors at the cellular level and to protect mitochondrial function directly, whether it is from inflammation, heavy metal poisoning, or ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. In this research, the existence of a hypothetical mitochondrial glycine receptor is examined. Immunofluorescence imaging was used to examine the presence of the glycine receptor subunits alpha 1 and alpha 2 in both non- differentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines. The preliminary ...


Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison Apr 2021

Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison

Campus Research Day

I will be presenting a research study on the comparison of the histology of normal skin versus the histology of individuals with Psoriasis.


Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan Feb 2021

Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Regulatory RNAs contribute to gene expression control in bacteria. Antisense RNAs (asRNA) are a class of regulatory RNAs that are transcribed from opposite strands of their target genes. Typically, these untranslated transcripts bind to cognate mRNAs and rapidly regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this article, we review asRNAs that modulate bacterial fitness and increase virulence. We chose examples that underscore the variety observed in nature including, plasmid- and chromosome-encoded asRNAs, a riboswitch-regulated as RNA, and as RNAs that require other RNAs or RNA binding proteins for stability and activity. We explore how as RNAs improve bacterial fitness ...


Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari Oct 2020

Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway possesses immense potential in silencing any gene in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes. FDA Approval of siRNA therapeutics in recent years garnered a new hope in siRNA therapeutics. However, their therapeutic use is limited by several challenges. siRNAs, being negatively charged, are membrane-impermeable and highly unstable in the systemic circulation. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the extracellular barriers, including enzymatic degradation of siRNAs by serum endonucleases and RNAases, rapid renal clearance, membrane impermeability, and activation of the immune system. Besides, we have thoroughly described ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De Sep 2020

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham Aug 2020

Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Allosteric Regulation At The Crossroads Of New Technologies: Multiscale Modeling, Networks, And Machine Learning, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Guang Hu, Peng Tao Jul 2020

Allosteric Regulation At The Crossroads Of New Technologies: Multiscale Modeling, Networks, And Machine Learning, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Guang Hu, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Allosteric regulation is a common mechanism employed by complex biomolecular systems for regulation of activity and adaptability in the cellular environment, serving as an effective molecular tool for cellular communication. As an intrinsic but elusive property, allostery is a ubiquitous phenomenon where binding or disturbing of a distal site in a protein can functionally control its activity and is considered as the “second secret of life.” The fundamental biological importance and complexity of these processes require a multi-faceted platform of synergistically integrated approaches for prediction and characterization of allosteric functional states, atomistic reconstruction of allosteric regulatory mechanisms and discovery of ...


Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli Jun 2020

Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are shown to have membrane swelling, also known as ciliary bulbs. However, the role of these structures and their physiological relevance remains unknown. Here, it is reported that a ciliary bulb has extracellular vesicle (EV)‐like characteristics. The ciliary extracellular‐like vesicle (cELV) has a unique dynamic movement and can be released by mechanical fluid force. To better identify the cELV, differential multidimensional proteomic analyses are performed on the cELV. A database of 172 cELV proteins is generated, and all that examined are confirmed to be in the cELV. Repressing the expression of these proteins in vitro and ...


Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah Jun 2020

Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Entamoeba spp. in particular E.histolytica is the main reason of human amoebiasis. The molecular mechanism of its pathogenicity is poorly understood, therefore the aim this study is to investigate these mechanism on both molecular and ultrastructure levels. Tight junction (TJ) genes Claudin-1 (Cldn1) and Occludin (Ocln) were investigated by real time PCR and the pathological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the result showed that the gene expression levels of TJ genes were significantly high in rats infected with E. histolytica E. dispar and E. moshkovskii after 28, 14, 7 days in compare with ...


Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli May 2020

Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that regulate cell cycle and signaling pathways. In addition to its association with cancer, dysfunction of primary cilia is responsible for the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and other ciliopathies. Because the association between cilia formation or length and cell cycle or division is poorly understood, we here evaluated their correlation in this study. Using Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) technique, we showed that PKD and the cancer/tumorigenic epithelial cells PC3, DU145, and NL20-TA were associated with abnormal ploidy. We also showed that PKD and the cancer epithelia were highly proliferative. Importantly, the cancer epithelial ...


Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles Isolated From Human Milk Using A Precipitation-Based Method, Diana C. Bickmore, John Miklavcic Mar 2020

Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles Isolated From Human Milk Using A Precipitation-Based Method, Diana C. Bickmore, John Miklavcic

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EV) function in intercellular communication, and those in human milk may confer immunologic benefits to infants. Methods of EV isolation such as ultracentrifugation (UC) may not be feasible for the study of EVs in human milk due to the need for large sample volume. A technique to isolate EVs from a small volume of human milk using a precipitation reagent is described herein. Electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and semi-quantitative antibody array were conducted to confirm isolation of human milk EVs. Count, size, protein content, and fatty acid quantification of EVs were determined. This isolation technique yielded 8 ...


Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis Jan 2020

Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Acidosis is a key driver for many diseases, including cancer, sepsis, and stroke. The spatiotemporal dynamics of dysregulated pH across disease remain elusive, and current diagnostic strategies do not provide localization of pH alterations. We sought to explore if PET imaging using hydrophobic cyclic peptides that partition into the cellular membrane at low extracellular pH (denoted as pH [low] insertion cycles, or pHLIC) can permit accurate in vivo visualization of acidosis. Methods: Acid-sensitive cyclic peptide c[E4W5C] pHLIC was conjugated to bifunctional maleimide-NO2A and radiolabeled with 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h). C57BL/6J mice were ...


Mitochondrial Utilization Of Competing Fuels Is Altered In Insulin Resistant Skeletal Muscle Of Non-Obese Rats (Goto-Kakizaki), Nicola Lai, Ciarán E. Fealy, Chinna M. Kummitha, Silvia Cabras, John P. Kirwan, Charles L. Hoppel Jan 2020

Mitochondrial Utilization Of Competing Fuels Is Altered In Insulin Resistant Skeletal Muscle Of Non-Obese Rats (Goto-Kakizaki), Nicola Lai, Ciarán E. Fealy, Chinna M. Kummitha, Silvia Cabras, John P. Kirwan, Charles L. Hoppel

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Aim: Insulin-resistant skeletal muscle is characterized by metabolic inflexibility with associated alterations in substrate selection, mediated by peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor 𝜹 (PPAR𝜹). Although it is established that PPAR𝜹 contributes to the alteration of energy metabolism, it is not clear whether it plays a role in mitochondrial fuel competition. While nutrient overload may impair metabolic flexibility by fuel congestion within mitochondria, in absence of obesity defects at a mitochondrial level have not yet been excluded. We sought to determine whether reduced PPAR𝜹 content in insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle of a non-obese rat model of T2DM (Goto-Kakizaki, GK) ameliorate the inhibitory effect ...


Bone Morphogenic Proteins Are Immunoregulatory Cytokines Controlling Foxp3+ TReg Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Caroline Miller, Michal Kuczma, Maciej Pietrzak, Yu Jing, Grzegorz Rempala, Pawel Muranski, Leszek Ignatowicz, Piotr Kraj Jan 2020

Bone Morphogenic Proteins Are Immunoregulatory Cytokines Controlling Foxp3+ TReg Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Caroline Miller, Michal Kuczma, Maciej Pietrzak, Yu Jing, Grzegorz Rempala, Pawel Muranski, Leszek Ignatowicz, Piotr Kraj

Bioelectrics Publications

Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) cytokine family promoting differentiation, homeostasis, and self-renewal of multiple tissues. We show that signaling through the bone morphogenic protein receptor 1α (BMPR1α) sustains expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. BMPR1α signaling promotes molecular circuits supporting acquisition and preservation of Treg cell phenotype and inhibiting differentiation of pro-inflammatory effector Th1/Th17 CD4+ T cell. Mechanistically, increased expression of KDM6B (JMJD3) histone demethylase, an antagonist of the polycomb repressive complex 2, underlies lineage-specific changes of T cell phenotypes associated with abrogation of BMPR1α ...


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett Jan 2020

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a unique mosaic ...


Why Did The Eisenhower Administration Decide To Deploy Jupiter Missiles In Turkey: A Case Study In Nuclearization Of Nato Strategy, Murat Iplikci Nov 2019

Why Did The Eisenhower Administration Decide To Deploy Jupiter Missiles In Turkey: A Case Study In Nuclearization Of Nato Strategy, Murat Iplikci

Theses and Dissertations

Looking out at the international political landscape of the late 1940s and the early 1950s, the Eisenhower administration was determined to challenge the evident appeal of Communism, particularly in Western Europe. NATO, which was a fragile organization due to the devastation of World War II (WWII), and its members were prone to any communist attack, either by military forces or through political parties. They had to be defended. The Eisenhower administration saw nuclear weapons as the only means to defend the alliance against the massive threat of the Soviet Union. Therefore, President Eisenhower committed nuclear weapons to NATO as a ...


Histology Atlas: Basic Mammalian Tissue Types (Biol 105), Joshua Barnes, Daniel J. Yakubov, Corinna Singleman, Nathalia G. Holtzman Aug 2019

Histology Atlas: Basic Mammalian Tissue Types (Biol 105), Joshua Barnes, Daniel J. Yakubov, Corinna Singleman, Nathalia G. Holtzman

Open Educational Resources

This book is a guide to the basic histology lab conducted as a part of the Queens College, CUNY Biology Department Bio105 General Biology: Physiology and Cell Biology course. This course is the first half our two-part series for biology majors. The actives are designed to be conducted over a single 3-hour lab periods which focus on the relationship of form and function of the cellular and organ level anatomy and physiology. Step by step instructions for each slide set are provided for all the key organs.

In addition to the full text of the book, we also provide a ...


Fetal Pig Dissection Manual (Biol 105), Nathalia G. Holtzman, Daniel J. Yakubov Aug 2019

Fetal Pig Dissection Manual (Biol 105), Nathalia G. Holtzman, Daniel J. Yakubov

Open Educational Resources

This book is a guide to the basic fetal pig dissection conducted as a part of the Queens College, CUNY Biology Department Bio105 General Biology: Physiology and Cell Biology course. This course is the first half our two-part series for biology majors. The actives are designed to be conducted over a three- 3-hour lab periods which focus on the relationship of form and function of the pig anatomy and physiology. Step by step instructions for the dissection are provided along with some microscopy tasks to look at the histology of key organs.

In addition to the full text of the ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky May 2019

Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

This document contains a list with all the Anatomy and Physiology I expected learning outcomes organized by topics, and grouped into ten units: 1. Introduction to A&P: body plan & organization; 2. Introduction to A&P: homeostasis; 3. The chemical level of organization; 4. Levels of organization: the cellular level of organization; 5. Levels of organization: the tissue level of organization; 6. Support and movement: integumentary system; 7. Support and movement: skeletal system & articulations; 8. Support and movement: muscular system; 9. Regulation, integration, and control: nervous system; 10. Regulation, integration, and control: special senses

Each learning outcome is referred to a section in the textbook “Anatomy and ...


Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli Apr 2019

Sensory Primary Cilium Is A Responsive Camp Microdomain In Renal Epithelia, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Dagmar Wachten, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like cellular extensions that sense microenvironmental signals surrounding cells. The role of adenylyl cyclases in ciliary function has been of interest because the product of adenylyl cyclase activity, cAMP, is relevant to cilia-related diseases. In the present study, we show that vasopressin receptor type-2 (V2R) is localized to cilia in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of V2R with tolvaptan increases ciliary length and mechanosensory function. Genetic knockdown of V2R, however, does not have any effect on ciliary length, although the effect of tolvaptan on ciliary length is dampened. Our study reveals that tolvaptan may have a cilia-specific ...


Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi Apr 2019

Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...


Cryo-Em Structure Of The Human Ferritin–Transferrin Receptor 1 Complex, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Claudia Testi, Pierpaolo Ceci, Elisabetta Falvo, Martina Pitea, Carmelinda Savino, Alessandro Arcovito, Giovanna Peruzzi, Paola Baiocco, Filippo Mancia, Alberto Boffi, Amédée Des Georges, Beatrice Vallone Mar 2019

Cryo-Em Structure Of The Human Ferritin–Transferrin Receptor 1 Complex, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Claudia Testi, Pierpaolo Ceci, Elisabetta Falvo, Martina Pitea, Carmelinda Savino, Alessandro Arcovito, Giovanna Peruzzi, Paola Baiocco, Filippo Mancia, Alberto Boffi, Amédée Des Georges, Beatrice Vallone

Publications and Research

Human transferrin receptor 1 (CD71) guarantees iron supply by endocytosis upon binding of iron-loaded transferrin and ferritin. Arenaviruses and the malaria parasite exploit CD71 for cell invasion and epitopes on CD71 for interaction with transferrin and pathogenic hosts were identified. Here, we provide the molecular basis of the CD71 ectodomain-human ferritin interaction by determining the 3.9 Å resolution single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structure of their complex and by validating our structural findings in a cellular context. The contact surfaces between the heavy-chain ferritin and CD71 largely overlap with arenaviruses and Plasmodium vivax binding regions in the apical part of the ...


Advances In Geometric Techniques For Analyzing Blebbing In Chemotaxing Dictyostelium Cells, Zully Santiago, John Loustau, David Meretzky, Devarshi Rawal, Derrick Brazill Feb 2019

Advances In Geometric Techniques For Analyzing Blebbing In Chemotaxing Dictyostelium Cells, Zully Santiago, John Loustau, David Meretzky, Devarshi Rawal, Derrick Brazill

Publications and Research

We present a technical platform that allows us to monitor and measure cortex and membrane dynamics during bleb-based chemotaxis. Using D. discoideum cells expressing LifeAct-GFP and crawling under agarose containing RITC-dextran, we were able to simultaneously visualize the actin cortex and the cell membrane throughout bleb formation. Using these images, we then applied edge detect to generate points on the cell boundary with coordinates in a coordinate plane. Then we fitted these points to a curve with known x and y coordinate functions. The result was to parameterize the cell outline. With the parameterization, we demonstrate how to compute data ...


Optimization Of Primary Cilia Detection In Musculoskeletal Tissue, Ragen Engel Jan 2019

Optimization Of Primary Cilia Detection In Musculoskeletal Tissue, Ragen Engel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The objective of this research project was to optimize a laboratory technique for visualizing primary cilia in musculoskeletal tissue of young swine, specifically the growth plate of long bones. This was accomplished through varying fixation procedures, antigen retrieval methods, antibody concentrations, and incubation times. By varying these parameters, a reproducible procedure was developed to examine the primary cilia in multiple tissues including ligament, fascia, and growth plate. This experiment introduced variances in fixation methods, with methanol or formalin. Paraffin and frozen embedding techniques were also varied for comparison with regards to cilia visualization. Results from the acetylated alpha tubulin (aTUB ...


The Roles Of Primary Cilia In Cardiovascular Diseases, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Maha Jamal, Qamar Alshammari, Surya M. Nauli Nov 2018

The Roles Of Primary Cilia In Cardiovascular Diseases, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Maha Jamal, Qamar Alshammari, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found in most mammalian cell types. Cilia act as sensory organelles that transmit extracellular clues into intracellular signals for molecular and cellular responses. Biochemical and molecular defects in primary cilia are associated with a wide range of diseases, termed ciliopathies, with phenotypes ranging from polycystic kidney disease, liver disorders, mental retardation, and obesity to cardiovascular diseases. Primary cilia in vascular endothelia protrude into the lumen of blood vessels and function as molecular switches for calcium (Ca2+) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling. As mechanosensory organelles, endothelial cilia are involved in blood flow sensing. Dysfunction in endothelial ...


Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. Mckendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira Oct 2018

Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. Mckendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mechanical signaling involved in molecular interactions lies at the heart of materials science and biological systems, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we use nanomechanical sensors and intact human cells to provide unique insights into the signaling pathways of connectivity networks, which deliver the ability to probe cells to produce biologically relevant, quantifiable and reproducible signals. We quantify the mechanical signals from malignant cancer cells, with 10 cells per ml in 1000-fold excess of non-neoplastic human epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that a direct link between cells and molecules creates a continuous connectivity which acts like a percolating ...


Unravelling The Structure Of Glycosyl Cations Via Cold-Ion Infrared Spectroscopy, Eike Mucha, Mateusz Marianski, Fei-Fei Xu, Daniel A. Thomas, Gerard Meijer, Gert Von Helden, Peter H. Seeberger, Kevin Pagel Oct 2018

Unravelling The Structure Of Glycosyl Cations Via Cold-Ion Infrared Spectroscopy, Eike Mucha, Mateusz Marianski, Fei-Fei Xu, Daniel A. Thomas, Gerard Meijer, Gert Von Helden, Peter H. Seeberger, Kevin Pagel

Publications and Research

Glycosyl cations are the key intermediates during the glycosylation reaction that covalently links building blocks during the synthetic assembly of carbohydrates. The exact structure of these ions remained elusive due to their transient and short-lived nature. Structural insights into the intermediate would improve our understanding of the reaction mechanism of glycosidic bond formation. Here, we report an in-depth structural analysis of glycosyl cations using a combination of cold-ion infrared spectroscopy and first-principles theory. Participating C2 protective groups form indeed a covalent bond with the anomeric carbon that leads to C1-bridged acetoxonium-type structures. The resulting bicyclic structure strongly distorts the ring ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan Aug 2018

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...