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The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Regulation Of Chemokinesis By The Soil Amoeba, Dictyostelium Discoideum, Julia Horan

Honors Scholar Theses

Many types of cells crawl on solid surfaces by amoeboid locomotion. Membrane protrusions, such as pseudopods, are generated by outward directed forces and the cell body retracts to allow the cell to migrate on the surface. The movement can be random, or can be directional in response to diffusible (chemotaxis) or surface associated signals (haptotaxis). It has been known for some time that chemotactic signals also lead to an increase in overall cell speed (chemokinesis), however the mechanism of this speed increase is unknown. This project investigates the cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell speed by ligands ...


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell 2021 Bellarmine University

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich 2021 City University of New York (CUNY)

Mitochondrial Distribution Of Glycine Receptors In Motor Neuron Cell Lines, Katsiaryna Milashevich

Student Theses

Although non-essential, glycine plays an important role in major metabolic reactions and is most known for its anti-inflammatory effects. An accumulation of contemporary research has shown that glycine is able to stabilize membrane potential using glycine receptors at the cellular level and to protect mitochondrial function directly, whether it is from inflammation, heavy metal poisoning, or ischemia-induced neuroinflammation. In this research, the existence of a hypothetical mitochondrial glycine receptor is examined. Immunofluorescence imaging was used to examine the presence of the glycine receptor subunits alpha 1 and alpha 2 in both non- differentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines. The preliminary ...


Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison 2021 Southern Adventist University

Histology Of Psoriasis, Allan Roy Sison

Campus Research Day

I will be presenting a research study on the comparison of the histology of normal skin versus the histology of individuals with Psoriasis.


Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan 2021 University of Michigan

Modulation Of Bacterial Fitness And Virulence Through Antisense Rnas, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Regulatory RNAs contribute to gene expression control in bacteria. Antisense RNAs (asRNA) are a class of regulatory RNAs that are transcribed from opposite strands of their target genes. Typically, these untranslated transcripts bind to cognate mRNAs and rapidly regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this article, we review asRNAs that modulate bacterial fitness and increase virulence. We chose examples that underscore the variety observed in nature including, plasmid- and chromosome-encoded asRNAs, a riboswitch-regulated as RNA, and as RNAs that require other RNAs or RNA binding proteins for stability and activity. We explore how as RNAs improve bacterial fitness ...


Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari 2020 Chapman University

Overcoming Barriers For Sirna Therapeutics: From Bench To Bedside, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Muhammad Moazzam, Shun Kato, Kayley Yeseom Cho, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway possesses immense potential in silencing any gene in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can efficiently trigger RNAi silencing of specific genes. FDA Approval of siRNA therapeutics in recent years garnered a new hope in siRNA therapeutics. However, their therapeutic use is limited by several challenges. siRNAs, being negatively charged, are membrane-impermeable and highly unstable in the systemic circulation. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the extracellular barriers, including enzymatic degradation of siRNAs by serum endonucleases and RNAases, rapid renal clearance, membrane impermeability, and activation of the immune system. Besides, we have thoroughly described ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham 2020 Purdue University

Eating Broccoli: Can It Protect Cancer Patients From Radiation Skin Damage?, Huong Pham

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Allosteric Regulation At The Crossroads Of New Technologies: Multiscale Modeling, Networks, And Machine Learning, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Guang Hu, Peng Tao 2020 Chapman University

Allosteric Regulation At The Crossroads Of New Technologies: Multiscale Modeling, Networks, And Machine Learning, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Guang Hu, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Allosteric regulation is a common mechanism employed by complex biomolecular systems for regulation of activity and adaptability in the cellular environment, serving as an effective molecular tool for cellular communication. As an intrinsic but elusive property, allostery is a ubiquitous phenomenon where binding or disturbing of a distal site in a protein can functionally control its activity and is considered as the “second secret of life.” The fundamental biological importance and complexity of these processes require a multi-faceted platform of synergistically integrated approaches for prediction and characterization of allosteric functional states, atomistic reconstruction of allosteric regulatory mechanisms and discovery of ...


Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2020 Chapman University

Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are shown to have membrane swelling, also known as ciliary bulbs. However, the role of these structures and their physiological relevance remains unknown. Here, it is reported that a ciliary bulb has extracellular vesicle (EV)‐like characteristics. The ciliary extracellular‐like vesicle (cELV) has a unique dynamic movement and can be released by mechanical fluid force. To better identify the cELV, differential multidimensional proteomic analyses are performed on the cELV. A database of 172 cELV proteins is generated, and all that examined are confirmed to be in the cELV. Repressing the expression of these proteins in vitro and ...


Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. AL-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-ulrahman Al-Tomah 2020 University of Basra,College of Science

Molecular And Ultrastructure Study Of Tight Junction During Experimental Entamoeba Spp. Infection, Athraa A. Al-Hilfi Dr, Maha Khalil Al-Malak, Shereen Jawad Al-Ali, Muslim Abd-Ulrahman Al-Tomah

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Entamoeba spp. in particular E.histolytica is the main reason of human amoebiasis. The molecular mechanism of its pathogenicity is poorly understood, therefore the aim this study is to investigate these mechanism on both molecular and ultrastructure levels. Tight junction (TJ) genes Claudin-1 (Cldn1) and Occludin (Ocln) were investigated by real time PCR and the pathological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the result showed that the gene expression levels of TJ genes were significantly high in rats infected with E. histolytica E. dispar and E. moshkovskii after 28, 14, 7 days in compare with ...


Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli 2020 Chapman University

Rapamycin Treatment Correlates Changes In Primary Cilia Expression With Cell Cycle Regulation In Epithelial Cells, Maha Jamal, Ane C.F. Nunes, Nosratola D. Vaziri, Ramani Ramchandran, Robert L. Bacallao, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are sensory organelles that regulate cell cycle and signaling pathways. In addition to its association with cancer, dysfunction of primary cilia is responsible for the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and other ciliopathies. Because the association between cilia formation or length and cell cycle or division is poorly understood, we here evaluated their correlation in this study. Using Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) technique, we showed that PKD and the cancer/tumorigenic epithelial cells PC3, DU145, and NL20-TA were associated with abnormal ploidy. We also showed that PKD and the cancer epithelia were highly proliferative. Importantly, the cancer epithelial ...


Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles Isolated From Human Milk Using A Precipitation-Based Method, Diana C. Bickmore, John Miklavcic 2020 Chapman University

Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles Isolated From Human Milk Using A Precipitation-Based Method, Diana C. Bickmore, John Miklavcic

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EV) function in intercellular communication, and those in human milk may confer immunologic benefits to infants. Methods of EV isolation such as ultracentrifugation (UC) may not be feasible for the study of EVs in human milk due to the need for large sample volume. A technique to isolate EVs from a small volume of human milk using a precipitation reagent is described herein. Electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and semi-quantitative antibody array were conducted to confirm isolation of human milk EVs. Count, size, protein content, and fatty acid quantification of EVs were determined. This isolation technique yielded 8 ...


Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis 2020 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Demarcation Of Sepsis-Induced Peripheral And Central Acidosis With Ph (Low) Insertion Cycle Peptide, Kelly E. Henry, Aisling M. Chaney, Veronica L. Nagle, Haley C. Cropper, Saghar Mozaffari, Chip Slaybaugh, Keykavous Parang, Oleg A. Andreev, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Michelle L. James, Jason S. Lewis

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Acidosis is a key driver for many diseases, including cancer, sepsis, and stroke. The spatiotemporal dynamics of dysregulated pH across disease remain elusive, and current diagnostic strategies do not provide localization of pH alterations. We sought to explore if PET imaging using hydrophobic cyclic peptides that partition into the cellular membrane at low extracellular pH (denoted as pH [low] insertion cycles, or pHLIC) can permit accurate in vivo visualization of acidosis. Methods: Acid-sensitive cyclic peptide c[E4W5C] pHLIC was conjugated to bifunctional maleimide-NO2A and radiolabeled with 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h). C57BL/6J mice were ...


Mitochondrial Utilization Of Competing Fuels Is Altered In Insulin Resistant Skeletal Muscle Of Non-Obese Rats (Goto-Kakizaki), Nicola Lai, Ciarán E. Fealy, Chinna M. Kummitha, Silvia Cabras, John P. Kirwan, Charles L. Hoppel 2020 Old Dominion University

Mitochondrial Utilization Of Competing Fuels Is Altered In Insulin Resistant Skeletal Muscle Of Non-Obese Rats (Goto-Kakizaki), Nicola Lai, Ciarán E. Fealy, Chinna M. Kummitha, Silvia Cabras, John P. Kirwan, Charles L. Hoppel

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Aim: Insulin-resistant skeletal muscle is characterized by metabolic inflexibility with associated alterations in substrate selection, mediated by peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor 𝜹 (PPAR𝜹). Although it is established that PPAR𝜹 contributes to the alteration of energy metabolism, it is not clear whether it plays a role in mitochondrial fuel competition. While nutrient overload may impair metabolic flexibility by fuel congestion within mitochondria, in absence of obesity defects at a mitochondrial level have not yet been excluded. We sought to determine whether reduced PPAR𝜹 content in insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle of a non-obese rat model of T2DM (Goto-Kakizaki, GK) ameliorate the inhibitory effect ...


Bone Morphogenic Proteins Are Immunoregulatory Cytokines Controlling Foxp3+ TReg Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Caroline Miller, Michal Kuczma, Maciej Pietrzak, Yu Jing, Grzegorz Rempala, Pawel Muranski, Leszek Ignatowicz, Piotr Kraj 2020 Old Dominion University

Bone Morphogenic Proteins Are Immunoregulatory Cytokines Controlling Foxp3+ TReg Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Caroline Miller, Michal Kuczma, Maciej Pietrzak, Yu Jing, Grzegorz Rempala, Pawel Muranski, Leszek Ignatowicz, Piotr Kraj

Bioelectrics Publications

Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) cytokine family promoting differentiation, homeostasis, and self-renewal of multiple tissues. We show that signaling through the bone morphogenic protein receptor 1α (BMPR1α) sustains expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. BMPR1α signaling promotes molecular circuits supporting acquisition and preservation of Treg cell phenotype and inhibiting differentiation of pro-inflammatory effector Th1/Th17 CD4+ T cell. Mechanistically, increased expression of KDM6B (JMJD3) histone demethylase, an antagonist of the polycomb repressive complex 2, underlies lineage-specific changes of T cell phenotypes associated with abrogation of BMPR1α ...


Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett 2020 University of Montana

Characterizing The Requirements For The Matricellular Protein, Dccn, In Nervous System Function, Elizabeth L. Catudio Garrett

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The brain is organized as a complex network of specialized neurons that communicate via a combination of electrical and chemical signals. Our brains function to generate movement, control organ function, or direct complex behaviors; all of which requires the ability to regulate the flow of communication between circuits and networks. Work in this thesis addresses two areas of neuron communication: first, how does the release of more than one neurotransmitter from a single neuron impact behavior, and second, are matricellular proteins (MCPs) key contributors to synaptic transmission and neuron function? The conserved CCN family of MCPs have a unique mosaic ...


Why Did The Eisenhower Administration Decide To Deploy Jupiter Missiles In Turkey: A Case Study In Nuclearization Of Nato Strategy, Murat Iplikci 2019 Illinois State University

Why Did The Eisenhower Administration Decide To Deploy Jupiter Missiles In Turkey: A Case Study In Nuclearization Of Nato Strategy, Murat Iplikci

Theses and Dissertations

Looking out at the international political landscape of the late 1940s and the early 1950s, the Eisenhower administration was determined to challenge the evident appeal of Communism, particularly in Western Europe. NATO, which was a fragile organization due to the devastation of World War II (WWII), and its members were prone to any communist attack, either by military forces or through political parties. They had to be defended. The Eisenhower administration saw nuclear weapons as the only means to defend the alliance against the massive threat of the Soviet Union. Therefore, President Eisenhower committed nuclear weapons to NATO as a ...


Histology Atlas: Basic Mammalian Tissue Types (Biol 105), Joshua Barnes, Daniel J. Yakubov, Corinna Singleman, Nathalia G. Holtzman 2019 CUNY Queens College

Histology Atlas: Basic Mammalian Tissue Types (Biol 105), Joshua Barnes, Daniel J. Yakubov, Corinna Singleman, Nathalia G. Holtzman

Open Educational Resources

This book is a guide to the basic histology lab conducted as a part of the Queens College, CUNY Biology Department Bio105 General Biology: Physiology and Cell Biology course. This course is the first half our two-part series for biology majors. The actives are designed to be conducted over a single 3-hour lab periods which focus on the relationship of form and function of the cellular and organ level anatomy and physiology. Step by step instructions for each slide set are provided for all the key organs.

In addition to the full text of the book, we also provide a ...


Fetal Pig Dissection Manual (Biol 105), Nathalia G. Holtzman, Daniel J. Yakubov 2019 CUNY Queens College

Fetal Pig Dissection Manual (Biol 105), Nathalia G. Holtzman, Daniel J. Yakubov

Open Educational Resources

This book is a guide to the basic fetal pig dissection conducted as a part of the Queens College, CUNY Biology Department Bio105 General Biology: Physiology and Cell Biology course. This course is the first half our two-part series for biology majors. The actives are designed to be conducted over a three- 3-hour lab periods which focus on the relationship of form and function of the pig anatomy and physiology. Step by step instructions for the dissection are provided along with some microscopy tasks to look at the histology of key organs.

In addition to the full text of the ...


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