Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Other Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

662 Full-Text Articles 2,135 Authors 86,674 Downloads 66 Institutions

All Articles in Other Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Faceted Search

662 full-text articles. Page 6 of 27.

Induction Of Oil Accumulation By Heat Stress Is Metabolically Distinct From N Stress In The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea C169, James W. Allen, Rahul Tevatia, Yaşar Demirel, Concetta C. DiRusso, Paul N. Black 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Induction Of Oil Accumulation By Heat Stress Is Metabolically Distinct From N Stress In The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea C169, James W. Allen, Rahul Tevatia, Yaşar Demirel, Concetta C. Dirusso, Paul N. Black

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Algae are often promoted as feedstock organisms to produce a sustainable petroleum fossil fuel alternative. However, to induce lipid accumulation most often requires a severe stress that is difficult to induce in large batch cultures. The objective of this study is to analyze and mathematically model heat stress on growth, chlorophyll content, triacylglyceride, and starch synthesis in algae. We initially screened 30 algal species for the most pronounced induction of lipid droplets from heat stress using confocal microscopy and mass spectroscopy techniques. One species, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169, was selected and subjected to further biochemical analyses using a jacketed bioreactor amended ...


Phenotypic Screening Identifies Brefeldin A/Ascotoxin As An Inducer Of Lipid Storage In The Algae Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. DiRusso 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Phenotypic Screening Identifies Brefeldin A/Ascotoxin As An Inducer Of Lipid Storage In The Algae Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Nishikant Wase

The use of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock is highly desired, but current methods to induce lipid accumulation cause severe stress responses that limit biomass and, thus oil yield. To address these issues, a high throughput screening (HTS) method was devised to identify chemical inducers of growth and lipid accumulation. Optimization was performed to determine the most effective cell density, DMSO and Nile Red (NR) concentrations to monitor growth and lipid accumulation. The method was tested using 1717 compounds from National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set III and Natural Products Set II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cells were inoculated at low ...


The Distinctive Regulatory Mechanisms Of Bacterial Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase, Alexandra Leigh Evans 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Distinctive Regulatory Mechanisms Of Bacterial Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase, Alexandra Leigh Evans

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Metabolic Regulation is a complex system used to control cellular metabolism in response to conditions in the cell’s environment. For most enzymes, the cell can rely upon a minimal amount of regulation; however, critical enzymes, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, must be regulated at multiple levels. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis. In bacteria, acetyl-CoA carboxylase forms a complex of three subunits–biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase–which catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA via two half-reactions. In the first half-reaction, biotin covalently linked to biotin carboxyl carrier protein is ...


Supercharged Models Of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins And Their Utility In Sensing, Peter J. Schnatz 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Supercharged Models Of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins And Their Utility In Sensing, Peter J. Schnatz

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis I show that greatly increasing the magnitude of a protein’s net charge using surface supercharging transforms that protein into a ligand-gated or counterion-gated conformational molecular switch. To demonstrate this I first modified the designed helical bundle hemoprotein H4 using simple molecular modeling, creating a highly charged protein which both unfolds reversibly at low ionic strength and undergoes the ligand-induced folding transition commonly observed in signal transduction by intrinsically disordered proteins in biology. Due to the high surface charge density, ligand binding to this protein is allosterically activated by low concentrations of divalent cations and the polyamine ...


Identification Of Biologically Essential Nodes Via Determinative Power In Logical Models Of Cellular Processes, Trevor Pentzien, Bhanwar L. Puniya, Tomas Helikar, Mihaela T. Matache 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification Of Biologically Essential Nodes Via Determinative Power In Logical Models Of Cellular Processes, Trevor Pentzien, Bhanwar L. Puniya, Tomas Helikar, Mihaela T. Matache

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

A variety of biological networks can bemodeled as logical or Boolean networks. However, a simplification of the reality to binary states of the nodes does not ease the difficulty of analyzing the dynamics of large, complex networks, such as signal transduction networks, due to the exponential dependence of the state space on the number of nodes. This paper considers a recently introduced method for finding a fairly small subnetwork, representing a collection of nodes that determine the states of most other nodes with a reasonable level of entropy. The subnetwork contains the most determinative nodes that yield the highest information ...


Fars2 Mutations Presenting With Pure Spastic Paraplegia And Lesions Of The Dentate Nuclei, Supreet K. Sahai, Rebecca E. Steiner, Margaret G. Au, John M. Graham, Norikio Salamon, Michael Ibba, Tyler M. Pierson 2018 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Fars2 Mutations Presenting With Pure Spastic Paraplegia And Lesions Of The Dentate Nuclei, Supreet K. Sahai, Rebecca E. Steiner, Margaret G. Au, John M. Graham, Norikio Salamon, Michael Ibba, Tyler M. Pierson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Mutations in FARS2, the gene encoding the mitochondrial phenylalanine‐tRNA synthetase (mtPheRS), have been linked to a range of phenotypes including epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay, and motor dysfunction. We report a 9‐year‐old boy with novel compound heterozygous variants of FARS2, presenting with a pure spastic paraplegia syndrome associated with bilateral signal abnormalities in the dentate nuclei. Exome sequencing identified a paternal nonsense variant (Q216X) lacking the catalytic core and anticodon‐binding regions, and a maternal missense variant (P136H) possessing partial enzymatic activity. This case confirms and expands the phenotype related to FARS mutations with regards to clinical presentation ...


The Regulation Of Notch Signaling By Src Kinase And Polyphenolic Compounds, Bryce David LaFoya 2018 Boise State University

The Regulation Of Notch Signaling By Src Kinase And Polyphenolic Compounds, Bryce David Lafoya

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Cellular signaling pathways provide cells with the means to sense their environment and communicate with other cells. The Notch signaling pathway is comprised of a set of protein machines which work in unison to coordinate cellular processes in response to stimuli coming from neighboring cells and changing microenvironmental conditions. Notch signaling is an important mode of cellular communication which is crucial to many processes involved in development and disease. During Notch activation, information about the extracellular environment is fed into the cell and relayed to the nucleus through a number of biochemical processes. The information-rich messages carried by Notch signaling ...


Pharmacological Ascorbate Enhances Oxygen Consumption And Epigenetic Reprogramming In Pancreatic Cancer, Adrienne Rae Gibson 2018 University of Iowa

Pharmacological Ascorbate Enhances Oxygen Consumption And Epigenetic Reprogramming In Pancreatic Cancer, Adrienne Rae Gibson

Theses and Dissertations

Pharmacological ascorbate treatment (P-AscH-, high-dose, intravenous vitamin C) results in a short-term increased flux of H2O2 that is preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells vs. normal cells. We hypothesized that there may be a sustained effect (> 24 h) of P-AscH- that may contribute to cytotoxicity. P-AscH- significantly increased sustained oxygen consumption (OCR), DCFH-DA oxidation, and extracellular acidification (ECAR) in tumor lines with no change in non-tumorigenic cells. One possible source of this sustained ROS and OCR, the NADPH oxidase family of enzymes Dual Oxidase 1 and 2 (DUOX), which are epigenetically silenced by methylation in vitro and in vivo in PDAC ...


Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan LaBrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Photosynthetic membranes provide much of the usable energy for life on earth. To produce photosynthetic membrane lipids, multiple transport steps are required, including fatty acid export from the chloroplast stroma to the endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the chloroplast envelope membranes. Transport of hydrophobic molecules through aqueous space is energetically unfavorable and must be catalyzed by dedicated enzymes, frequently on specialized membrane structures. Here, we review photosynthetic membrane lipid transport to the chloroplast in the context of photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis. We independently consider the identity of transported lipids, the proteinaceous transport components, and membrane ...


Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov 2018 Physical-Technical High School

Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The goal of our work was to determine the principal mechanisms that provide the difference in visual perception of two marine species that live on different depths: T. Pacificus and O. Vulgaris. In nature, visual perception of species that live deeper is shifted towards the blue region. This is related to the fact that red, orange and yellow light is absorbed more strongly by water than the blue light. On the other hand, the visual perception spectrum of an animal is determined by the absorption spectrum of the "light sensor" located in rods and cones of its eye retina. These ...


Codon Usage Revisited: Lack Of Correlation Between Codon Usage And The Number Of Trna Genes In Enterobacteria, Joaquín Rojas, Gabriel Castillo, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz 2018 Universidad de Chile

Codon Usage Revisited: Lack Of Correlation Between Codon Usage And The Number Of Trna Genes In Enterobacteria, Joaquín Rojas, Gabriel Castillo, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

It is widely believed that if a high number of genes are found for any tRNA in a rapidly replicating bacteria, then the cytoplasmic levels of that tRNA will be high and an open reading frame containing a higher frequency of the complementary codon will be translated faster. This idea is based on correlations between the number of tRNA genes, tRNA concentration and the frequency of codon usage observed in a limited number of strains as well as from the fact that artificially changing the number of tRNA genes alters translation efficiency and consequently the amount of properly folded protein ...


Structure And Mechanism Of Mycobacterial Topoisomerase I, nan cao 2018 Florida International University

Structure And Mechanism Of Mycobacterial Topoisomerase I, Nan Cao

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The enzyme DNA topoisomerase I is an essential enzyme that plays an important role in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination and repair. Mycobacterium tuberculosistopoisomerase I (MtTOP1) is a validated drug target for antituberculosis treatment. Mycobacterial topoisomerase I regulates the topological constraints in chromosomes and helps in maintaining the growth of mycobacteria. The N- terminal domain (NTD) of mycobacterial topoisomerase I contains conserved catalytic domains that along with the active site Tyrosine are involved in cleaving and rejoining a single strand of DNA. Magnesium is required in DNA cleavage activity of type IA topoisomerases ...


The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that is responsible for a wide range of infections, ranging from relative minor skin infections to life-threatening disease such as bacteremia, septicemia, and endocarditis. S. aureus possesses many different virulent factors that aid in its ability to cause this wide array of infections. One major virulence factor includes the production of capsular polysaccharide (CP). The production of CP plays a major role in the virulence response during infection specifically by providing S. aureus an antiphagocytic mechanism that allows the pathogen to evade phagocytosis during an infection. S. aureus has developed complex genetic regulatory ...


Biophysical Exploration Of Conformational Environments In Zymogen Prothrombin And Blood Coagulant Thrombin., Ramya Billur 2018 University of Louisville

Biophysical Exploration Of Conformational Environments In Zymogen Prothrombin And Blood Coagulant Thrombin., Ramya Billur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The serine protease thrombin plays important roles in coagulation, anticoagulation, and platelet activation. Thrombin is initially expressed as the inactive zymogen prothrombin (ProT). The final cleaved and activated form of thrombin has mature anion binding exosites (ABEs) and several regulatory loops. Engagement with these exosites helps define the fate of thrombin as a procoagulant or an anticoagulant. Researchers previously reported that zymogen ProT may already bind exosite ligands. Little is known about conformational changes associated with ProT maturation, resultant ligand binding affinities, individual ligand-protein contacts, and long-range communication between thrombin exosites. Protease Activated Receptors (PARs) play critical roles in controlling ...


The Role Of Redox-Active Iron Metabolism In The Selective Toxicity Of Pharmacological Ascorbate In Cancer Therapy, Joshua David Schoenfeld 2018 University of Iowa

The Role Of Redox-Active Iron Metabolism In The Selective Toxicity Of Pharmacological Ascorbate In Cancer Therapy, Joshua David Schoenfeld

Theses and Dissertations

Pharmacological ascorbate, intravenous administration of high-dose vitamin C aimed at peak plasma concentrations ~ 20 mM, has recently re-emerged, after a controversial history, as a potential anti-cancer agent in combination with standard-of-care radiation and chemotherapy-based regimens. The anti-cancer effects of ascorbate are hypothesized to involve the auto-oxidation or metal-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate to generate H2O2, and preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies in a variety of disease sites demonstrate the efficacy of adjuvant ascorbate. Furthermore, phase I clinical trials in pancreatic and ovarian cancer have demonstrated safety and tolerability in combination with chemotherapy and preliminary results suggest therapeutic efficacy. Both ...


Binding Of Maize Necrotic Streak Virus (Mnesv) 3’ I-Shaped Structure (3’ Iss) To Eukaryotic Translation Factors (Eifs) And Implication In Eif4f Mediated Translation Initiation, Qiao Liu 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Binding Of Maize Necrotic Streak Virus (Mnesv) 3’ I-Shaped Structure (3’ Iss) To Eukaryotic Translation Factors (Eifs) And Implication In Eif4f Mediated Translation Initiation, Qiao Liu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

5' m7GpppN cap and the 3' poly adenosine (A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs are key elements for recruiting translation initiation machinery in canonical translation initiation. Unlike host mRNAs, many viruses lack these elements and yet they are translated efficiently. Plant viruses, in particular, have complex structures within their untranslated regions (UTR) that allow them to bypass some cellular translation control steps. In Maize necrotic streak virus (MNeSV) 3' UTR, an I-Shaped RNA Structure (ISS) has been reported to mediate the virus translation initiation progress. 3’ ISS binding with eIF4F has been shown to facilitate translation. 5’ -3’ kissing ...


Reversible Heparin Molecules And Methods Of Making And Using The Same, Jian Liu, Yongmei Xu, Robert J. Linhardt, Edward Harris 2018 Chapel Hill , NC

Reversible Heparin Molecules And Methods Of Making And Using The Same, Jian Liu, Yongmei Xu, Robert J. Linhardt, Edward Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Methods and systems for synthesizing heparin compounds are provided . The chemoenzymatic synthesis of structurally homogeneous low molecular weight heparins that have a reversible anticoagulant activity is provided . Also disclosed are heparin compounds having anticoagulant activity , including a binding affinity to antithrombin and an anti - Xa activity , but no detectable anti - lla activity . Additionally , provided are synthetic , low - molecular weight heparin com pounds with reversible anticoagulant activity , where the anticoagulant activity is reversible by protamine.


Ef-P Post-Translational Modification Has Variable Impact On Polyproline Translation In Bacillus Subtilis, Anne Witzky, Katherine R. Hummels, Rodney Tollerson II, Andrei Rajkovic, Lisa A. Jones, Daniel B. Kearns, Michael Ibba 2018 The Ohio State University

Ef-P Post-Translational Modification Has Variable Impact On Polyproline Translation In Bacillus Subtilis, Anne Witzky, Katherine R. Hummels, Rodney Tollerson Ii, Andrei Rajkovic, Lisa A. Jones, Daniel B. Kearns, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a ubiquitous translation factor that facilitates translation of polyproline motifs. In order to perform this function, EF-P generally requires posttranslational modification (PTM) on a conserved residue. Although the position of the modification is highly conserved, the structure can vary widely between organisms. In Bacillus subtilis, EF-P is modified at Lys32 with a 5-aminopentanol moiety. Here, we use a forward genetic screen to identify genes involved in 5-aminopentanolylation. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the PTM mutant strains indicated that ynbB, gsaB, and ymfI are required for modification and that yaaO, yfkA, and ywlG influence the ...


Diurnal And Developmental Differences In Gene Expression Between Adult Dispersing And Flightless Morphs Of The Wing Polymorphic Cricket, Gryllus Firmus: Implications For Life-History Evolution, Anthony J. Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A. Brisson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diurnal And Developmental Differences In Gene Expression Between Adult Dispersing And Flightless Morphs Of The Wing Polymorphic Cricket, Gryllus Firmus: Implications For Life-History Evolution, Anthony J. Zera, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Jennifer A. Brisson

Anthony Zera Publications

The functional basis of life history adaptation is a key topic of research in life history evolution. Studies of wing polymorphism in the cricket Gryllus firmus have played a prominent role in this field. However, prior in-depth investigations of morph specialization have primarily focused on a single hormone, juvenile hormone, and a single aspect of intermediary metabolism, the fatty-acid biosynthetic component of lipid metabolism. Moreover, the role of diurnal variation in life history adaptation in G. firmus has been understudied, as is the case for organisms in general. Here, we identify genes whose expression differs consistently between the ...


Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula 2018 Oregon State University

Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Herein, we report an efficient combinatorial therapy for metastatic ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of DJ-1 protein combined with a low dose of cisplatin. DJ-1 protein modulates, either directly or indirectly, different oncogenic pathways that support and promote survival, growth, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. To evaluate the potential of this novel therapy, we have engineered a cancer-targeted nanoplatform and validated that DJ-1 siRNA delivered by this nanoplatform after intraperitoneal injection efficiently downregulates the DJ-1 protein in metastatic ovarian cancer tumors and ascites. In vivo experiments revealed that DJ-1 siRNA monotherapy outperformed cisplatin alone by inhibiting tumor growth ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress