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Training Population Optimization For Genomic Selection In Miscanthus, Marcus O. Olatoye, Lindsay V. Clark, Nicholas R. Labonte, Hongxu Dong, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal K. Ghimire, Elena Dzyubenko, Nikolay Dzyubenko, Larisa Bagmet, Andrey Sabitov, Pavel Chebukin, Katarzyna Głowacka, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Hironori Nagano, Junhua Peng, Chang Y. Yu, Ji H. Yoo, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Toshihiko Yamada, Erik J. Sacks, Alexander E. Lipka 2020 University of Illinois, Urbana

Training Population Optimization For Genomic Selection In Miscanthus, Marcus O. Olatoye, Lindsay V. Clark, Nicholas R. Labonte, Hongxu Dong, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal K. Ghimire, Elena Dzyubenko, Nikolay Dzyubenko, Larisa Bagmet, Andrey Sabitov, Pavel Chebukin, Katarzyna Głowacka, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Hironori Nagano, Junhua Peng, Chang Y. Yu, Ji H. Yoo, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Toshihiko Yamada, Erik J. Sacks, Alexander E. Lipka

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Miscanthus is a perennial grass with potential for lignocellulosic ethanol production. To ensure its utility for this purpose, breeding efforts should focus on increasing genetic diversity of the nothospecies Miscanthus x giganteus (M·g) beyond the single clone used in many programs. Germplasm from the corresponding parental speciesM. sinensis (Msi) and M. sacchariflorus (Msa) could theoretically be used as training sets for genomic prediction of M·g clones with optimal genomic estimated breeding values for biofuel traits. To this end, we first showed that subpopulation structure makes a substantial contribution to the genomic selection (GS) prediction accuracies within a 538-member ...


Differences In Blood-Derived Francisella Tularensis Type B Strains From Clinical Cases Of Tularemia, Marilyn A. Larson, Baha Abdalhamid, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, David W. Kelley, Peter C. Iwen 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Differences In Blood-Derived Francisella Tularensis Type B Strains From Clinical Cases Of Tularemia, Marilyn A. Larson, Baha Abdalhamid, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, David W. Kelley, Peter C. Iwen

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Francisella tularensis can cause the zoonotic disease tularemia and is partitioned into subspecies due to differences in chromosomal organization and virulence. The subspecies holarctica (type B) is generally considered more clonal than the other subpopulations with moderate virulence compared to the hypervirulent A.I clade. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on six type B strains isolated from the blood of patients with tularemia within a one-year period from the same United States region, to better understand the associated pathogenicity. The WGS data were compared to the prototype strain for this subspecies, specifically FSC200, which was isolated from a patient ...


Sestrin2 Phosphorylation By Ulk1 Induces Autophagic Degradation Of Mitochondria Damaged By Copper-Induced Oxidative Stress, Heejeong Kim, Byeong Tak Jeon, Isaac M. Kim, Sydney Townsend, Carolyn M. Lorch, Martonio Viana, Jacob F. Myers, Caroline J. Trupp, Zachary T. Whipps, Mondira Kundu, Soonkyu Chung, Xinghui Sun, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jaekwon Lee, Seung-Hyun Ro 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sestrin2 Phosphorylation By Ulk1 Induces Autophagic Degradation Of Mitochondria Damaged By Copper-Induced Oxidative Stress, Heejeong Kim, Byeong Tak Jeon, Isaac M. Kim, Sydney Townsend, Carolyn M. Lorch, Martonio Viana, Jacob F. Myers, Caroline J. Trupp, Zachary T. Whipps, Mondira Kundu, Soonkyu Chung, Xinghui Sun, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jaekwon Lee, Seung-Hyun Ro

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Selective autolysosomal degradation of damaged mitochondria, also called mitophagy, is an indispensable process for maintaining integrity and homeostasis of mitochondria. One well-established mechanism mediating selective removal of mitochondria under relatively mild mitochondria-depolarizing stress is PINK1-Parkin-mediated or ubiquitin-dependent mitophagy. However, additional mechanisms such as LC3-mediated or ubiquitin-independent mitophagy induction by heavy environmental stress exist and remain poorly understood. The present study unravels a novel role of stress-inducible protein Sestrin2 in degradation of mitochondria damaged by transition metal stress. By utilizing proteomic methods and studies in cell culture and rodent models, we identify autophagy kinase ULK1-mediated phosphorylation sites of Sestrin2 and demonstrate ...


Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) Mediated Degradation Of Organophosphate T Pesticides By The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea☆, Timothy J Nicodemus, Concetta C. DiRusso, Mark A. Wilson, Paul N. Black 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) Mediated Degradation Of Organophosphate T Pesticides By The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea☆, Timothy J Nicodemus, Concetta C. Dirusso, Mark A. Wilson, Paul N. Black

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The aim of this study was to define the mechanism allowing the green alga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea to break down organophosphates from agricultural run-off. This study found that metabolically active cultures of the microalga C. subellipsoidea breakdown organophosphates (paraoxon, malathion and diazinon) with differing structural conformations in freshwater through a mechanism that requires the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with little to no toxic effects on the algae. Under these conditions, organophosphate levels were reduced to 0.1 mg/mL or less over the 8–10 day experimental period. These findings demonstrate a biological- based system can be tailored for ...


Amphiphiliccyclobutenes And Cylobutanes, Wantanee Sittiwong, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul Barletta, Robert Power 2020 Lincoln, Ne

Amphiphiliccyclobutenes And Cylobutanes, Wantanee Sittiwong, Patrick H. Dussault, Raul Barletta, Robert Power

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

This disclosure relates to amphiphilic compounds containing a cyclobutene or cyclobutane moiety. In some embodiments, the compounds are useful for treating infection by Mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cyclobutene containing compounds are also useful as monomers in the preparation of amphiphilic polymers.


Sestrins Are Evolutionarily Conserved Mediators Of Exercise Benefits, Myungjin Kim, Alyson Sujkowski, Sim Namkoong, Bondong Gu, Tyler Cobb, Boyoung Kim, Allison H. Kowalsky, Chun-Seok Cho, Ian Semple, Seung-Hyun Ro, Carol Davis, Susan V. Brooks, Michael Karin, Robert J. Wessells, Jun Hee Lee 2020 University of Michigan

Sestrins Are Evolutionarily Conserved Mediators Of Exercise Benefits, Myungjin Kim, Alyson Sujkowski, Sim Namkoong, Bondong Gu, Tyler Cobb, Boyoung Kim, Allison H. Kowalsky, Chun-Seok Cho, Ian Semple, Seung-Hyun Ro, Carol Davis, Susan V. Brooks, Michael Karin, Robert J. Wessells, Jun Hee Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Exercise is among the most effective interventions for age-associated mobility decline and metabolic dysregulation. Although long-term endurance exercise promotes insulin sensitivity and expands respiratory capacity, genetic components and pathways mediating the meta- bolic benefits of exercise have remained elusive. Here, we show that Sestrins, a family of evolutionarily conserved exercise-inducible proteins, are critical mediators of exercise ben- efits. In both fly and mouse models, genetic ablation of Sestrins prevents organisms from acquiring metabolic benefits of exercise and improving their endurance through training. Conversely, Sestrin upregulation mimics both molecular and physiological effects of exercise, suggesting that it could be a major ...


Validity Of Plasma Collection Cards For Ferritin Assessment—A Proof-Of-Concept Study, Karsten Koehler, Eileen Marks-Nelson, Camila Pereira Braga, Safiya E. Beckford, Jiri Adamec 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validity Of Plasma Collection Cards For Ferritin Assessment—A Proof-Of-Concept Study, Karsten Koehler, Eileen Marks-Nelson, Camila Pereira Braga, Safiya E. Beckford, Jiri Adamec

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Objectives: Iron depletion is common around the world and among certain risk groups in developed countries. The overall purpose was to test the suitability of a novel plasma collection card for minimally invasive iron status assessment.

Methods: Twenty participants (10 f/10 m) participated in this cross-sectional study. Ferritin and hemoglobin were measured from blood collected from a forearm vein, serving as reference method. Blood was also collected from the fingertip using the NoviplexTM Plasma Prep Card as well as capillary collection tubes.

Results: There was substantial concordance between ferritin measured from samples collected via NoviplexTM and venous ferritin (concordance ...


Factors Influencing Huntingtin Aggregation At Surfaces: Implications For Huntington’S Disease, Sharon E. Groover 2020 West Virginia University

Factors Influencing Huntingtin Aggregation At Surfaces: Implications For Huntington’S Disease, Sharon E. Groover

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disease characterized by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the first exon of the huntingtin protein (htt). The polyQ domain facilitates aggregation and initiates the formation of a diverse collection of aggregate species, including fibrils, oligomers and annular aggregates. The first 17 amino acids of htt (Nt17) directly flank the polyQ domain and is a key factor in htt’s association to membranous structures. In addition to Nt17 being an amphipathic αhelix, it also promotes aggregation through self-association and contains numerous posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that can modulate toxicity and subcellular localization. For ...


Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Quality Control Prevents Global Dysregulation Of The Escherichia Coli Proteome, Paul Kelly, Nicholas Backes, Kyle Mohler, Christopher Buser, Arundhati Kavoor, Jesse Rinehart, Gregory Phillips, Michael Ibba 2019 The Ohio State University

Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Quality Control Prevents Global Dysregulation Of The Escherichia Coli Proteome, Paul Kelly, Nicholas Backes, Kyle Mohler, Christopher Buser, Arundhati Kavoor, Jesse Rinehart, Gregory Phillips, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Mechanisms have evolved to prevent errors in replication, transcription, and translation of genetic material, with translational errors occurring most frequently. Errors in protein synthesis can occur at two steps, during tRNA aminoacylation and ribosome decoding. Recent advances in protein mass spectrometry have indicated that previous reports of translational errors have potentially underestimated the frequency of these events, but also that the majority of translational errors occur during ribosomal decoding, suggesting that aminoacylation errors are evolutionarily less tolerated. Despite that interpretation, there is evidence that some aminoacylation errors may be regulated, and thus provide a benefit to the cell, while others ...


Structural Basis Of Non-Canonical Transcriptional Regulation By The A-Bound Iron-Sulfur Protein Whib1 In M. Tuberculosis, Tao Wan, Shanren Li, Daisy Guiza Beltran, Andrew Schacht, Lu Zhang, Donald F. Becker, Limei Zhang 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Structural Basis Of Non-Canonical Transcriptional Regulation By The A-Bound Iron-Sulfur Protein Whib1 In M. Tuberculosis, Tao Wan, Shanren Li, Daisy Guiza Beltran, Andrew Schacht, Lu Zhang, Donald F. Becker, Limei Zhang

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

WhiB1 is amonomeric iron–sulfur cluster-containing transcription factor in the WhiB-like family that is widely distributed in actinobacteria including the notoriously persistent pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). WhiB1 plays multiple roles in regulating cell growth and responding to nitric oxide stress inM. tuberculosis, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report a 1.85 A° -resolution crystal structure of the [4Fe–4S] cluster-bound (holo- )WhiB1 in complex with the C-terminal domain of the 70-family primary sigma factor A of M. tuberculosis containing the conserved region 4 (A 4). Region 4 of the 70-family primary sigma factors is commonly used ...


High-Throughput Nano-Scale Characterization Of Membrane Proteins Using Fluorescence-Detection Size-Exclusion Chromatography, Alex J. Vecchio, Robert M. Stroud 2019 University of California, San Francisco & University of Nebraska–Lincoln

High-Throughput Nano-Scale Characterization Of Membrane Proteins Using Fluorescence-Detection Size-Exclusion Chromatography, Alex J. Vecchio, Robert M. Stroud

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Structural biology has revealed predicting heterologous expression levels, homogeneity, and stability of a protein from its primary structure are exceedingly difficult. Membrane proteins, in particular, present numerous challenges that make obtaining milligram quantities of quality samples problematic. For structural and functional investigation of these molecules, however, this is what is required. Fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography (F-SEC), a technique where a protein of biological interest is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and monitored, circumvents many bottlenecks inherent to membrane protein structural biology. In vivo expression yields, as well as in vitro homogeneity and stability, can be rapidly evaluated utilizing nanogram quantities ...


Effects Of The Dihydrouracil Lesion On Dna Using 1h/31p 1d And 2d Solution Nmr, Benjamin M. Boyd 2019 Missouri State University

Effects Of The Dihydrouracil Lesion On Dna Using 1h/31p 1d And 2d Solution Nmr, Benjamin M. Boyd

MSU Graduate Theses

The effects of the dihydrouracil lesion in DNA were studied using two dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The sequence used was based off of the Drew-Dickerson Dodecamer, with the cytosine in the three position replaced by a dihydrouracil. All of the nonexchangeable proton chemical shifts, with the exception of the H2, H5’, and H5’’, of the lesioned DNA were identified using NOESY spectra and then compared to the chemical shift values of the Drew Dickerson Dodecamer. The largest differences in chemical shifts were observed in the nucleotides neighboring the lesion, both within the strand and on the opposite strand. The imino exchangeable ...


High Concentrations Of Trimethylamines In Slime Glands Inhibit Skein Unraveling In Pacific Hagfish, Gaurav Jain, Marie Starksen, Kashika Singh, Christopher Hoang, Paul Yancey, Charlene McCord, Douglas S. Fudge 2019 Chapman University

High Concentrations Of Trimethylamines In Slime Glands Inhibit Skein Unraveling In Pacific Hagfish, Gaurav Jain, Marie Starksen, Kashika Singh, Christopher Hoang, Paul Yancey, Charlene Mccord, Douglas S. Fudge

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Hagfish defend themselves from fish predators by producing large volumes of gill-clogging slime when they are attacked. The slime consists of seawater and two major components that are ejected from the slime glands: mucus and threads. The threads are produced within specialized cells and packaged into intricately coiled bundles called skeins. Skeins are kept from unraveling via a protein adhesive that dissolves when the skeins are ejected from the slime glands. Previous work revealed that hagfish slime glands have high concentrations of methylamines including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), trimethylglycine (betaine) and dimethylglycine (DMG); however, the function of these compounds in the ...


Comparison Of Montage With Conventional Stereoscopic Seven‑Field Photographs For Assessment Of Etdrs Diabetic Retinopathy Severity, Nam V. Nguyen, Erin M. Vigil, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad S. Halim, Sean C. Baluyot, Hugo A. Guzman, Rubbia Afridi, Diana V. Do, Yasir J. Sepah 2019 Stanford University & Ocular Imaging Research and Reading Center & University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparison Of Montage With Conventional Stereoscopic Seven‑Field Photographs For Assessment Of Etdrs Diabetic Retinopathy Severity, Nam V. Nguyen, Erin M. Vigil, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad S. Halim, Sean C. Baluyot, Hugo A. Guzman, Rubbia Afridi, Diana V. Do, Yasir J. Sepah

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: The ETDRS stereoscopic seven-field (7F) has been a standard imaging and grading protocol for assessment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity score in many clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, the comparison between montage and stereoscopic 7F has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to compare agreement between montage and stereoscopic seven-field (7F) photographs in the assessment of DR severity.

Methods: Stereoscopic 7F photographs were captured from subjects with DR. Montages of monoscopic 7F images were created using Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended©. The best quality image of each stereo pair ...


#1 - Alu-Derived Orthologous Chromosome Classification For The Primate Order, Mehul Mehra, Nitish Sood, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates 2019 Augusta University

#1 - Alu-Derived Orthologous Chromosome Classification For The Primate Order, Mehul Mehra, Nitish Sood, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Orthologous chromosomes between any family of related species have been difficult thus far to obtain, often requiring substantial biochemical testing and computationally-intensive genomic analysis. By employing computational strategies on repeated non-coding DNA, numerous advantages to accurately determining orthologous chromosomes between species can be ascertained. Throughout the primate genome, the Alu repeated element covers 10% of the genome among higher order primates, spanning across each chromosome. These non-protein-coding sequences replicate themselves repeatedly, with each iteration allowed to mutate more than their protein-coding counterparts. Therefore, upon examining the genetic sequences of such “junk” DNA, increasingly specific distinctions can be made between any ...


#11 - Sequence Analysis Of Alu Repeated Elements For Primate Phylogenetic Tree Construction, Nitish Sood, Mehul Mehra, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates 2019 Augusta University

#11 - Sequence Analysis Of Alu Repeated Elements For Primate Phylogenetic Tree Construction, Nitish Sood, Mehul Mehra, Anav Mittal, Christopher Bates

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Phylogenetic tree construction can be a particularly challenging and time-intensive process. This study employs a novel computational approach to phylogenetic tree construction, using the Alu repeating element, a SINE. Repetitive elements including Short and Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs/LINEs) have successfully been applied as accurate tools for phylogenetic analysis, as they are predominately unidirectional and homoplasy-free. However, previous analysis of phylogenetic relationships using these repeating elements has been limited to a small number of isolated repeats among relatively few organisms.

As a highly repetitive sequence, the Alu element and its associated subfamilies can provide detailed analysis on evolutionary divergence ...


Remodeling Of Chlamydomonas Metabolism Using Synthetic Inducers Results In Lipid Storage During Growth, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Girish Kumar Rasineni, Ronald Cerny, Ryan Grove, Jiri Adamec, Paul N. Black, Concetta DiRusso 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Remodeling Of Chlamydomonas Metabolism Using Synthetic Inducers Results In Lipid Storage During Growth, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Girish Kumar Rasineni, Ronald Cerny, Ryan Grove, Jiri Adamec, Paul N. Black, Concetta Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Microalgae accumulate lipids during stress such as that of nutrient deprivation, concomitant with cessation of growth and depletion of chloroplasts. By contrast, certain small chemical compounds selected by high-throughput screening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can induce lipid accumulation during growth, maintaining biomass. Comprehensive pathway analyses using proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics data were acquired from Chlamydomonas cells grown in the presence of one of two structurally distinct lipid activators. WD10784 stimulates both starch and lipid accumulation, whereas WD30030-treated cells accumulate only lipids. The differences in starch accumulation are largely due to differential effects of the two compounds on substrate levels that feed ...


Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) has played an increasingly prominent role in proteomics and structure biology because it shows superior capabilities in identification, quantification and structural characterization of proteins. To realize its full potential in protein analysis, significant progress has been made in developing innovative techniques and reagents that can couple to MS detection. This dissertation demonstrates the use of polymeric supramolecular assemblies for enhanced protein detection in complex biological mixtures by MS. An amphiphilic random co-polymer scaffold is developed to form functional supramolecular assemblies for protein/ peptide enrichment. The influences of charge density and functional group pKa on host-guest interactions ...


The Fitness Landscape Of The African Salmonella Typhimurium St313 Strain D23580 Reveals Unique Properties Of The Pbt1 Plasmid, Rocío Canals, Roy R. Chaudhuri, Rebecca E. Steiner, Siân V. Owen, Natalia Quinones-Olvera, Melita A. Gordon, Michael Baym, Michael Ibba, Jay C. D. Hinton 2019 University of Liverpool

The Fitness Landscape Of The African Salmonella Typhimurium St313 Strain D23580 Reveals Unique Properties Of The Pbt1 Plasmid, Rocío Canals, Roy R. Chaudhuri, Rebecca E. Steiner, Siân V. Owen, Natalia Quinones-Olvera, Melita A. Gordon, Michael Baym, Michael Ibba, Jay C. D. Hinton

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We have used a transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) approach to establish the fitness landscape of the African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580, to complement our previous comparative genomic and functional transcriptomic studies. We used a genome-wide transposon library with insertions every 10 nucleotides to identify genes required for survival and growth in vitro and during infection of murine macrophages. The analysis revealed genomic regions important for fitness under two in vitro growth conditions. Overall, 724 coding genes were required for optimal growth in LB medium, and 851 coding genes were required for growth in SPI-2-inducing minimal medium. These ...


The Mechanism And Regulation Of Bacteriophage Dna Packaging Motors, Janelle A. Hayes 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Mechanism And Regulation Of Bacteriophage Dna Packaging Motors, Janelle A. Hayes

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Many double-stranded DNA viruses use a packaging motor during maturation to recognize and transport genetic material into the capsid. In terminase motors, the TerS complex recognizes DNA, while the TerL motor packages the DNA into the capsid shell. Although there are several models for DNA recognition and translocation, how the motor components assemble and power DNA translocation is unknown.

Using the thermophilic P74-26 bacteriophage model system, we discover that TerL uses a trans-activated ATP hydrolysis mechanism. Additionally, we identify critical residues for TerL ATP hydrolysis and DNA binding. With a combination of x-ray crystallography, SAXS, and molecular docking, we ...


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