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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria are playing …


Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. MacPherson 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of molecules can be radiolabeled and delivered to a cancer site for the purposes of diagnostics and therapy. Among the most promising of tumor targeting molecules are peptides and antibodies. These bio-inspired molecules can be designed and synthesized to target and respond to cancer cells based on the properties of those cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are over-expressed by some metastatic cancers, in which they are responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In recent years, MMPs have emerged as promising targets for enzyme-responsive diagnostic probes because oligopeptides can be designed to be selectively hydrolyzed …


Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz 2023 Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology

Methylene Blue Inhibits Cromakalim-Activated K+ Currents In Follicle-Enclosed Oocytes, Dmytro Isaev, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Georg Petroianu, Dietrich Ernst Lorke, Murat Oz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The effects of methylene blue (MB) on cromakalim-induced K+ currents were investigated in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes. In concentrations ranging from 3–300 μM, MB inhibited K+ currents (IC50: 22.4 μM) activated by cromakalim, which activates KATP channels. MB inhibited cromakalim-activated K+ currents in a noncompetitive and voltage-independent manner. The respective EC50 and slope values for cromakalim-activation of K+ currents were 194 ± 21 µM and 0.91 for controls, and 206 ± 24 µM and 0.87 in the presence of 30 μM MB. The inhibition of cromakalim-induced K+ currents by MB was not …


Comparison Of Serum Albumin Levels In The Breast Milk Of Breastfeeding Infants Aged 1-3 Months And 4-6 Months, Ninik Mudjihartini 2023 Universitas Indonesia

Comparison Of Serum Albumin Levels In The Breast Milk Of Breastfeeding Infants Aged 1-3 Months And 4-6 Months, Ninik Mudjihartini

Indonesian Journal of Medical Chemistry and Bioinformatics

Abstract: Background: Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in the blood, contributing to maintaining colloid osmotic pressure and binding substances that are poorly soluble in plasma so that they can be distributed throughout the body. Serum albumin levels in breast milk can vary, influenced by various factors such as the lactation phase (age of the baby), number of parities, age and body mass index (BMI) of the mother. This study aims to determine the comparison of serum albumin levels in breast milk of mothers who breastfeed infants aged 1-3 months and 4-6 months and to find the relationship …


Dual Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulosic Materials: Thermal, Mechanical And Conductive Properties, Elizabeth McGrew, Kevin M. Miller PhD 2023 Murray State University

Dual Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulosic Materials: Thermal, Mechanical And Conductive Properties, Elizabeth Mcgrew, Kevin M. Miller Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Cellulose, an inexpensive and renewable biomacromolecule, represents an intriguing synthetic foundation for new materials with task-specific properties. Here, we wish to report a synthetic route for functionalizing cellulose with a side chain containing two ionic liquid functional groups using azide-alkyne ‘click’ cyclization strategy, followed by quaternization of the two resulting heterocycles (1,2,3-triazole and imidazole). Through this functionalization strategy, the resulting cellulosic materials exhibited significant softening, with several glass transition (Tg) values observed below room temperature, indicating the amorphous nature of the materials, with the Tg dependent on both the length of the side chain and the …


A Computational Study Of The Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation Of Boronic Acids, Kevin Nyhuis 2023 Montclair State University

A Computational Study Of The Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation Of Boronic Acids, Kevin Nyhuis

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

This work is a computational study of a reaction mechanism for the trifluoromethylation of boronic acids. Three steps of the proposed reaction mechanism are studied, •CF3 addition to a copper catalyst center, base promoted transmetalation between copper and aryl boronic acid, and bond forming reductive elimination in which the CF3 and aryl substituent form a bond. Limited information is known about this mechanism. This study uses computational methods to attempt to elucidate the mechanism and provide the groundwork for potential improvement. Quantum chemical methods in conjunction with tight-binding based conformational sampling methods are used to investigate the possible …


Production Of Biofuel Using Magnetic Nanocatalyst Zno-Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4-Fe2o3: A Mini-Review Of Recent Studies, Nida Ziafat Miss, Majid Mahmood 2022 Department of Chemistry, University of Poonch Rawalaakot, Rawalaakot, AJK, Pakistan

Production Of Biofuel Using Magnetic Nanocatalyst Zno-Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4-Fe2o3: A Mini-Review Of Recent Studies, Nida Ziafat Miss, Majid Mahmood

Journal of Bioresource Management

As conventional fossil fuels are becoming limited, it is critical to find alternative clean and renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is a degradable and renewable form of fuel made up of long-chain fatty acid esters that can be generated from either plants or animals. It is a mixture of long-chain alkyl esters made through a transesterification reaction with alcohol and catalyst. Due to the high cost of petroleum, the concept of biofuel production as an alternative source has increased in recent years. The present mini-review summarizes some recent studies on alternative methods for the production of biofuel. The review concludes that …


Interactions Of Amyloid Peptides With Lipid Membranes, Yanxing Yang 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Interactions Of Amyloid Peptides With Lipid Membranes, Yanxing Yang

Dissertations

The aggregation of amyloid proteins into fibrils is a hallmark of several diseases including Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s, and Type II diabetes. This aggregation process involves the formation of small size oligomers preceding the formation of insoluble fibrils. Recent studies have shown that these oligomers are more likely to be responsible for cell toxicity than fibrils. A possible mechanism of toxicity involves the interaction of oligomers with the cell membrane compromising its integrity. In particular, oligomers may form pore-like structures in the cell membrane affecting its permeability or they may induce lipid loss via a detergent-like effect. This dissertation aims to …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Arginine Methylation Of The Pgc-1Α C‑Terminus Is Temperature- Dependent, Meryl Mendoz, Mariel Mendoza, Tiffany Lubrino, Sidney Briski, Immaculeta Osuji, Janielle Cuala, Brendan Ly, Ivan Ocegueda, Harvey Peralta, Benjamin A. Garcia, Cecilia Zurita-Lopez 2022 California State University, Los Angeles

Arginine Methylation Of The Pgc-1Α C‑Terminus Is Temperature- Dependent, Meryl Mendoz, Mariel Mendoza, Tiffany Lubrino, Sidney Briski, Immaculeta Osuji, Janielle Cuala, Brendan Ly, Ivan Ocegueda, Harvey Peralta, Benjamin A. Garcia, Cecilia Zurita-Lopez

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We set out to determine whether the C-terminus (amino acids 481–798) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α, UniProt Q9UBK2), a regulatory metabolic protein involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, and respiration, is an arginine methyltransferase substrate. Arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) alters protein function and thus contributes to various cellular processes. In addition to confirming methylation of the C-terminus by PRMT1 as described in the literature, we have identified methylation by another member of the PRMT family, PRMT7. We performed in vitro methylation reactions using recombinant mammalian PRMT7 and PRMT1 at 37, 30, 21, 18, and 4 °C. …


Bis-Indolyl Compounds And The Induction Of Apoptosis In T98g Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Margot C. Brown 2022 Seton Hall University

Bis-Indolyl Compounds And The Induction Of Apoptosis In T98g Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Margot C. Brown

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

1,1-bis(3’idolyl)-1(aryl)methane compounds (BIM compounds) have been shown to have anti-cancer properties in colon cancer, bladder cancer, and leukemia cells. The purpose of this work was to determine if BIM compounds could be an effective treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays showed that 20µM of the BIM compounds could inhibit cellular proliferation of the T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line over 72 hours. Then immunoblotting was used to analyze the molecular pathway induced by BIM compounds. An increase in the expression of both BAX and cleaved caspase 3 suggest BIM compounds activate programmed cell death, or apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. …


Molecular Basis Of Viroid Rna-Templated Transcription, Shachinthaka D. Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage 2022 Mississippi State University

Molecular Basis Of Viroid Rna-Templated Transcription, Shachinthaka D. Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage

Theses and Dissertations

Transcription is a fundamental process catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs). Interestingly, some DdRPs can use both DNA and RNA as templates for transcription. This RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity of DdRPs is used by RNA-based pathogens such as viroids and hepatitis delta virus for replication. In addition, RdRP activity of DdRPs widely occurs in various organisms to regulate gene transcription. Despite the importance of this intrinsic RdRP activity of DdRPs, associated factors and mechanisms are in their infancy stage. We employed potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) as a model to study RNA-templated transcription. Here, we present evidence showing that …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Chemical Control And Understanding Of Horizontal Gene Transfers, Drug-Resistance Development, And Filament And Biofilm Formation, Yuchen Jin 2022 Syracuse University

Chemical Control And Understanding Of Horizontal Gene Transfers, Drug-Resistance Development, And Filament And Biofilm Formation, Yuchen Jin

Dissertations - ALL

Biofilms formed by microbes on surfaces are the sources for persistent infectious diseases and environmental problems. The mechanism and details of how antibiotics promote biofilm formation is largely unknown. For instance, it not clear what stages of biofilm growth are promoted to proceed faster than without antibiotics, what phenotypes of bacteria form in an antibiotic-promoted biofilm, and what different biofilm compositions and structures are caused by the presence of antibiotics. Among other effects, antibiotics can cause bacteria to form filaments of living bacteria. Here, we conduct a real-time study of the adherence of bacteria and antibiotic-induced filamentous bacteria on surfaces …


Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


Functional Characterization Of The Newly Discovered Type V Crispr-Cas Protein Cas12a2, Dylan J. Keiser 2022 Utah State University

Functional Characterization Of The Newly Discovered Type V Crispr-Cas Protein Cas12a2, Dylan J. Keiser

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Similarly to people, bacteria are under the treat of infection by viruses. To circumvent these threats, bacteria evolve complex immune systems. Our understanding of some of these immune systems has led to many advancements in the field of Biotechnology including tools that made expressing proteins for study in a lab easier, tools that revolutionized the feasibility of gene editing, and tools that could change the way we think about viral diagnostics and cancer therapeutics. A certain type of immune system that bacteria use to fight virus is called a CRISPR system. Presented here is work to understand the function of …


A Novel Transmembrane Ligand Inhibits T Cell Receptor Activation, Yujie Ye 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Novel Transmembrane Ligand Inhibits T Cell Receptor Activation, Yujie Ye

Doctoral Dissertations

T lymphocytes (T cells) play essential roles in the adaptive immune system. Each mature T cell expresses one type of functional T cell receptor (TCR). The TCR recognizes antigens bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in antigen presenting cells. The resulting stimulation signal crosses the transmembrane domain of TCR and initiates downstream signaling cascades. The human immune system relies on TCRs to recognize a variety of pathogens. Normally, TCR can distinguish the self-antigens from pathogenic antigens. However, dysfunction or aberrant expression of TCRs causes different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, which afflict millions of people annually (Chapter I). Current treatments …


The Role Of Fatty Acid Metabolism In The Pathogenesis Of Trypanosoma Brucei, Nava Poudyal 2022 Clemson University

The Role Of Fatty Acid Metabolism In The Pathogenesis Of Trypanosoma Brucei, Nava Poudyal

All Dissertations

Trypanosoma brucei is the protozoan parasite that causes African Sleeping Sickness in humans and nagana, a wasting disease in cattle. T. brucei completes its life cycle in two hosts, mammals and the tsetse fly insect vector. Due to the geographical restriction of the tsetse fly, the disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Both the insect and mammalian forms of the parasite need fatty acids to anchor their surface proteins. We worked on three projects on fatty acid metabolism and its role in immune evasion strategies of T. brucei. First, we assessed the role of T. brucei surface proteins in …


A Pipeline To Generate Deep Learning Surrogates Of Genome-Scale Metabolic Models, Achilles Rasquinha 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Pipeline To Generate Deep Learning Surrogates Of Genome-Scale Metabolic Models, Achilles Rasquinha

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Genome-Scale Metabolic Models (GEMMs) are powerful reconstructions of biological systems that help metabolic engineers understand and predict growth conditions subjected to various environmental factors around the cellular metabolism of an organism in observation, purely in silico. Applications of metabolic engineering range from perturbation analysis and drug-target discovery to predicting growth rates of biotechnologically important metabolites and reaction objectives within dierent single-cell and multi-cellular organism types. GEMMs use mathematical frameworks for quantitative estimations of flux distributions within metabolic networks. The reasons behind why an organism activates, stuns, or fluctuates between alternative pathways for growth and survival, however, remain relatively unknown. GEMMs …


Analyzing Interactions Of Calmodulin With Hiv-1 Matrix Protein, Andrea Sandoval, D. Mau, N. Karimi, K. Sakamaki, C. Owens, Jerry LaRue 2022 Chapman University

Analyzing Interactions Of Calmodulin With Hiv-1 Matrix Protein, Andrea Sandoval, D. Mau, N. Karimi, K. Sakamaki, C. Owens, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and if left untreated, could cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV matrix protein (HIV-MA) is involved in replication and regulation of the HIV virus. Calmodulin (CaM), a calcium-binding protein found in all eukaryotes, has a potential role in the viral replication of HIV-MA which plays a key role in the replication of HIV. In order to investigate the interactions between calmodulin and the HIV-MA, a series of titrations with CaM are performed using circular dichroism. Circular dichroism (CD) uses circularly polarized light to observe the secondary structure of a molecule. The …


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