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Editorial: Mitochondria, Metabolism And Cardiovascular Diseases, Jun-ichiro Koga, Xinghui Sun, Masuko Ushio-Fukai 2022 University of Occupational and Environmental Health

Editorial: Mitochondria, Metabolism And Cardiovascular Diseases, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Xinghui Sun, Masuko Ushio-Fukai

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Hsp- 70 Mediated Nervous System Enhancement By Etas, Taylor Carter 2022 Texas Southern University

Hsp- 70 Mediated Nervous System Enhancement By Etas, Taylor Carter

Theses (2016-Present)

Neurodegenerative disease in the CNS is usually a product of increased oxidative stress in the brain. In this study we tested the ability of an asparagus supplement ETAS to help reduce oxidative stress in the normal brains of Balb C mice. Oxidative stress pathways (Heat shock proteins) are usually cumulative in the damage they cause when disrupted. We treated normal Balb C mice with ETAS and had control groups with no ETAS supplementation in their regular diet. We then sacrificed the mice and conducted microarray studies to compare oxidative stress pathway genes. We also characterized the effects of regular oxidative …


Metabolite Damage And Damage Control In A Minimal Genome, Drago Haas, Antje M. Thamm, Jiayi Sun, Lili Huang, Lijie Sun, Guillaume A.W. Beaudoin, Kim S. Wise, Claudia Lerma-Ortiz, Steven D. Bruner, Marian Breuer, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson, Greg Brown, Alexander F. Yakunin, Inna Kurilyak, Jacob Folz, Oliver Fiehn, John I. Glass, Andrew D. Hanson, Christopher S. Henry, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard 2022 University of Florida

Metabolite Damage And Damage Control In A Minimal Genome, Drago Haas, Antje M. Thamm, Jiayi Sun, Lili Huang, Lijie Sun, Guillaume A.W. Beaudoin, Kim S. Wise, Claudia Lerma-Ortiz, Steven D. Bruner, Marian Breuer, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson, Greg Brown, Alexander F. Yakunin, Inna Kurilyak, Jacob Folz, Oliver Fiehn, John I. Glass, Andrew D. Hanson, Christopher S. Henry, Valérie De Crécy-Lagard

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Analysis of the genes retained in the minimized Mycoplasma JCVI-Syn3A genome established that systems that repair or preempt metabolite damage are essential to life. Several genes known to have such functions were identified and experimentally validated, including 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cycloligase, coenzyme A (CoA) disulfide reductase, and certain hydrolases. Furthermore, we discovered that an enigmatic YqeK hydrolase domain fused to NadD has a novel proofreading function in NAD synthesis and could double as a MutT-like sanitizing enzyme for the nucleotide pool. Finally, we combined metabolomics and cheminformatics approaches to extend the core metabolic map of JCVI-Syn3A to include promiscuous enzymatic reactions and …


Applications Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: From Drug Discovery To Protein Structure And Dynamics., Mark Vincent C. dela Cerna 2022 University of Louisville

Applications Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: From Drug Discovery To Protein Structure And Dynamics., Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The versatility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is apparent when presented with diverse applications to which it can contribute. Here, NMR is used i) as a screening/ validation tool for a drug discovery program targeting the Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL3), ii) to characterize the conformational heterogeneity of p53 regulator, Murine Double Minute X (MDMX), and iii) to characterize the solution dynamics of guanosine monophosphate kinase (GMPK). Mounting evidence suggesting roles for PRL3 in oncogenesis and metastasis has catapulted it into prominence as a cancer drug target. Yet, despite significant efforts, there are no PRL3 small molecule inhibitors …


Variation On A Theme: The Structures And Biosynthesis Of Specialized Fatty Acid Natural Products In Plants, Samuel Scott, Edgar B. Cahoon, Lucas Busta 2022 University of Minnesota Duluth

Variation On A Theme: The Structures And Biosynthesis Of Specialized Fatty Acid Natural Products In Plants, Samuel Scott, Edgar B. Cahoon, Lucas Busta

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Plants are able to construct lineage-specific natural products from a wide array of their core metabolic pathways. Considerable progress has been made toward documenting and understanding, for example, phenylpropanoid natural products derived from phosphoenolpyruvate via the shikimate pathway, terpenoid compounds built using isopentyl pyrophosphate, and alkaloids generated by the extensive modification of amino acids. By comparison, natural products derived from fatty acids have received little attention, except for unusual fatty acids in seed oils and jasmonate-like oxylipins. However, scattered but numerous reports show that plants are able to generate many structurally diverse compounds from fatty acids, including some with highly …


The Role Of Conformational Changes In Viral And Bacterial Protein Functions, Md Lokman Hossen 2022 Department of Physics, Florida International University

The Role Of Conformational Changes In Viral And Bacterial Protein Functions, Md Lokman Hossen

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Proteins do versatile work in cells. They require a cascade of structural changes to perform different tasks like binding to the other neighboring biomolecules, transporting small chemicals, activating a chemical reaction, etc. The structural conformations of proteins can be critical in changing their working ability. In this dissertation, I investigated the role of conformational changes of viral protein, e.g., spike and envelope protein of SARS-CoV-2, and bacterial protein, e.g., multidrug transporter and toxic extrusion protein- PfMATE from Pyrococcus furiosus. Also, I performed molecular docking-based drug screening targeting the E protein to suggest a set of drugs that can be repurposed …


Dj-1 Is Not A Deglycase And Makes A Modest Contribution To Cellular Defense Against Methylglyoxal Damage In Neurons, Melissa Conti Mazza, Sarah C. Shuck, Jiusheng Lin, Michael Moxley, John Termini, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson 2022 National Institutes of Health

Dj-1 Is Not A Deglycase And Makes A Modest Contribution To Cellular Defense Against Methylglyoxal Damage In Neurons, Melissa Conti Mazza, Sarah C. Shuck, Jiusheng Lin, Michael Moxley, John Termini, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Human DJ-1 is a cytoprotective protein whose absence causes Parkinson's disease and is also associated with other diseases. DJ-1 has an established role as a redox-regulated protein that defends against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Multiple studies have suggested that DJ-1 is also a protein/nucleic acid deglycase that plays a key role in the repair of glycation damage caused by methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive α-keto aldehyde formed by central metabolism. Contradictory reports suggest that DJ-1 is a glyoxalase but not a deglycase and does not play a major role in glycation defense. Resolving this issue is important for understanding how …


Altered Collective Mitochondrial Dynamics In The Arabidopsis Msh1 Mutant Compromising Organelle Dna Maintenance, Joanna M. Chustecki, Ross D. Etherington, Daniel J. Gibbs, Iain G. Johnston 2022 University of Birmingham

Altered Collective Mitochondrial Dynamics In The Arabidopsis Msh1 Mutant Compromising Organelle Dna Maintenance, Joanna M. Chustecki, Ross D. Etherington, Daniel J. Gibbs, Iain G. Johnston

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Mitochondria form highly dynamic populations in the cells of plants (and almost all eukaryotes). The characteristics and benefits of this collective behaviour, and how it is influenced by nuclear features, remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we use a recently developed quantitative approach to reveal and analyse the physical and collective ‘social’ dynamics of mitochondria in an Arabidopsis msh1 mutant where the organelle DNA maintenance machinery is compromised. We use a newly created line combining the msh1 mutant with mitochondrially targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP), and characterize mitochondrial dynamics with a combination of single-cell time-lapse microscopy, computational tracking, and network …


In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir 2022 University of Delhi

In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and its effects on people worldwide continue to grow. Protein-targeted therapeutics are currently unavailable for this virus. As with other coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most conserved RNA-binding structural protein of SARS-CoV-2. The N protein is an appealing target because of its functional role in viral transcription and replication. Therefore, molecular docking method for structure-based drug design was used to investigate the binding energy and binding modes of various anti-N inhibitors in depth. The inhibitors selected were originally developed to target stress granules and other molecules involved in RNA …


Guard-Cell-Targeted Overexpression Of Arabidopsis Hexokinase 1 Can Improve Water Use Efficiency In Field-Grown Tobacco Plants, Liana G. Acevedo-Siaca, Katarzyna Glowacka, Steven M. Driever, Coralie E. Salesse-Smith, Nitsan Lugassi, David Granot, Stephen P. Long, Johannes Kromdijk 2022 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Guard-Cell-Targeted Overexpression Of Arabidopsis Hexokinase 1 Can Improve Water Use Efficiency In Field-Grown Tobacco Plants, Liana G. Acevedo-Siaca, Katarzyna Glowacka, Steven M. Driever, Coralie E. Salesse-Smith, Nitsan Lugassi, David Granot, Stephen P. Long, Johannes Kromdijk

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Water deficit currently acts as one of the largest limiting factors for agricultural productivity worldwide. Additionally, limitation by water scarcity is projected to continue in the future with the further onset of effects of global climate change. As a result, it is critical to develop or breed for crops that have increased water use efficiency and that are more capable of coping with water scarce conditions. However, increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) typically brings a trade-off with CO2 assimilation as all gas exchange is mediated by stomata, through which CO2 enters the leaf while water vapor exits. …


Optimization Of Modular, Long-Range, Ultra-Fast Optical Tweezers With Fluorescence Capabilities For Single-Molecule And Single-Cell Based Biophysical Measurements, Subash C. Godar 2022 Clemson University

Optimization Of Modular, Long-Range, Ultra-Fast Optical Tweezers With Fluorescence Capabilities For Single-Molecule And Single-Cell Based Biophysical Measurements, Subash C. Godar

All Dissertations

An Optical tweezer is a tightly focused laser beam that applies and senses precise and localized optical force to a dielectric microsphere and offers a unique and effective tool for manipulating the single cell or cell components, including nucleotides and dynein motor proteins. Here, I used highly stabilized optomechanical components and ultra-sensitive detection modules to significantly improve the measurement capabilities over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. I combined the optical tweezer-based force spectroscopy technique with fluorescence microscopy to develop an integrated high-resolution force-fluorescence system capable of measuring displacements at sub-nanometer, forces at sub-piconewton over a temporal range …


Investigation Of The Binding Domain Interfaces Of The C-Terminus Of The Albino3 Insertase And The 43kda Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle Subunit Via Single Molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, Amanda Tomanek 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of The Binding Domain Interfaces Of The C-Terminus Of The Albino3 Insertase And The 43kda Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle Subunit Via Single Molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, Amanda Tomanek

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fluorescent labeling is a technique used for visualizing functional groups contained in biomolecules by fluorescence imaging. This technique was used in this project to analyze post-translational targeting of light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins (LHCP), which are the core complexes that harvest sunlight to drive photosynthetic electron transfer. This protein is synthesized in the cytosol and post-translationally targeted to the stroma of chloroplasts. CpSRP43 is a signal recognition particle (SRP) subunit unique to chloroplasts, which has been shown to interact with the stroma-soluble C-terminus of the thylakoid-bound Albino3 insertase (Alb3-Cterm). In the chloroplast stroma, targeting to thylakoids is performed via the cpSRP pathway …


Evaluation Of Current Methods To Detect Cellular Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (Lrrk2) Kinase Activity, Belén Fernández, Vinita G. Chittoor-Vinod, Jillian H. Kluss, Kaela Kelly, Nicole Bryant, An Phu Tran Nguyen, Syed A. Bukhari, Nathan J. Smith, Antonio Jesús Lara Ordóñez, Elena Fdez, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Thomas J. Montine, Mark A. Wilson, Darren J. Moore, Andrew B. West, Mark R. Cookson, R. Jeremy Nichols, Sabine Hilfiker 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

Evaluation Of Current Methods To Detect Cellular Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (Lrrk2) Kinase Activity, Belén Fernández, Vinita G. Chittoor-Vinod, Jillian H. Kluss, Kaela Kelly, Nicole Bryant, An Phu Tran Nguyen, Syed A. Bukhari, Nathan J. Smith, Antonio Jesús Lara Ordóñez, Elena Fdez, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Thomas J. Montine, Mark A. Wilson, Darren J. Moore, Andrew B. West, Mark R. Cookson, R. Jeremy Nichols, Sabine Hilfiker

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Background: Coding variation in the Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 gene linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD) promotes enhanced activity of the encoded LRRK2 kinase, particularly with respect to autophosphorylation at S1292 and/or phosphorylation of the heterologous substrate RAB10.

Objective: To determine the inter-laboratory reliability of measurements of cellular LRRK2 kinase activity in the context of wildtype or mutant LRRK2 expression using published protocols.

Methods: Benchmark western blot assessments of phospho-LRRK2 and phospho-RAB10 were performed in parallel with in situ immunological approaches in HEK293T, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Rat brain tissue, with or without adenovirus-mediated …


Hyper Stable Variants Of Fgf-1-Fgf-2 Dimer, Madison Shields McClanahan 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hyper Stable Variants Of Fgf-1-Fgf-2 Dimer, Madison Shields Mcclanahan

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), including FGF-1 and FGF-2, are proteins that play a crucial role in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, and tissue repair. FGF-1 and FGF-2 are useful in accelerating the healing process in the human body; however, these proteins are naturally thermally unstable, resulting in a relatively low half-life in vivo. 1,8 In efforts to improve the stability of this protein, FGF-1 and FGF-2 proteins are engineered by combining the amino acid sequences of the two proteins to form a heterodimer and obtain novel properties. These two FGF variants are chosen for their specific wound healing capabilities. …


Defining Interactions Between Deformable Dna Origami And Lipid Bilayers Through Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Zachary A. Loyd 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Defining Interactions Between Deformable Dna Origami And Lipid Bilayers Through Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Zachary A. Loyd

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Modulation Of Kras Structure And Dynamics By Kras Ubiquitination And Membrane Depolarization, Vinay Nair 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Modulation Of Kras Structure And Dynamics By Kras Ubiquitination And Membrane Depolarization, Vinay Nair

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

KRAS, a 21 kDa small GTPase protein, functions as a molecular switch playing a key role in regulating cell proliferation. Dysregulation of KRAS signaling by oncogenic mutations leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, a hallmark of cancer cells. Attempts to therapeutically target oncogenic KRAS have led to limited success resulting in a need to identify new mechanisms to targeting KRAS. The interaction of KRAS with its regulators, effectors, and the membrane present one such avenue. In this study, we investigated how post-translational covalent and environmental modifications could modulate these interactions of KRAS. Using computational molecular dynamics simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy …


Computational Investigations Into Binding Dynamics Of Tau Protein Antibodies: Using Machine Learning And Biophysical Models To Build A Better Reality, Katherine Lee 2022 University of Connecticut

Computational Investigations Into Binding Dynamics Of Tau Protein Antibodies: Using Machine Learning And Biophysical Models To Build A Better Reality, Katherine Lee

University Scholar Projects

Misregulation of post-translational modifications of microtubule-associated protein tau is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Hyperphosphorylation of tau promotes aggregation of tau monomers into filaments which are common in tau-associated pathologies. Therefore, tau is a promising target for therapeutics and diagnostics. Recently, high-affinity, high-specificity single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against pThr-231 tau were generated and the most promising variant (scFv 3.24) displayed 20-fold increased binding affinity to pThr-231 tau compared to the wild-type. The scFv 3.24 variant contained five point mutations, and intriguingly none were in the tau binding site. The increased affinity was hypothesized to occur due …


Design, Synthesis, And Analysis Of Paired Coiled-Coil Peptidic Molecular Building Blocks Used For Linearly Controlled Self-Assembly Of Α-Helical Coiled-Coil Heterodimer Peptide Pairs, Jason DiStefano 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Design, Synthesis, And Analysis Of Paired Coiled-Coil Peptidic Molecular Building Blocks Used For Linearly Controlled Self-Assembly Of Α-Helical Coiled-Coil Heterodimer Peptide Pairs, Jason Distefano

Chemistry Theses

Molecular building blocks are fundamental to biological synthesis and processes and have been utilized in advanced materials, drugs and drug delivery systems, and biotechnology. Proteins have been used as molecular building blocks for the construction of complex, well-ordered structures. Coiled-coil protein domains are essential subunits used for the oligomerization of protein complexes, gene expression, and structural elements of biological materials. The synthesis and assembly of proteins utilizing coiled-coil motifs are of great scientific interest due to their potential applications in disease treatment, biomechanical motors, nanoscale delivery systems, etc. However, assembling protein complexes with specific morphology is still challenging because …


Annual Faculty Research Symposium 2022, Oakwood University 2022 Oakwood University

Annual Faculty Research Symposium 2022, Oakwood University

Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Als-Associated Kif5a Mutations Abolish Autoinhibition Resulting In A Toxic Gain Of Function, Desiree M. Barron, Adam R. Fenton, Sara Saez-Atienzar, Anthony Giampetruzzi, Aparna Sreeram, Shankaracharya, Pamela J. Keagle, Victoria R. Doocy, Nathan J. Smith, Eric W. Danielson, Megan Andresano, Mary C. McCormack, Jaqueline Garcia, Valérie Bercier, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Jonathan R. Brent, Claudia Fallini, Brian J. Traynor, Erica L.F. Holzbaur, John E. Landers 2022 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Als-Associated Kif5a Mutations Abolish Autoinhibition Resulting In A Toxic Gain Of Function, Desiree M. Barron, Adam R. Fenton, Sara Saez-Atienzar, Anthony Giampetruzzi, Aparna Sreeram, Shankaracharya, Pamela J. Keagle, Victoria R. Doocy, Nathan J. Smith, Eric W. Danielson, Megan Andresano, Mary C. Mccormack, Jaqueline Garcia, Valérie Bercier, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Jonathan R. Brent, Claudia Fallini, Brian J. Traynor, Erica L.F. Holzbaur, John E. Landers

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understandingthepathogenicmechanismsof diseasemutations is critical toadvancingtreatments.ALS-associated mutations in the gene encoding the microtubulemotor KIF5A result in skipping of exon 27 (KIF5ADExon27) and the encoding of a protein with a novel 39 amino acid residue C-terminal sequence. Here, we report that expression of ALS-linked mutant KIF5A results in dysregulated motor activity, cellular mislocalization, altered axonal transport, and decreased neuronal survival. Single-molecule analysis revealed that the altered C terminus of mutant KIF5A results in a constitutively active state. Furthermore,mutant KIF5A possesses altered protein and RNA interactions and its expression results in altered gene expression/splicing. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that causative …


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