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Development Of Fluorescence Microscopy Approaches To Study Subcellular Protein Transport And Enzymatic Activity, Anchal Singh 2021 Eastern Illinois University

Development Of Fluorescence Microscopy Approaches To Study Subcellular Protein Transport And Enzymatic Activity, Anchal Singh

Masters Theses

Understanding the subcellular localization of proteins and their activity is important in understanding their normal function in eukaryotic cells. Fluorescence cellular imaging techniques can selectively and sensitively visualize subcellular biochemistry. Using this approach, two different methods were employed in this thesis. The first focused on studying protein import into peroxisome and the other on monitoring the activity of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized enzyme, human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1).

Peroxisomes are mainly known as the center for long chain fatty acid b-oxidation as well as the production and detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. Proteins which are needed in the peroxisomes are encoded in …


Sestrins: Emerging Dynamic Stress-Sensors In Metabolic And Environmental Health, Seung Hyun Ro, Julianne Fay, Cesar I. Cyuzuzo, Yura Jang, Naeun Lee, Hyun Seob Song, Edward N. Harris 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sestrins: Emerging Dynamic Stress-Sensors In Metabolic And Environmental Health, Seung Hyun Ro, Julianne Fay, Cesar I. Cyuzuzo, Yura Jang, Naeun Lee, Hyun Seob Song, Edward N. Harris

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Proper timely management of various external and internal stresses is critical for metabolic and redox homeostasis in mammals. In particular, dysregulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) triggered from metabolic stress and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from environmental and genotoxic stress are well-known culprits leading to chronic metabolic disease conditions in humans. Sestrins are one of the metabolic and environmental stress-responsive groups of proteins, which solely have the ability to regulate both mTORC activity and ROS levels in cells, tissues and organs. While Sestrins are originally reported as one of several p53 target genes, recent studies …


Computer Simulations Of Biological Systems: From Protein Dynamics To Drug Discovery, Rupesh Agarwal 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Computer Simulations Of Biological Systems: From Protein Dynamics To Drug Discovery, Rupesh Agarwal

Doctoral Dissertations

Computational biophysics methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are often used in combination with experimental techniques like neutron scattering, NMR, and FTIR to explore protein conformational landscapes. With the improvements in experimental techniques, there is also a need to continually optimize the MD forcefield parameters to make precise predictions that match experimental results. To complement many of these experiments, an accurate model of deuteration is frequently required, but has been elusive. In our work, we developed a novel method to capture isotope effects in classical MD simulations by re-parameterization of the bonded terms of the CHARMM forcefield using quantum …


Structural Characterization And Selective Drug Targeting Of Higher-Order Dna G-Quadruplex Systems., Robert Chandos Monsen 2020 University of Louisville

Structural Characterization And Selective Drug Targeting Of Higher-Order Dna G-Quadruplex Systems., Robert Chandos Monsen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is now substantial evidence that guanine-rich regions of DNA form non-B DNA structures known as G-quadruplexes in cells. G-quadruplexes (G4s) are tetraplex DNA structures that form amid four runs of guanines which are stabilized via Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding to form stacked tetrads. DNA G4s have roles in key genomic functions such as regulating gene expression, replication, and telomere homeostasis. Because of their apparent role in disease, G4s are now viewed as important molecular targets for anticancer therapeutics. To date, the structures of many important G4 systems have been solved by NMR or X-ray crystallographic techniques. Small molecules developed to …


Editorial: Structure And Function Of Chloroplasts - Volume Ii, Yan Lu, Lu Ning Liu, Rebecca L. Roston, Jurgen Soll, Hongbo Gao 2020 Western Michigan University

Editorial: Structure And Function Of Chloroplasts - Volume Ii, Yan Lu, Lu Ning Liu, Rebecca L. Roston, Jurgen Soll, Hongbo Gao

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Co-Opted Steroid Synthesis Gene, Maintained In Sorghum But Not Maize, Is Associated With A Divergence In Leaf Wax Chemistry, Lucas Busta, Elizabeth Schmitz, Dylan K. Kosma, James C. Schnable, Edgar B. Cahoon 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Co-Opted Steroid Synthesis Gene, Maintained In Sorghum But Not Maize, Is Associated With A Divergence In Leaf Wax Chemistry, Lucas Busta, Elizabeth Schmitz, Dylan K. Kosma, James C. Schnable, Edgar B. Cahoon

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Virtually all land plants are coated in a cuticle, a waxy polyester that prevents nonstomatal water loss and is important for heat and drought tolerance. Here, we describe a likely genetic basis for a divergence in cuticular wax chemistry between Sorghum bicolor, a drought tolerant crop widely cultivated in hot climates, and its close relative Zea mays (maize). Combining chemical analyses, heterologous expression, and comparative genomics, we reveal that: 1) sorghum and maize leaf waxes are similar at the juvenile stage but, after the juvenile-to-adult transition, sorghum leaf waxes are rich in triterpenoids that are absent from maize; 2) biosynthesis …


Curie Temperature Engineering In A Novel 2d Analog Of Iron Ore (Hematene) Via Strain, Renu Singla, Timothy A. Hackett, Sarvesh Kumar, Jyotsna Sharma, Manish K. Kashyap 2020 Kurukshetra University

Curie Temperature Engineering In A Novel 2d Analog Of Iron Ore (Hematene) Via Strain, Renu Singla, Timothy A. Hackett, Sarvesh Kumar, Jyotsna Sharma, Manish K. Kashyap

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

As a newly exfoliated magnetic 2D material from hematite, hematene is the most far-reaching ultrathin magnetic indirect bandgap semiconductor. We have carried out a detailed structural analysis of hematene via prefacing strain by means of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Hematene in the pristine form emerges out to be a magnetic semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.0/2.0 eV for the majority/minority spin channel. The dependence of magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE), TC, and the bandgap on compressive and tensile strains has been scanned exclusively. It is examined that TC depends firmly on the compressive strain …


Fine-Tuning Of Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Quality Control Alleviates Global Dysregulation Of The Proteome, Paul Kelly, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba 2020 The Ohio State University

Fine-Tuning Of Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Quality Control Alleviates Global Dysregulation Of The Proteome, Paul Kelly, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

One integral step in the transition from a nucleic acid encoded-genome to functional proteins is the aminoacylation of tRNA molecules. To perform this activity, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) activate free amino acids in the cell forming an aminoacyl-adenylate before transferring the amino acid on to its cognate tRNA. These newly formed aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) can then be used by the ribosome during mRNA decoding. In Escherichia coli, there are twenty aaRSs encoded in the genome, each of which corresponds to one of the twenty proteinogenic amino acids used in translation. Given the shared chemicophysical properties of many amino acids, aaRSs have …


Changes In Lipid Profiles Of Epileptic Mouse Mode, Alicia Johnson, Ryan A. Grove, Deepak Madhavan, Cory H.T. Boone, Camila Pereira Braga, Hannah Kyllo, Kaeli K. Samson, Kristina A. Simeone, Timothy A. Simeone, Tomáš Helikar, Corrine K. Hanson, Jiri Adamec 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Changes In Lipid Profiles Of Epileptic Mouse Mode, Alicia Johnson, Ryan A. Grove, Deepak Madhavan, Cory H.T. Boone, Camila Pereira Braga, Hannah Kyllo, Kaeli K. Samson, Kristina A. Simeone, Timothy A. Simeone, Tomáš Helikar, Corrine K. Hanson, Jiri Adamec

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Introduction Approximately 1% of the world’s population is impacted by epilepsy, a chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. One-third of epileptic patients are resistant to AEDs, or have medically refractory epilepsy (MRE). One non-invasive treatment that exists for MRE includes the ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. Despite the KD’s success in seizure attenuation, it has a few risks and its mechanisms remain poorly understood. The KD has been shown to improve metabolism and mitochondrial function in epileptic phenotypes. Potassium channels have implications in epileptic conditions as they have dual roles as metabolic sensors and control neuronal excitation.

Objectives …


Two And Three-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging Of Contrast Agents In Heterogeneous Live Cell Media To Understand Contrast-Induced Toxicity, Fahaneda Hassan, Aldona Gjoni, Subhendra Sarkar 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Two And Three-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging Of Contrast Agents In Heterogeneous Live Cell Media To Understand Contrast-Induced Toxicity, Fahaneda Hassan, Aldona Gjoni, Subhendra Sarkar

Publications and Research

Radiographic imaging was done using low and high energy radiography equipment. The test hypothesis that macromolecular aggregation changes sample noise in imaging samples for optical imaging methods. Inorganic complexes scatter radiation at the molecular level and may increase the sample noise locally. At high and low photon energies in various x-ray machines, sample and background noise were gathered and compared with those from mammography systems from mammography researchers. The samples with high macromolecular aggregates were prepared using various animal cell compositions and imaged under different conditions that produced different macromolecular dynamics within the samples and thus different image-based sample noise. …


A Practical Guide To Mechanistic Systems Modeling In Biology Using A Logic-Based Approach, Anna Niarakis, Tomáš Helikar 2020 Universite Paris-Saclay

A Practical Guide To Mechanistic Systems Modeling In Biology Using A Logic-Based Approach, Anna Niarakis, Tomáš Helikar

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Mechanistic computational models enable the study of regulatory mechanisms implicated in various biological processes. These models provide a means to analyze the dynamics of the systems they describe, and to study and interrogate their properties, and provide insights about the emerging behavior of the system in the presence of single or combined perturbations. Aimed at those who are new to computational modeling, we present here a practical hands-on protocol breaking down the process of mechanistic modeling of biological systems in a succession of precise steps. The protocol provides a framework that includes defining the model scope, choosing validation criteria, selecting …


Cautionary Tale Of Using Tris(Alkyl)Phosphine Reducing Agents With Nad+-Dependent Enzymes, Sagar M. Patel, Thomas G. Smith, Martha Morton, Kyle M. Stiers, Javier Seravalli, Stephen J. Mayclin, Thomas E. Edwards, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cautionary Tale Of Using Tris(Alkyl)Phosphine Reducing Agents With Nad+-Dependent Enzymes, Sagar M. Patel, Thomas G. Smith, Martha Morton, Kyle M. Stiers, Javier Seravalli, Stephen J. Mayclin, Thomas E. Edwards, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Protein biochemistry protocols typically include disulfide bond reducing agents to guard against unwanted thiol oxidation and protein aggregation. Commonly used disulfide bond reducing agents include dithiothreitol, β-mercaptoethanol, glutathione, and the tris(alkyl)phosphine compounds tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THPP). While studying the catalytic activity of the NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, we unexpectedly observed a rapid non-enzymatic chemical reaction between NAD+ and the reducing agents TCEP and THPP. The product of the reaction exhibits a maximum ultraviolet absorbance peak at 334 nm and forms with an apparent association rate constant of 231–491 M−1 s−1. The reaction is …


Investigating Photosynthetic Stability: Relation Between Thylakoid Lipid Content And The Stability Of The Cytochrome B6f Complex, Marina Mehling 2020 Purdue University

Investigating Photosynthetic Stability: Relation Between Thylakoid Lipid Content And The Stability Of The Cytochrome B6f Complex, Marina Mehling

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

The cytochrome b6f complex is an enzyme found in plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae that catalyzes the transport of electrons in the rate-limiting step of oxygenic photosynthesis. This dimeric complex has an extensive lipid architecture that is primarily composed of five distinct lipid classes: monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG), phosphatidyl glycerol (PG), monoglucosyl diacylglycerol (GlcDG), and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG). While these lipid classes have been identified, their precise role in the function of the cytochrome complex are only beginning to be understood. Mechanisms describing the relation between thylakoid lipid content on the stability of the b6 …


Modulation Of Escherichia Coli Translation By The Specific Inactivation Of TrnaGly Under Oxidative Stress, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Andrea Pincheira, Sara Elgamal, Sandra D. Kienast, Verónica Bravo, Johannes Leufken, Daniela Gutiérrez, Sebastian A. Leidel, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz 2020 Universidad de Chile

Modulation Of Escherichia Coli Translation By The Specific Inactivation Of TrnaGly Under Oxidative Stress, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Andrea Pincheira, Sara Elgamal, Sandra D. Kienast, Verónica Bravo, Johannes Leufken, Daniela Gutiérrez, Sebastian A. Leidel, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Bacterial oxidative stress responses are generally controlled by transcription factors that modulate the synthesis of RNAs with the aid of some sRNAs that control the stability, and in some cases the translation, of specific mRNAs. Here, we report that oxidative stress additionally leads to inactivation of tRNAGly in Escherichia coli, inducing a series of physiological changes. The observed inactivation of tRNAGly correlated with altered efficiency of translation of Gly codons, suggesting a possible mechanism of translational control of gene expression under oxidative stress. Changes in translation also depended on the availability of glycine, revealing a mechanism whereby bacteria …


The Investigation Of Surface Structures On Various Pathogens And Their Interactions With The Human Immune System, Carmen M. Villalobos 2020 University of New Mexico

The Investigation Of Surface Structures On Various Pathogens And Their Interactions With The Human Immune System, Carmen M. Villalobos

Biomedical Engineering ETDs

The cell surface is the first interface the host immune system encounters and

its investigation has led to a better understanding of cellular biology and types of

pathways that pathogens target in a host cell. The cell surface has evolved to include

many functions such as manipulation of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, membrane

trafficking, adhesion, and integration into host tissue. The pathogens of interest are

the pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, and the parasite, Giardia lamblia and we

investigate the consequences of drug treatments on the cell surface, leading to

promising new targets.


Structural Analysis Of Protein Therapeutics Using Covalent Labeling – Mass Spectrometry, Patanachai Limpikirati 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Structural Analysis Of Protein Therapeutics Using Covalent Labeling – Mass Spectrometry, Patanachai Limpikirati

Doctoral Dissertations

Using mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain information about a higher order structure of protein requires that a protein’s structural properties are encoded into the mass of that protein. Covalent labeling (CL) with reagents that can irreversibly modify solvent accessible amino acid side chains is an effective way to encode structural information into the mass of a protein, as this information can be read-out in a straightforward manner using standard MS-based proteomics techniques. The differential reactivity of proteins under two or more conditions can be used to distinguish protein topologies, conformations, and/or binding sites. CL-MS methods have been effectively used for …


Translational Regulation Of Environmental Adaptation In Bacteria, Rodney Tollerson II, Michael Ibba 2020 The Ohio State University

Translational Regulation Of Environmental Adaptation In Bacteria, Rodney Tollerson Ii, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Bacteria must rapidly respond to both intracellular and environmental changes to survive. One critical mechanism to rapidly detect and adapt to changes in environmental conditions is control of gene expression at the level of protein synthesis. At each of the three major steps of translation—initiation, elongation, and termination—cells use stimuli to tune translation rate and cellular protein concentrations. For example, changes in nutrient concentrations in the cell can lead to translational responses involving mechanisms such as dynamic folding of riboswitches during translation initiation or the synthesis of alarmones, which drastically alter cell physiology. Moreover, the cell can fine-tune the levels …


Role Of The Hyaluronan Receptor, Stabilin-2/Hare, In Health And Disease, Edward N. Harris, Erika Baker 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Role Of The Hyaluronan Receptor, Stabilin-2/Hare, In Health And Disease, Edward N. Harris, Erika Baker

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Stabilin-2/HARE is the primary clearance receptor for circulating hyaluronan (HA), a polysaccharide found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of metazoans. HA has many biological functions including joint lubrication, ocular turgor pressure, skin elasticity and hydration, cell motility, and intercellular signaling, among many others. The regulatory system for HA content in the tissues, lymphatics, and circulatory systems is due, in part, to Stabilin-2/HARE. The activity of this receptor was discovered about 40 years ago (early 1980s), cloned in the mid-1990s, and has been characterized since then. Here, we discuss the overall domain organization of this receptor and how it correlates to …


Integrated Unicellular/Filamentous Algal Production, Harvesting And Remediation System, Paul N. Black, James Allen, Timothy J Nicodemus 2020 Center for Metabolic Disease, Ordway Research Institute

Integrated Unicellular/Filamentous Algal Production, Harvesting And Remediation System, Paul N. Black, James Allen, Timothy J Nicodemus

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

A method of removing nitrogen-bound nitrate from at least one of groundwater, surface water, or waste water is disclosed. The method includes providing contaminant-containing water from groundwater, surface water, and/or waste water sources. The method further includes adding the contaminant-containing water to an algal photobioreactor system. The method further includes adding an alga culture to the alga photobioreactor system. The method further includes adjusting temperature, CO2 concentration, pH, light wavelength, and/or light intensity in the algal photobioreactor system to optimize the growth of the algea. The method further includes separating the aglae from the water and harvesting algal biomass.


The Effects Of Largazole, A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, On Breast Cancer Cell Viability And Metastasis, Hannah McCowan 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Largazole, A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, On Breast Cancer Cell Viability And Metastasis, Hannah Mccowan

Honors Theses

Histone deacetylase enzymes modify epigenetic characteristics of a genome by removing acetyl groups from histone proteins in chromatin. Histone deacetylase inhibitors work by stopping this activity which can have various results in a cell including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and migration. The purpose of these experiments was to see how largazole, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, affected cell viability for breast cancer and associated metastatic cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The experiment was completed by setting up two 96-well plates with varying concentrations of largazole and conducting a sulforhodamine viability assay. The specific cell lines used in …


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