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Towards A New Role Of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide In Synaptic Function, Cliyahnelle Z. Alexander 2024 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

Towards A New Role Of Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide In Synaptic Function, Cliyahnelle Z. Alexander

Student Theses and Dissertations

Aerobic metabolism is known to generate damaging ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that have the potential to cause damage to cells and tissues in the body. ROS are highly reactive atoms or molecules that rapidly interact with other molecules within a cell. Intracellular accumulation can result in oxidative damage, dysfunction, and cell death. Due to the limitations of H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) detectors, other impacts of ROS exposure may have been missed. HyPer7, a genetically encoded sensor, measures hydrogen peroxide emissions precisely and sensitively, even at sublethal levels, during …


Establishing An Objective, Quantifiable Method For Detecting Erosive Tooth Wear, Camille Kita 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Establishing An Objective, Quantifiable Method For Detecting Erosive Tooth Wear, Camille Kita

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study aims to monitor and evaluate erosive tooth wear (ETW) by measurement of enamel surface thickness and texture in a clinical setting. The objective approach is fundamentally different from the standard subjective visual assessment that professionals in the dental field using the Basic Erosive Wear Evaluation (BEWE) method.

Twenty-nine hyposalivation and three control subjects were used in this longitudinal study, for a total of 597 samples (only 577 teeth were eligible for surface texture analysis) evaluated in a longitudinal study including both baseline and 12 month follow up surfaces. Each participant’s buccal surface of the tooth was first analyzed …


Investigation Of How A Kinesin-1 Mutation Affects The Synaptic Localization Of The Periactive Zone Protein Apt-4, Ian Harden 2024 University of Maine - Main

Investigation Of How A Kinesin-1 Mutation Affects The Synaptic Localization Of The Periactive Zone Protein Apt-4, Ian Harden

Honors College

Dysfunctional or loss of synaptic transmission is a major contributing factor to many neurological and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. To develop novel approaches to treating these diseases, understanding the structures and proteins related to synaptic development and function is essential. Within the synapse is the presynaptic site, containing the active and periactive zones, at which synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters are released. The active zone’s primary role is mediating neurotransmitter release via exocytosis, and the periactive zone sorts and recycles synaptic vesicles via endocytosis. However, how periactive zone proteins localize to the presynapse and how they interact with the …


Using Artificial (Ai) To Predict A Structure Of Protein Complex, Yiqing Zang 2024 Fort Hays State University

Using Artificial (Ai) To Predict A Structure Of Protein Complex, Yiqing Zang

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

Proteins play pivotal roles in essential life processes and elucidating their three-dimensional (3D) structures is crucial for understanding their functions. AlphaFold2, an advanced artificial intelligence-based method developed by Google DeepMind, has emerged as a promising tool for predicting protein structures. In this study, we evaluated the predictive capabilities of AlphaFold2. Our findings highlight AlphaFold2's efficacy in providing valuable insights into protein structure prediction, albeit with certain limitations. While AlphaFold2 represents a significant advancement in the field, its utility is best realized when integrated with complementary experimental approaches. Consequently, combining the strengths of AlphaFold2 with experimental validation remains essential for achieving …


Identification Of Regulatory Elements In The Untranslated Regions Of Streptolysin S Associated Gene A Messenger Rna From Group A Streptococcus, Cameron R. Carroll, Sara G. Nibar, Alexis S. Brown, Lauren R. Angello, Gabriela C. Pérez-Alvarado, Brian M. Lee 2024 Coastal Carolina University

Identification Of Regulatory Elements In The Untranslated Regions Of Streptolysin S Associated Gene A Messenger Rna From Group A Streptococcus, Cameron R. Carroll, Sara G. Nibar, Alexis S. Brown, Lauren R. Angello, Gabriela C. Pérez-Alvarado, Brian M. Lee

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human pathogen associated with a variety of diseases such as strep throat, scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis. One of the virulence factors released by GAS during an invasive infection is a cytotoxic peptide, streptolysin S (SLS), which inhibits the immune response to necrotizing fasciitis. The streptolysin S associated gene A product, SagA, is modified to produce SLS. Thesag operon includes sagA and the genes required for enzyme-mediated post-translational modifications of SagA and the export of SLS. The sagA gene is contained within the pleiotropic …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova 2024 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Osteohistological Assessment Of Edmontosaurus Radii From The Liscomb Bonebed, Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, Emma Griffin 2024 Misericordia University

Osteohistological Assessment Of Edmontosaurus Radii From The Liscomb Bonebed, Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, Emma Griffin

Student Research Poster Presentations 2024

Hadrosaurs were one of the most diverse dinosaur groups in the Late Cretaceous period and are known for their numerous articulated skeletons and monodominant bonebeds (Wosik et al., 2020). They are more commonly known as duck-billed dinosaurs and are found globally including latitudinal extremes such as the artic and Antarctica. Edmontosaurus, a genus of hadrosaur, are herbivores and are very large growing up to 8,000 pounds. Edmontosaurus were known to travel in herds as a defense mechanism and were one of the last non-avian dinosaurs living during the late Campanian stage through the end of the Maastrichtian stage, right up …


Comparative Histological Study On The Algerian Thymus Ciliatus At Different Phenological Stages, Nina Sadou, Ratiba Seridi, Hamdi Bendif 2023 Laboratory of Plant Biology and Environment « Medicinal Plants » Axis, Faculty of Sciences, University Badji Mokhtar- Annaba. BP 12, 23000 Annaba, Algeria

Comparative Histological Study On The Algerian Thymus Ciliatus At Different Phenological Stages, Nina Sadou, Ratiba Seridi, Hamdi Bendif

Journal of Bioresource Management

The aim of the current study was to compare the histological observations of stems, leaves, and different secretory structures of Thymus ciliatus at three phenological stages. The anatomical observations of stems, leaves, and glandular trichomes were carried out by light microscopy. The results showed that phenological stages do not affect significantly the anatomical, whereas there was a significant increase in secretory trichomes. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of the stems and the leaves. There are only two distinct types of secretory trichomes, Peltate consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell, and an 8-celled head type, which …


On The Anti-Adipogenic Function Of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat-Containing Protein 1, Matthew E. Siviski 2023 University of Maine

On The Anti-Adipogenic Function Of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat-Containing Protein 1, Matthew E. Siviski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adipogenesis is regulated by the coordinated activity of adipogenic transcription factors, including PPAR-gamma (PPARG) and C/EBP alpha (CEBPA). Thus, dysregulated adipogenesis predisposes adipose tissues to adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. We have previously reported that mice possessing a homozygous null gene mutation in collagen triple helix repeat-containing protein 1 (CTHRC1) have increased adiposity compared to wildtype mice, supporting the concept that CTHRC1 regulates body composition. Herein, we investigated the anti-adipogenic activity of CTHRC1. Using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we showed significantly reduced adipogenic differentiation in the presence of CTHRC1 commensurate to marked suppression of Cebpa and Pparg gene expression. In addition, CTHRC1 increased …


Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad 2023 Plant Science Department, Amino Techno Gene Private Virtual Institute, Tehran 1495845983, Iran

Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad

Makara Journal of Science

The 5ʹ ends of protein-encoding genes contain 5ʹ untranslated regions (5ʹUTRs), which can effectively participate in regulating gene expression. The 5ʹUTRs of Arabidospis thaliana–derived alcohol dehydrogenase gene (AtADH) and omega (Ω) sequence from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most effective enhancers in biotechnology. In this study, bioinformatics techniques were employed to analyze the characteristics of the above sequences. After 5ʹUTR sequence collection, the inner ribosome entrance sites; small RNA (sRNA) target sequences; nucleotide contents; and upstream start and stop codons, ORFs, and coding DNA sequences of the Ω sequence and AtADH 5ʹUTR were identified. Moreover, the …


Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi 2023 Chapman University

Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

The development of small peptide-based therapeutics can be accelerated by the knowledge of relationships between the peptide structure and its functional interactions. Here, we report the analysis of two groups of synthetic peptides designed for two applications – broad bactericidal action and inhibition of protein-protein interactions in human cells. Novel amphiphilic peptides designed for antibacterial application incorporated arginine as cationic amino acids and non-natural amino acids that have aromatic side chains with similar hydrophobic properties as tryptophan. The interaction of lead cyclic peptides and their linear analogs with a phospholipid bilayer mimicking a bacterial membrane was studied using nuclear magnetic …


The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

Candida albicans phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, encoded by the CHO1 gene, has been identified as a potential drug target for new antifungals against systemic candidiasis due to its importance in virulence, absence in the host and conservation among fungal pathogens. This dissertation is focused on the identification of inhibitors for this membrane enzyme. Cho1 has two substrates: cytidyldiphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) and serine. Previous studies identified a conserved CDP-alcohol phosphotransferase (CAPT) binding motif present within Cho1, and here we revealed that mutations in all but one conserved amino acid within the CAPT motif resulted in decreased Cho1. For serine, we have predicted a …


Biochemical Analyses Of Udgx-A Crosslinking Uracil-Dna Glycosylase, Chuan Liang 2023 Clemson University

Biochemical Analyses Of Udgx-A Crosslinking Uracil-Dna Glycosylase, Chuan Liang

All Dissertations

DNA base damage is common due to exposure to various endogenous and exogenous factors. To repair the base lesions, such as uracil from cytosine deamination, enzymes from the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are critical, which can recognize the damaged base and initiate the base excision repair (BER) pathway. There used to be six families of proteins identified in the UDG superfamily until a new member, UDGX, was found in Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is a unique DNA-crosslinking UDG. In this dissertation work, a series of biochemical analyses of the newly found UDGX are performed, including the analyses of structures, functions, …


Flavonol Glucosylation: A Structural Investigation Of The Flavonol Specific 3-O Glucosyltransferase Cp3gt, Aaron S. Birchfield 2023 East Tennessee State University

Flavonol Glucosylation: A Structural Investigation Of The Flavonol Specific 3-O Glucosyltransferase Cp3gt, Aaron S. Birchfield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoid glycosyltransferases (GTs), enzymes integral to plant ecological responses and human pharmacology, necessitate rigorous structural elucidation to decipher their mechanistic function and substrate specificity, particularly given their role in the biotransformation of diverse pharmacological agents and natural products. This investigation delved into a comprehensive exploration of the flavonol 3-O GT from Citrus paradisi (Cp3GT), scrutinizing the impact of a c-terminal c-myc/6x histidine tag on its enzymatic activity and substrate specificity, and successfully achieving its purification to apparent homogeneity. This established a strong foundation for potential future crystallographic and other structure/function analyses. Through the strategic implementation of site-directed mutagenesis, a thrombin …


Reactive Chemistries For Protein Labeling, Degradation, And Stimuli Responsive Delivery, Myrat Kurbanov 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reactive Chemistries For Protein Labeling, Degradation, And Stimuli Responsive Delivery, Myrat Kurbanov

Doctoral Dissertations

Reactive chemistries for protein chemical modification play an instrumental role in chemical biology, proteomics, and therapeutics. Depending on the application, the selectivity of these modifications can range from precise modification of an amino acid sequence by genetic manipulation of protein expression machinery to a stochastic modification of lysine residues on the protein surface. Ligand-Directed (LD) chemistry is one of the few methods for targeted modification of endogenous proteins without genetic engineering. However, current LD strategies are limited by stringent amino acid selectivity. To bridge this gap, this thesis focuses on the development of highly reactive LD Triggerable Michael Acceptors (LD-TMAcs) …


Caulobacter Clpxp Adaptor Popa’S Domain Interactions In The Adaptor Hierarchy Of Ctra Degradation, Thomas P. Scudder 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Caulobacter Clpxp Adaptor Popa’S Domain Interactions In The Adaptor Hierarchy Of Ctra Degradation, Thomas P. Scudder

Masters Theses

The degradation and recycling of protein is a process essential for the maintenance and regulation of cellular function. More specifically, in Caulobacter crescentus, the ClpXP protease is responsible for driving progression through the cell cycle and protein quality control. This protease utilizes three known adaptors to selectively degrade proteins that initiate different stages of development. This thesis will elaborate on the specific binding interface on one of these adaptors, PopA, with another, RcdA, and focus in on specific residues on PopA and investigate their roles in adaptor binding and delivery of CtrA, the master regulator of Caulobacter. Finally, I …


Evaluating The Response Of Glycine Soja Accessions To Fungal Pathogen Macrophomina Phaseolina During Seedling Growth, Shirley Jacquet, Layla Rashad, Sonia Viera, Francisco Reta, Juan Reta 2023 Fayetteville State University

Evaluating The Response Of Glycine Soja Accessions To Fungal Pathogen Macrophomina Phaseolina During Seedling Growth, Shirley Jacquet, Layla Rashad, Sonia Viera, Francisco Reta, Juan Reta

Biological Science Student Working Papers

Charcoal rot caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid is one of various devastating soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) diseases, which can severely reduce crop yield. The investigation into the genetic potential for charcoal rot resistance of wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions will enrich our understanding of the impact of soybean domestication on disease resistance; moreover, the identified charcoal rot-resistant lines can be used to improve soybean resistance to charcoal rot. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of wild soybean accessions to M. phaseolina at the seedling stage and thereby select the disease-resistant lines. …


Langevin Dynamic Models For Smfret Dynamic Shift, David Frost, Keisha Cook Dr, Hugo Sanabria Dr 2023 Clemson University

Langevin Dynamic Models For Smfret Dynamic Shift, David Frost, Keisha Cook Dr, Hugo Sanabria Dr

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Growth Rate On Peptidoglycan Crosslink Density Of E. Coli Using Fluorescent Labeling, Morgan Olszewski 2023 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Effects Of Growth Rate On Peptidoglycan Crosslink Density Of E. Coli Using Fluorescent Labeling, Morgan Olszewski

Harrisburg University Research Symposium: Highlighting Research, Innovation, & Creativity

Peptidoglycan (PG) is a polymer composed of polysaccharides and crosslinked peptide chains found in bacterial cell walls. It helps to protect the cell from environmental stress and maintain cell morphology throughout its life cycle and further generations. The PG is made up of two sugars, N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) and N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG). NAM and NAG are connected by glycosidic linkages to form repeated chains. The chains are formed in layers, which are interconnected via a polypeptide stem linked by a peptide bridge. During cell growth, continuous turnover of existing PG occurs by severing existing crosslinks, inserting new PG into …


Predicted Structure And Analysis Of The Glycoprotein From Sars-Cov-2 Variants Of Interest, Boris Shabaltiy 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Predicted Structure And Analysis Of The Glycoprotein From Sars-Cov-2 Variants Of Interest, Boris Shabaltiy

Honors Theses

SARS-CoV-2 has had a devastating effect on the world, and while the public concern and severity of the diseased caused by it have decreased, it is still crucial to monitor the virus for mutations so we can rapidly identify new variants of concern, and then rapidly prepare new vaccines and treatments. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein from the first isolates of the virus (root variant) was structurally characterized in early 2021. The spike protein structure, designated 7CZW, was uploaded to RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB). All subsequent mutations the S protein has accumulated are based on the amino acid …


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