Hyperbolic Triangle Groups, 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Hyperbolic Triangle Groups, Sergey Katykhin

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

This paper will be on hyperbolic reflections and triangle groups. We will compare hyperbolic reflection groups to Euclidean reflection groups. The goal of this project is to give a clear exposition of the geometric, algebraic, and number theoretic properties of Euclidean and hyperbolic reflection groups.

Evolution Of Computational Thinking Contextualized In A Teacher-Student Collaborative Learning Environment., 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Evolution Of Computational Thinking Contextualized In A Teacher-Student Collaborative Learning Environment., John Arthur Underwood

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

The discussion of Computational Thinking as a pedagogical concept is now essential as it has found itself integrated into the core science disciplines with its inclusion in all of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, 2018). The need for a practical and functional definition for teacher practitioners is a driving point for many recent research endeavors. Across the United States school systems are currently seeking new methods for expanding their students’ ability to analytically think and to employee real-world problem-solving strategies (Hopson, Simms, and Knezek, 2001). The need for STEM trained individuals crosses both the vocational certified and college degreed …

An Analysis And Comparison Of Knot Polynomials, 2020 James Madison University

#### An Analysis And Comparison Of Knot Polynomials, Hannah Steinhauer

*Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current*

Knot polynomials are polynomial equations that are assigned to knot projections based on the mathematical properties of the knots. They are also invariants, or properties of knots that do not change under ambient isotopy. In other words, given an invariant α for a knot K, α is the same for any projection of K. We will define these knot polynomials and explain the processes by which one finds them for a given knot projection. We will also compare the relative usefulness of these polynomials.

Hyperbolic Endomorphisms Of Free Groups, 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Hyperbolic Endomorphisms Of Free Groups, Jean Pierre Mutanguha

*Graduate Theses and Dissertations*

We prove that ascending HNN extensions of free groups are word-hyperbolic if and only if they have no Baumslag-Solitar subgroups. This extends Brinkmann's theorem that free-by-cyclic groups are word-hyperbolic if and only if they have no Z2 subgroups. To get started on our main theorem, we first prove a structure theorem for injective but nonsurjective endomorphisms of free groups. With the decomposition of the free group given by this structure theorem, we (more or less) construct representatives for nonsurjective endomorphisms that are expanding immersions relative to a homotopy equivalence. This structure theorem initializes the development of (relative) train track theory …

Fern Or Fractal... Or Both?, 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

#### Fern Or Fractal... Or Both?, Christina Babcock

*Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters*

Fractals are series of self similar sets and can be found in nature. After researching the Barnsley Fern and the iterated function systems using to create the fractal, I was able to apply what I learned to create a fractal shell. This was done using iterated function systems, matrices, random numbers, and Python coding.

Syllabus For Semester Bridge Course: Fundamental Concepts Of Math For Educators: Fundamental Concepts Of Algebra And Geometry & Problem Solving Through Theory And Practice (Math 301a Qbr), 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Syllabus For Semester Bridge Course: Fundamental Concepts Of Math For Educators: Fundamental Concepts Of Algebra And Geometry & Problem Solving Through Theory And Practice (Math 301a Qbr), Lamies Nazzal, Joyce Ahlgren

*Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy*

The Quarter-to-Semester transition at CSUSB brought a number of challenges for many courses or course series. One of those included the math requirement for Liberal Studies series, Math 30x courses. The challenge here is that the 30x series includes four courses, yet the transition to semesters will yield three courses. In the Fall of 2020, the fourth 2-unit course in the series, Math 308 (Problem Solving Through Theory and Practice), will no longer be offered. Instead, it will be embedded into the first three courses. Students beginning the series after Fall 2019, will not have enough time to complete the …

Compactifications Of Cluster Varieties Associated To Root Systems, 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Compactifications Of Cluster Varieties Associated To Root Systems, Feifei Xie

*Doctoral Dissertations*

In this thesis we identify certain cluster varieties with the complement of a union of closures of hypertori in a toric variety. We prove the existence of a compactification $Z$ of the Fock--Goncharov $\mathcal{X}$-cluster variety for a root system $\Phi$ satisfying some conditions, and study the geometric properties of $Z$. We give a relation of the cluster variety to the toric variety for the fan of Weyl chambers and use a modular interpretation of $X(A_n)$ to give another compactification of the $\mathcal{X}$-cluster variety for the root system $A_n$.

Numerical Solution For Solving Two-Points Boundary Value Problems Using Orthogonal Boubaker Polynomials, 2020 University of Technology, Iraq

#### Numerical Solution For Solving Two-Points Boundary Value Problems Using Orthogonal Boubaker Polynomials, Imad Noah Ahmed

*Emirates Journal for Engineering Research*

In this paper, a new technique for solving boundary value problems (BVPs) is introduced. An orthogonal function for Boubaker polynomial was utilizedand by the aid of Galerkin method the BVP was transformed to a system of linear algebraic equations with unknown coefficients, which can be easily solved to find the approximate result. Some numerical examples were added with illustrations, comparing their results with the exact to show the efficiency and the applicability of the method.

Classification Of Torsion Subgroups For Mordell Curves, 2020 Union College - Schenectady, NY

#### Classification Of Torsion Subgroups For Mordell Curves, Zachary Porat

*Honors Theses*

Elliptic curves are an interesting area of study in mathematics, laying at the intersection of algebra, geometry, and number theory. They are a powerful tool, having applications in everything from Andrew Wiles’ proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem to cybersecurity. In this paper, we first provide an introduction to elliptic curves by discussing their geometry and associated group structure. We then narrow our focus, further investigating the torsion subgroups of elliptic curves. In particular, we will examine two methods used to classify these subgroups. We finish by employing these methods to categorize the torsion subgroups for a specific family of elliptic …

Isoperimetric Problems On The Line With Density |𝑥|ᵖ, 2020 Nanjing International School

#### Isoperimetric Problems On The Line With Density |𝑥|ᵖ, Juiyu Huang, Xinkai Qian, Yiheng Pan, Mulei Xu, Lu Yang, Junfei Zhou

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

On the line with density |x|^p, we prove that the best single bubble is an interval with endpoint at the origin and that the best double bubble is two adjacent intervals that meet at the origin.

Pascal's Mystic Hexagon In Tropical Geometry, 2020 Claremont Colleges

#### Pascal's Mystic Hexagon In Tropical Geometry, Hanna Hoffman

*HMC Senior Theses*

Pascal's mystic hexagon is a theorem from projective geometry. Given six points in the projective plane, we can construct three points by extending opposite sides of the hexagon. These three points are collinear if and only if the six original points lie on a nondegenerate conic. We attempt to prove this theorem in the tropical plane.

Algebraic And Geometric Properties Of Hierarchical Models, 2020 University of Kentucky

#### Algebraic And Geometric Properties Of Hierarchical Models, Aida Maraj

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

In this dissertation filtrations of ideals arising from hierarchical models in statistics related by a group action are are studied. These filtrations lead to ideals in polynomial rings in infinitely many variables, which require innovative tools. Regular languages and finite automata are used to prove and explicitly compute the rationality of some multivariate power series that record important quantitative information about the ideals. Some work regarding Markov bases for non-reducible models is shown, together with advances in the polyhedral geometry of binary hierarchical models.

Scrollar Invariants Of Tropical Chains Of Loops, 2020 University of Kentucky

#### Scrollar Invariants Of Tropical Chains Of Loops, Kalila Joelle Sawyer

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

We define scrollar invariants of tropical curves with a fixed divisor of rank 1. We examine the behavior of scrollar invariants under specialization, and compute these invariants for a much-studied family of tropical curves. Our examples highlight many parallels between the classical and tropical theories, but also point to some substantive distinctions.

Codes, Cryptography, And The Mceliece Cryptosystem, 2020 Liberty University

#### Codes, Cryptography, And The Mceliece Cryptosystem, Bethany Matsick

*Senior Honors Theses*

Over the past several decades, technology has continued to develop at an incredible rate, and the importance of properly securing information has increased significantly. While a variety of encryption schemes currently exist for this purpose, a number of them rely on problems, such as integer factorization, that are not resistant to quantum algorithms. With the reality of quantum computers approaching, it is critical that a quantum-resistant method of protecting information is found. After developing the proper background, we evaluate the potential of the McEliece cryptosystem for use in the post-quantum era by examining families of algebraic geometry codes that allow …

Geometry Of Linear Subspace Arrangements With Connections To Matroid Theory, 2020 University of Kentucky

#### Geometry Of Linear Subspace Arrangements With Connections To Matroid Theory, William Trok

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

This dissertation is devoted to the study of the geometric properties of subspace configurations, with an emphasis on configurations of points. One distinguishing feature is the widespread use of techniques from Matroid Theory and Combinatorial Optimization. In part we generalize a theorem of Edmond's about partitions of matroids in independent subsets. We then apply this to establish a conjectured bound on the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity of a set of fat points.

We then study how the dimension of an ideal of point changes when intersected with a generic fat subspace. In particular we introduce the concept of a ``very unexpected hypersurface'' …

Introduction To Neutroalgebraic Structures And Antialgebraic Structures (Revisited), 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Introduction To Neutroalgebraic Structures And Antialgebraic Structures (Revisited), Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In all classical algebraic structures, the Laws of Compositions on a given set are well-defined. But this is a restrictive case, because there are many more situations in science and in any domain of knowledge when a law of composition defined on a set may be only partially-defined (or partially true) and partially-undefined (or partially false), that we call NeutroDefined, or totally undefined (totally false) that we call AntiDefined. Again, in all classical algebraic structures, the Axioms (Associativity, Commutativity, etc.) defined on a set are totally true, but it is again a restrictive case, because similarly there are numerous situations …

Extension Of Hypergraph To N-Superhypergraph And To Plithogenic N-Superhypergraph, And Extension Of Hyperalgebra To N-Ary (Classical-/Neutro-/Anti-)Hyperalgebra, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Extension Of Hypergraph To N-Superhypergraph And To Plithogenic N-Superhypergraph, And Extension Of Hyperalgebra To N-Ary (Classical-/Neutro-/Anti-)Hyperalgebra, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

We recall and improve our 2019 concepts of n-Power Set of a Set, n-SuperHyperGraph, Plithogenic n-SuperHyperGraph, and n-ary HyperAlgebra, n-ary NeutroHyperAlgebra, n-ary AntiHyperAlgebra respectively, and we present several properties and examples connected with the real world.

The Neutrosophic Triplet Of ����-Algebras, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### The Neutrosophic Triplet Of ����-Algebras, Florentin Smarandache, Akbar Rezaei

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, the concepts of a Neutro-����-algebra and Anti-����-algebra are introduced, and some related properties are investigated. We show that the class of Neutro-����-algebra is an alternative of the class of ����-algebras.

A New Trend To Extensions Of Ci-Algebras, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### A New Trend To Extensions Of Ci-Algebras, Florentin Smarandache, Akbar Rezaei, Hee Sik Kim

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, as an extension of CI-algebras, we discuss the new notions of Neutro-CI-algebras and Anti-CI-algebras. First, some examples are given to show that these definitions are different. We prove that any proper CI-algebra is a Neutro-BE-algebra or Anti-BE-algebra. Also, we show that any NeutroSelf-distributive and AntiCommutative CI-algebras are not BE-algebras.

Neutro-Bck-Algebra, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Neutro-Bck-Algebra, Florentin Smarandache, Mohammad Hamidi

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

This paper introduces the novel concept of Neutro-BCK-algebra. In Neutro-BCK-algebra, the outcome of any given two elements under an underlying operation (neutro-sophication procedure) has three cases, such as: appurtenance, non-appurtenance, or indeterminate. While for an axiom: equal, non-equal, or indeterminate. This study investigates the Neutro-BCK-algebra and shows that Neutro-BCK-algebra are different from BCK-algebra. The notation of Neutro-BCK-algebra generates a new concept of NeutroPoset and Neutro-Hass-diagram for NeutroPosets. Finally, we consider an instance of applications of the Neutro-BCK-algebra.