Zero Forcing Propagation Time On Oriented Graphs, 2017 Saint Olaf College

#### Zero Forcing Propagation Time On Oriented Graphs, Adam Berliner, Chassidy Bozeman, Steve Butler, Minerva Catral, Leslie Hogben, Brenda Kroschel, Jephian C.H. Lin, Nathan Warnberg, Michael Young

*Leslie Hogben*

Zero forcing is an iterative coloring procedure on a graph that starts by initially coloring vertices white and blue and then repeatedly applies the following rule: if any blue vertex has a unique (out-)neighbor that is colored white, then that neighbor is forced to change color from white to blue. An initial set of blue vertices that can force the entire graph to blue is called a zero forcing set. In this paper we consider the minimum number of iterations needed for this color change rule to color all of the vertices blue, also known as the propagation time ...

Deductive Varieties Of Modules And Universal Algebras, 2017 Iowa State University

#### Deductive Varieties Of Modules And Universal Algebras, Leslie Hogben, Clifford Bergman

*Leslie Hogben*

A variety of universal algebras is called deductive if every subquasivariety is a variety. The following results are obtained: (1) The variety of modules of an Artinian ring is deductive if and only if the ring is the direct sum of matrix rings over local rings, in which the maximal ideal is principal as a left and right ideal. (2) A directly representable variety of finite type is deductive if an only if either (i) it is equationally complete, or (ii) every algebra has an idempotent element, and a ring constructed from the variety is of the form (1) above.

The Enhanced Principal Rank Characteristic Sequence For Hermitian Matrices, 2017 Iowa State University

#### The Enhanced Principal Rank Characteristic Sequence For Hermitian Matrices, Steve Butler, M. Catral, H. Tracy Hall, Leslie Hogben, Xavier Martinez-Rivera, Bryan L. Shader, Pauline Van Den Driessche

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

The enhanced principal rank characteristic sequence (epr-sequence) of an $n\x n$ matrix is a sequence $\ell_1 \ell_2 \cdots \ell_n$, where each $\ell_k$ is ${\tt A}$, ${\tt S}$, or ${\tt N}$ according as all, some, or none of its principal minors of order $k$ are nonzero. There has been substantial work on epr-sequences of symmetric matrices (especially real symmetric matrices) and real skew-symmetric matrices, and incidental remarks have been made about results extending (or not extending) to (complex) Hermitian matrices. A systematic study of epr-sequences of Hermitian matrices is undertaken; the differences with the case of symmetric matrices are quite ...

Self-Interlacing Polynomials Ii: Matrices With Self-Interlacing Spectrum, 2017 Shanghai Jiaotong University

#### Self-Interlacing Polynomials Ii: Matrices With Self-Interlacing Spectrum, Mikhail Tyaglov

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

An $n\times n$ matrix is said to have a self-interlacing spectrum if its eigenvalues $\lambda_k$, $k=1,\ldots,n$, are distributed as follows: $$ \lambda_1>-\lambda_2>\lambda_3>\cdots>(-1)^{n-1}\lambda_n>0. $$ A method for constructing sign definite matrices with self-interlacing spectrum from totally nonnegative ones is presented. This method is applied to bidiagonal and tridiagonal matrices. In particular, a result by O. Holtz on the spectrum of real symmetric anti-bidiagonal matrices with positive nonzero entries is generalized.

Session A-3: Three-Act Math Tasks, 2017 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

#### Session A-3: Three-Act Math Tasks, Lindsey Herlehy

*Professional Learning Day*

Participants will engage in a Three-Act Math task highlighting the application of properties of geometrical figures. Developed by Dan Meyer, an innovative and highly regarded mathematics instructor, Three-Act Math tasks utilize pedagogical skills that elicit student curiosity, collaboration and questioning. By posing a mathematical problem through active storytelling, this instructional approach redefines real-world mathematics and clarifies the role that a student plays in the learning process. Participants will be given multiple resources where they can access Three-Act Math tasks appropriate for upper elementary grades through Algebra and Geometry courses.

Generalized Left And Right Weyl Spectra Of Upper Triangular Operator Matrices, 2017 University of Nis

#### Generalized Left And Right Weyl Spectra Of Upper Triangular Operator Matrices, Guojun Hai, Dragana S. Cvetkovic-Ilic

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

In this paper, for given operators $A\in\B(\H)$ and $B\in\B(\K)$, the sets of all $C\in \B(\K,\H)$ such that $M_C=\bmatrix{cc} A&C\\0&B\endbmatrix$ is generalized Weyl and generalized left (right) Weyl, are completely described. Furthermore, the following intersections and unions of the generalized left Weyl spectra $$ \bigcup_{C\in\B(\K,\H)}\sigma^g_{lw}(M_C) \;\;\; \mbox{and} \;\;\; \bigcap_{C\in\B(\K,\H)}\sigma^g_{lw}(M_C) $$ are also described, and necessary and sufficient conditions which two operators $A\in\B(\H)$ and $B\in\B(\K)$ have to satisfy in order for $M_C$ to be a generalized left Weyl operator for each $C\in\B(\K,\H)$, are presented.

The Mathematics Of Superoscillations, 2017 Chapman University

#### The Mathematics Of Superoscillations, Yakir Aharonov, Fabrizio Colombo, Irene Sabadini, Daniele C. Struppa, Jeff Tollaksen

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

In the past 50 years, quantum physicists have discovered, and experimentally demonstrated, a phenomenon which they termed superoscillations. Aharonov and his collaborators showed that superoscillations naturally arise when dealing with weak values, a notion that provides a fundamentally different way to regard measurements in quantum physics. From a mathematical point of view, superoscillating functions are a superposition of small Fourier components with a bounded Fourier spectrum, which result, when appropriately summed, in a shift that can be arbitrarily large, and well outside the spectrum. Purpose of this work is twofold: on one hand we provide a self-contained survey of the ...

Lorentz Transformation From An Elementary Point Of View, 2017 Laboratoire de Physique Th\'{e}orique, Universit\'{e} de Toulouse III \& CNRS

#### Lorentz Transformation From An Elementary Point Of View, Arkadiusz Jadczyk, Jerzy Szulga

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Elementary methods are used to examine some nontrivial mathematical issues underpinning the Lorentz transformation. Its eigen-system is characterized through the exponential of a $G$-skew symmetric matrix, underlining its unconnectedness at one of its extremes (the hyper-singular case). A different yet equivalent angle is presented through Pauli coding which reveals the connection between the hyper-singular case and the shear map.

Links With Finite N-Quandles, 2017 Pitzer College

#### Links With Finite N-Quandles, Jim Hoste, Patrick D. Shanahan

*Patrick Shanahan*

We prove a conjecture of Przytycki which asserts that the *n*-quandle of a link *L* in the 3-sphere is finite if and only if the fundamental group of the *n*-fold cyclic branched cover of the 3-sphere, branched over *L*, is finite.

Specifications Grading In A First Course In Abstract Algebra, 2017 Dordt College

#### Specifications Grading In A First Course In Abstract Algebra, Mike Janssen

*Faculty Work Comprehensive List*

Specifications grading offers an alternative to more traditional, points-based grading and assessment structures. In place of partial credit, students are assessed pass/fail on whether or not they have achieved the learning outcomes being assessed on a given piece of work according to certain specifications, with limited opportunities for revision of non-passing work. This talk will describe the learning outcomes and specifications grading system I used in my Fall 2016 abstract algebra course, as well as student responses.

Normal Subgroups Of Wreath Product 3-Groups, 2017 The University of Akron

#### Normal Subgroups Of Wreath Product 3-Groups, Ryan Gopp

*Honors Research Projects*

Consider the regular wreath product group P of Z_{9} with (Z_{3} x Z_{3}). The problem of determining all normal subgroups of P that are contained in its base subgroup is equivalent to determining the subgroups of a certain matrix group M that are invariant under two particular endomorphisms of M. This thesis is a partial solution to the latter. We use concepts from linear algebra and group theory to find and count so-called doubly-invariant subgroups of M.

Fast Multipole Method Using Cartesian Tensor In Beam Dynamic Simulation, 2017 Old Dominion University

#### Fast Multipole Method Using Cartesian Tensor In Beam Dynamic Simulation, He Zhang, He Huang, Rui Li, Jie Chen, Li-Shi Luo

*Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications*

The fast multipole method (FMM) using traceless totally symmetric Cartesian tensor to calculate the Coulomb interaction between charged particles will be presented. The Cartesian tensor based FMM can be generalized to treat other non-oscillating interactions with the help of the differential algebra or the truncated power series algebra. Issues on implementation of the FMM in beam dynamic simulations are also discussed. © 2017 Author(s).

On P-Adic Fields And P-Groups, 2017 University of Kentucky

#### On P-Adic Fields And P-Groups, Luis A. Sordo Vieira

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

The dissertation is divided into two parts. The first part mainly treats a conjecture of Emil Artin from the 1930s. Namely, if f = a_1x_1^d + a_2x_2^d +...+ a_{d^2+1}x^d where the coefficients a_i lie in a finite unramified extension of a rational p-adic field, where p is an odd prime, then f is isotropic. We also deal with systems of quadratic forms over finite fields and study the isotropicity of the system relative to the number of variables. We also study a variant of the classical Davenport constant of finite abelian groups and relate it to ...

The Partition Lattice In Many Guises, 2017 University of Kentucky

#### The Partition Lattice In Many Guises, Dustin G. Hedmark

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

This dissertation is divided into four chapters. In Chapter 2 the equivariant homology groups of upper order ideals in the partition lattice are computed. The homology groups of these filters are written in terms of border strip Specht modules as well as in terms of links in an associated complex in the lattice of compositions. The classification is used to reproduce topological calculations of many well-studied subcomplexes of the partition lattice, including the d-divisible partition lattice and the Frobenius complex. In Chapter 3 the box polynomial B_{m,n}(x) is defined in terms of all integer partitions that fit ...

Colorings Of Hamming-Distance Graphs, 2017 University of Kentucky

#### Colorings Of Hamming-Distance Graphs, Isaiah H. Harney

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Hamming-distance graphs arise naturally in the study of error-correcting codes and have been utilized by several authors to provide new proofs for (and in some cases improve) known bounds on the size of block codes. We study various standard graph properties of the Hamming-distance graphs with special emphasis placed on the chromatic number. A notion of robustness is defined for colorings of these graphs based on the tolerance of swapping colors along an edge without destroying the properness of the coloring, and a complete characterization of the maximally robust colorings is given for certain parameters. Additionally, explorations are made into ...

Developing Conceptual Understanding And Procedural Fluency In Algebra For High School Students With Intellectual Disability, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Developing Conceptual Understanding And Procedural Fluency In Algebra For High School Students With Intellectual Disability, Andrew J. Wojcik

*Theses and Dissertations*

Teaching students with Intellectual Disability (ID) is a relatively new endeavor. Beginning in 2001 with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act, the general education curriculum integrated algebra across the K-12 curriculum (Kendall, 2011; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010), and expansion of the curriculum included five intertwined skills (productive disposition, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and conceptual understanding) (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001). Researchers are just beginning to explore the potential of students with ID with algebra (Browder, Spooner, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Harris & Wakeman, 2008; Creech-Galloway, Collins, Knight, & Bausch, 2013; Courtade, Spooner, Browder, & Jimenez, 2012; Göransson, Hellblom-Thibblin, & Axdorph, 2016). Most of the research examines the development of procedural fluency (Göransson et al., 2016) and few researchers have explored high school level skills. Using a single-case multiple-baseline across participants design, the study proposes to teach two algebra skills to six high school students with ID, creating an equation (y=mx+b) from a graph of a line and creating a graph from an equation. The six high school students with ID will be recruited from a school district in central Virginia. The intervention package modeled after Jimenez, Browder, and Courtade (2008), included modeling, templates, time delay prompting, and a task analysis. Results showed that all six individuals improved performance during intervention for the target skills over baseline; results also indicated that in three out of the six cases some generalization to the inverse skill occurred without supplemental intervention. The ability of individuals with ID to generalize the learning without intervention provides some evidence that individuals with ID are developing conceptual understanding while learning procedural fluency.

Arithmetic | Algebra Homework, 2017 CUNY New York City College of Technology

#### Arithmetic | Algebra Homework, Samar Elhitti, Ariane Masuda, Lin Zhou

*Open Educational Resources*

Arithmetic | Algebra Homework book is a static version of the WeBWork online homework assignments that accompany the textbook Arithmetic | Algebra for the developmental math courses MAT 0630 and MAT 0650 at New York City College of Technology, CUNY.

Arithmetic | Algebra, 2017 CUNY New York City College of Technology

#### Arithmetic | Algebra, Samar Elhitti, Marianna Bonanome, Holly Carley, Thomas Tradler, Lin Zhou

*Open Educational Resources*

Arithmetic | Algebra provides a customized open-source textbook for the math developmental students at New York City College of Technology. The book consists of short chapters, addressing essential concepts necessary to successfully proceed to credit-level math courses. Each chapter provides several solved examples and one unsolved “Exit Problem”. Each chapter is also supplemented by its own WeBWork online homework assignment. The book can be used in conjunction with WeBWork for homework (online) or with the Arithmetic | Algebra Homework handbook (traditional). The content in the book, WeBWork and the homework handbook are also aligned to prepare students for the CUNY Elementary Algebra ...

College Algebra Through Problem Solving, 2017 CUNY Queensborough Community College

#### College Algebra Through Problem Solving, Danielle Cifone, Karan Puri, Debra Maslanko, Ewa Dabkowska

*Open Educational Resources*

This is a self-contained, open educational resource (OER) textbook for college algebra. Students can use the book to learn concepts and work in the book themselves. Instructors can adapt the book for use in any college algebra course to facilitate active learning through problem solving. Additional resources such as classroom assessments and online/printable homework is available from the authors.

Classifying The Jacobian Groups Of Adinkras, 2017 Harvey Mudd College

#### Classifying The Jacobian Groups Of Adinkras, Aaron R. Bagheri

*HMC Senior Theses*

Supersymmetry is a theoretical model of particle physics that posits a symmetry between bosons and fermions. Supersymmetry proposes the existence of particles that we have not yet observed and through them, offers a more unified view of the universe. In the same way Feynman Diagrams represent Feynman Integrals describing subatomic particle behaviour, supersymmetry algebras can be represented by graphs called adinkras. In addition to being motivated by physics, these graphs are highly structured and mathematically interesting. No one has looked at the Jacobians of these graphs before, so we attempt to characterize them in this thesis. We compute Jacobians through ...