Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,263 Full-Text Articles 2,352 Authors 466,930 Downloads 143 Institutions

All Articles in Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms

Faceted Search

1,263 full-text articles. Page 1 of 44.

The Lived Experiences Of Adult Male Trauma Survivors With Dance Movement Therapy, Jeanne Langston 2020 Walden University

The Lived Experiences Of Adult Male Trauma Survivors With Dance Movement Therapy, Jeanne Langston

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In the United States, approximately 7.7 million individuals are affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at any given time. Though women are likelier to develop PTSD symptoms, men are exposed to more traumatic events in their lifetimes. Empirically- supported PTSD options exist, however clinical application of these treatments may not consistently culminate in beneficial outcomes. Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) has demonstrated positive treatment outcomes for a variety of mental and physical disorders. Nonetheless, there is a lack of robust research related to the treatment experiences of men who have participated in DMT for trauma-related symptoms. The purpose of this ...


A Sensory-Based Program To Enhance Occupational Performance For Dementia, Ivy Annahi Torres-Flores, Jacob Gantan, Heather Anne August, Naomi Grace Wong 2019 Dominican University of California

A Sensory-Based Program To Enhance Occupational Performance For Dementia, Ivy Annahi Torres-Flores, Jacob Gantan, Heather Anne August, Naomi Grace Wong

Occupational Therapy | Graduate Capstone Projects

Dementia is a neurological disease, causing behavioral and cognitive symptoms, that progressively impairs an individual’s ability to engage in meaningful activities. Progressive deterioration associated with dementia impacts occupational performance and independence and quality of life. Sensory based interventions, such as drumming groups, have been hypothesized to be a non-pharmacological intervention for individuals with dementia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a sensory based intervention program, in this case participation in a drumming group, on functional engagement during self-feeding for individuals with dementia. Researchers gathered data over the course of two days using the Functional ...


Relation Of Depression Symptoms To Sustained Reward And Loss Sensitivity, Michael P. Berry, Ema Tanovic, Jutta Joormann, Charles A. Sanislow 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital

Relation Of Depression Symptoms To Sustained Reward And Loss Sensitivity, Michael P. Berry, Ema Tanovic, Jutta Joormann, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Depression is characterized by altered sensitivity to rewards, with recent evidence suggesting that the ability to sustain responses to rewards across long experimental tasks is diminished. Most work on sustained reward responsiveness has taken a cat- egorical approach and focused on major depressive disorder. However, impairments in reward sensitivity are also found at lower levels of symptom severity and may be relevant for understanding basic mechanisms linking reward processing abnormali- ties to depression. The current study took a dimensional approach to examine the relation between depression symptoms and sustained reward responsiveness by examining how early neural responses to rewards and ...


Betrayed Partners And Men With Poisoned Souls: Interview With A Former Sex Buyer In Germany, Ingeborg Kraus 2019 Psychologische Psychotherapeutin, Germany

Betrayed Partners And Men With Poisoned Souls: Interview With A Former Sex Buyer In Germany, Ingeborg Kraus

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Adoption Of Mobile Apps For Depression And Anxiety: Cross-Sectional Survey Study On Patient Interest And Barriers To Engagement, Jessica Lipschitz, Christopher J. Miller, Timothy P. Hogan, Katherine E. Burdick, Rachel Lippin-Foster, Steven R. Simon, James Burgess 2019 Harvard Medical School

Adoption Of Mobile Apps For Depression And Anxiety: Cross-Sectional Survey Study On Patient Interest And Barriers To Engagement, Jessica Lipschitz, Christopher J. Miller, Timothy P. Hogan, Katherine E. Burdick, Rachel Lippin-Foster, Steven R. Simon, James Burgess

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Emerging research suggests that mobile apps can be used to effectively treat common mental illnesses like depression and anxiety. Despite promising efficacy results and ease of access to these interventions, adoption of mobile health (mHealth; mobile device-delivered) interventions for mental illness has been limited. More insight into patients' perspectives on mHealth interventions is required to create effective implementation strategies and to adapt existing interventions to facilitate higher rates of adoption.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine, from the patient perspective, current use and factors that may impact the use of mHealth interventions for mental illness.

METHODS ...


Longitudinal Effects Of Maternal Love Withdrawal And Guilt Induction On Chinese American Preschoolers’ Bullying Aggressive Behavior, Jing Yu, Charissa S.L. Cheah, Craig H. Hart, Chongming Yang, Joseph A. Olsen 2019 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Longitudinal Effects Of Maternal Love Withdrawal And Guilt Induction On Chinese American Preschoolers’ Bullying Aggressive Behavior, Jing Yu, Charissa S.L. Cheah, Craig H. Hart, Chongming Yang, Joseph A. Olsen

All Faculty Publications

Bullying has been understudied among preschool children, especially those from Chinese American families. Previous research has also neglected the dimensional effects of psychological control on child bullying development. This study examined two psychological control dimensions, love withdrawal and guilt induction, and their effects on children’s bullying aggressive behavior using a longitudinal design. Participants were first generation Chinese American mothers (N = 133;mean age [Mage] = 37.82) and their preschool children (Mage = 4.48). Chinese immigrant mothers reported their psychologically controlling parenting and teachers rated children’s bullying aggressive behaviors in the school setting. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ...


The Relation Between Mental Health Problems And Future Violence Among Detained Male Juveniles, Olivier F. Colins, Thomas Grisso 2019 Orebro University

The Relation Between Mental Health Problems And Future Violence Among Detained Male Juveniles, Olivier F. Colins, Thomas Grisso

Open Access Articles

Background: Detention personnel may assume that mental health problems heighten the likelihood of future violence in detained youth. This study explored whether brief mental health screening tools are of value for alerting staff to a detained youth's potential for future violent offending.

Method: Boys (n = 1259; Mean age = 16.65) completed the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as part of a clinical protocol. Official records were collected to index past and future violent offending.

Results: A few significant positive and negative relationships between MAYSI-2 and SDQ scale scores and future violent ...


Effects Of Multisensory Stop Signals On Sensitivity To Alcohol-Induced Disinhibition In Drinkers With Adhd, Alexandra R. D'Agostino 2019 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Multisensory Stop Signals On Sensitivity To Alcohol-Induced Disinhibition In Drinkers With Adhd, Alexandra R. D'Agostino

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Multisensory environments facilitate behavioral functioning in humans. The redundant signal effect (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly to stimuli when information is presented as multisensory, redundant stimuli rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. Our studies show that the disinhibiting effects of alcohol are attenuated when stop signals are multisensory versus unisensory. The present study expanded on this research to test the degree to which multisensory stop signals could also attenuate the disinhibiting effects of alcohol in those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a clinical population characterized by poor impulse control. The ...


Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study reports on the use of ten knowledge competencies related to the behavioral management of concussion in schools. Trainings using these competencies as learning objectives were delivered to school personnel. This aims of the use of competencies in this way are to streamline the education of key stakeholders, to establish clear roles and responsibilities for constituents and equip individuals working with students following a concussion with the relevant knowledge to optimize outcomes. The majority of participants, primarily speech language pathologists working as related service providers in the schoolswhere the trainings occurred, judged the use of the competencies to be ...


Stress, Social Support, And Mindfulness In Parents Of Children With Neurodevelopmental Deficits: A Quantitative Analysis, Branden D. Syrotchen 2019 Walden University

Stress, Social Support, And Mindfulness In Parents Of Children With Neurodevelopmental Deficits: A Quantitative Analysis, Branden D. Syrotchen

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Parenting children with neurodevelopmental deficits (NDDs) is very stressful, more so than the parenting of typically developing children. There is considerable research on the topic of chronic stress experienced by caregivers; however, less is understood of parental stress experienced when raising children with NDDs. The purpose of this study was to examine how parental traits and habits, in the forms of mindfulness and social support levels, affect this cohort's general stress levels. The study was guided by Self-Determination Theory, which explored how parental acts could be classified along a continuum of being intrinsically or extrinsically derived. A convenience sample ...


Differences Between Nontraditional And Traditional College Students' Perceptions Of Transition Preparedness, Laila Erika Turner 2019 Walden University

Differences Between Nontraditional And Traditional College Students' Perceptions Of Transition Preparedness, Laila Erika Turner

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

While scholars have used Schlossberg's transition theory for more than 35 years to study college-to-work transition, researchers have yet to establish if there are meaningful differences in the perceptions of traditional and nontraditional college students regarding transition preparedness from college-to-work. Following the career transition model, this quantitative study was conducted to compare traditional and nontraditional college students' perceptions of transition preparedness, specifically the concepts of readiness, confidence, control, perceived support, and decision independence. The nontraditional students in this study were military veterans. The dependent variables were measured by the Career Transition Inventory (CTI) survey. Participants were selected via a ...


Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland 2019 University of Kentucky

Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The marriage of perspectives from behavioral economic theory and learning theory has the potential to advance an understanding of substance use and substance use disorder. Behavioral economic demand is a central concept to this interdisciplinary approach. Evaluating demand in the laboratory and clinic can improve previous research on the relative reinforcing effects of drugs by accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of reinforcement rather than viewing reinforcement as a unitary construct. Recent advances in the commodity purchase task methodology have further simplified the measurement of demand values in human participants. This dissertation project presents a programmatic series of studies designed to ...


Stakeholder Engagement In Developing An Electronic Clinical Support Tool For Tobacco Prevention In Adolescent Primary Care, Ramzi G. Salloum, Ryan P. Theis, Lori Pbert, Matthew J. Gurka, Maribeth Porter, Diana Lee, Elizabeth A. Shenkman, Lindsay A. Thompson 2018 University of Florida

Stakeholder Engagement In Developing An Electronic Clinical Support Tool For Tobacco Prevention In Adolescent Primary Care, Ramzi G. Salloum, Ryan P. Theis, Lori Pbert, Matthew J. Gurka, Maribeth Porter, Diana Lee, Elizabeth A. Shenkman, Lindsay A. Thompson

Open Access Articles

Following guideline recommendations to promote tobacco prevention in adolescent primary care, we developed a patient-facing clinical support tool. The electronic tool screens patients for use and susceptibility to conventional and alternative tobacco products, and promotes patient(-)provider communication. The purpose of this paper is to describe the iterative stakeholder engagement process used in the development of the tool. During the pre-testing phase, we consulted with scientists, methodologists, clinicians, and Citizen Scientists. Throughout the development phase, we engaged providers from three clinics in focus groups. Usability testing was conducted via in-depth, cognitive interviewing of adolescent patients. Citizen Scientists (n = 7) played ...


Reluctance Of Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy To Participate In An Online Intervention On Self-Management: Lessons Learned From A Randomized Control Trial, Cynthia T. Thompson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Reluctance Of Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy To Participate In An Online Intervention On Self-Management: Lessons Learned From A Randomized Control Trial, Cynthia T. Thompson

Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Purpose: Assess the effectiveness of an online intervention to encourage self-management in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP).

Specific Aims: (a) assess effectiveness of an online intervention to promote readiness for self-management in adolescents with CP, (b) describe health literacy and associations with readiness to assume self-management, and (c) evaluate adolescents’ exposure to the online intervention.

Hypotheses: (a) intervention subjects would demonstrate improvement in self-management, and (b) subjects with higher health literacy would demonstrate higher self-management capabilities.

Framework: Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change

Design: Randomized control trial, performed in a multidisciplinary CP clinic at a university based children’s hospital ...


Training Non-Board Certified Behavior Analyst (Bcba) Behavior Specialists To Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses In Residential Settings, Devon S. Millington 2018 Utah State University

Training Non-Board Certified Behavior Analyst (Bcba) Behavior Specialists To Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses In Residential Settings, Devon S. Millington

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a process for identifying the reasons why a person with an intellectual disability has problem behaviors. This process is called a trial-based functional analysis (TBFA). The researchers wanted to know if a person who was not an expert behavior analyst could be trained to perform the TBFA and if the results obtained from the TBFA could be used to create a program to reduce the problem behavior of a person with an intellectual disability living in a community-based group home for persons with disabilities. The results of this study show that a person who is not an ...


Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks

Theses and Dissertations

The present study (n = 335) attempted to conceptually replicate Hunt, Kim, Borgida, and Chaiken (2010) with a high-powered design to investigate whether values and self-interest differentially impact attitudes depending on psychological distance. Participants were assigned to complete a task that made self- or other-focused values more accessible, then indicated their attitudes about a student fee increase at a university to fund scholarships the participants would not be eligible to receive (thus going against their own financial self-interest for the well being of someone else). The memo describing the fee increase was manipulated such that the increase would be occurring at ...


Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill

Theses and Dissertations

People struggle with temptation in their everyday lives. Research often attributes failures in self-regulation to overwhelming and uncontrollable impulses. However, research also supports the idea that cognitive factors (e.g., justification) can license tempting behavior and allow individuals to behave in ways that run counter to their long-term goals. In addition, it is likely that affect plays a role in justification-based self-control failure. The current set of three studies investigated the role of affect in justification-based self-control failure. Study 1 tested the prediction that recall of past successes would result in increased positive affect. Study 2 assessed whether justification results ...


Pharmacy Staff Perspectives On Alcohol And Medication Interaction Prevention Among Older Rural Adults, Faika Zanjani, Hannah Allen, Rachel Vickers Smith, Demetra Antimisiaris, Nancy E. Schoenberg, Catherine A. Martin, Richard Clayton 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Pharmacy Staff Perspectives On Alcohol And Medication Interaction Prevention Among Older Rural Adults, Faika Zanjani, Hannah Allen, Rachel Vickers Smith, Demetra Antimisiaris, Nancy E. Schoenberg, Catherine A. Martin, Richard Clayton

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

Older adults are at high risk for alcohol and medication interactions (AMI). Pharmacies have the potential to act as ideal locations for AMI education, as pharmacy staff play an important role in the community. This study examined the perspectives of pharmacy staff on AMI prevention programming messaging, potential barriers to and facilitators of older adult participation in such programming, and dissemination methods for AMI prevention information. Flyers, telephone calls, and site visits were used to recruit 31 pharmacy staff members who participated in semistructured interviews. A content analysis of interview transcriptions was conducted to identify major themes, categories, and subcategories ...


Relationships Between Intensity, Duration, Cumulative Dose, And Timing Of Smoking With Age At Menopause: A Pooled Analysis Of Individual Data From 17 Observational Studies, Dongshan Zhu, Sybil L. Crawford, Gita D. Mishra 2018 University of Queensland

Relationships Between Intensity, Duration, Cumulative Dose, And Timing Of Smoking With Age At Menopause: A Pooled Analysis Of Individual Data From 17 Observational Studies, Dongshan Zhu, Sybil L. Crawford, Gita D. Mishra

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with earlier menopause, but the impact of being a former smoker and any dose-response relationships on the degree of smoking and age at menopause have been less clear. If the toxic impact of cigarette smoking on ovarian function is irreversible, we hypothesized that even former smokers might experience earlier menopause, and variations in intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and age at start/quit of smoking might have varying impacts on the risk of experiencing earlier menopause.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 207,231 and 27,580 postmenopausal women were included in the cross-sectional and prospective ...


Treating Comorbid Ptsd And Bpd: A Dialectical Approach, Meredith Pescatello 2018 Brigham Young University

Treating Comorbid Ptsd And Bpd: A Dialectical Approach, Meredith Pescatello

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

According to the Biosocial Developmental Model for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), individuals with a biological vulnerability (i.e., heightened emotional sensitivity and impulsive tendencies), plus an invalidating environment may develop BPD (Crowell, Beauchaine, & Linehan, 2009). Individuals with BPD are especially difficult to treat, because of their “extreme emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation” (Crowell, Beauchaine, & Linehan, 2009). Though challenging to treat, BPD can be successfully treated using Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) (Linehan, 1993; Linehan 2015). Similarly, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is complex and often burnout inducing to treat, because of the intensity of the emotional content related to traumatic events and high symptom severity including flashbacks, dissociation, and nightmares (Foa, 1993). PTSD can be adequately treated using exposure-based interventions, such as prolonged exposure (Foa, Chrestman, & Gilboa-Schechtman, 2009). However, when BPD is comorbid with PTSD, symptom severity is often heightened to ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress