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1303 full-text articles. Page 7 of 47.

Personality And Life Events In A Personality Disorder Sample, Linden R. Timoney, Zach Walsh, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. McGlashan, Robert L. Stout, Andrew E. Skodol, Donna S. Bender, Charles A. Sanislow, Leslie C. Morey, John G. Gunderson 2016 University of British Columbia

Personality And Life Events In A Personality Disorder Sample, Linden R. Timoney, Zach Walsh, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Robert L. Stout, Andrew E. Skodol, Donna S. Bender, Charles A. Sanislow, Leslie C. Morey, John G. Gunderson

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than
positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts
both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality
traits were associated with positive and negative life events among individuals with 1 of 4 PDs: avoidant,
borderline, schizotypal, and obsessive– compulsive, and tested whether associations between the FFM of
personality and PLEs and NLEs were similar across the 4 PD groups and a control group. Among
aggregated PDs, neuroticism was positively associated with NLEs, whereas ...


University Students' Involvement In A Health Promoting Lifestyle: Influencing Factors Of The Health Promotion Model, Madison Estrada 2016 Pittsburg State University

University Students' Involvement In A Health Promoting Lifestyle: Influencing Factors Of The Health Promotion Model, Madison Estrada

Electronic Thesis Collection

Abstract: This is a correlational study utilizing Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) for examining the key influential factors regarding involvement in a health promoting lifestyle (HPL) among undergraduate students at Pittsburg State University. Ninety-six (96) undergraduate students enrolled in general psychology courses at Pittsburg State University completed the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II; Walker, Sechrist, & Pender, 1987), the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS; Pender, Walker, & Sechrist, 1987), the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE Scale; Resnick & Jenkins, 2000), and the Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire (Marcus, Selby, Niaura, & Rossi, 1992). Spearman Correlation coefficients (one-tailed tests), were used to identify significant characteristics of those participating in an HPL. These analyses revealed the students in this sample ...


Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai

Edwin D. Boudreaux

BACKGROUND: The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory.

OBJECTIVE: To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing ...


Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai

Edwin D. Boudreaux

BACKGROUND: The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory.

OBJECTIVE: To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing ...


Characteristics And Practices Of Adults Who Use Tanning Beds In Private Residences, Vinayak K. Nahar, Meagen Rosenthal, Stephenie C. Lemon, Dawn M. Holman, Meg Watson, Joel Hillhouse, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Mississippi

Characteristics And Practices Of Adults Who Use Tanning Beds In Private Residences, Vinayak K. Nahar, Meagen Rosenthal, Stephenie C. Lemon, Dawn M. Holman, Meg Watson, Joel Hillhouse, Sherry L. Pagoto

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Recent research shows that 7.7% of individuals who use indoor tanning beds do so in private homes, but little is known about this group. This study evaluated the tanning practices, reasons for tanning, and association with tanning addiction of adults who use tanning beds in private residences.


Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes.

METHODS ...


Patient Prioritization Of Comorbid Chronic Conditions In The Veteran Population: Implications For Patient-Centered Care, Lorilei M. Richardson, Jennifer N. Hill, Bridget M. Smith, Erica D. Bauer, Frances M. Weaver, Howard S. Gordon, Kevin T. Stroupe, Timothy P. Hogan 2016 Veterans Health Administration

Patient Prioritization Of Comorbid Chronic Conditions In The Veteran Population: Implications For Patient-Centered Care, Lorilei M. Richardson, Jennifer N. Hill, Bridget M. Smith, Erica D. Bauer, Frances M. Weaver, Howard S. Gordon, Kevin T. Stroupe, Timothy P. Hogan

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Patients with comorbid chronic conditions may prioritize some conditions over others; however, our understanding of factors influencing those prioritizations is limited. In this study, we sought to identify and elaborate a range of factors that influence how and why patients with comorbid chronic conditions prioritize their conditions.

METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with 33 patients with comorbidities recruited from a single Veterans Health Administration Medical Center.

FINDINGS: The diverse factors influencing condition prioritization reflected three overarching themes: (1) the perceived role of a condition in the body, (2) self-management tasks, and (3) pain. In addition to these themes ...


Engaging Moms On Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol Of A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sherry L. Pagoto, Katie Baker, Julia Griffith, Jessica L. Oleski, Ashley Palumbo, Barbara J. Walkosz, Joel Hillhouse, Kimberly L. Henry, David B. Buller 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engaging Moms On Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol Of A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sherry L. Pagoto, Katie Baker, Julia Griffith, Jessica L. Oleski, Ashley Palumbo, Barbara J. Walkosz, Joel Hillhouse, Kimberly L. Henry, David B. Buller

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children.

OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of a ...


Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The nonapeptide, oxytocin (OT), is implicated in a range of behavioural and physiological functions. However, OT's role in sickness behaviours remains unclear. This thesis examined effects of the OT agonist, carbetocin (CBT), and OT antagonist, L-368,899, on anxiety and locomotor sickness-related behaviours and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-6, in adult male CD-1 mice. Animals received 2 intraperitoneal treatment injections. The first treatment was carbetocin, L-368,899, or saline, while the second was lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Behaviours were evaluated via the light-dark test, and cytokines via immunoassay. OT antagonist treatment attenuated LPS induced perturbations in locomotor and ...


E-Cigarette Use Among Women Of Reproductive Age: Impulsivity, Cigarette Smoking Status, And Other Risk Factors., Laura L. Chivers, Dennis J. Hand, Jeff S. Priest, Stephen T. Higgins 2016 University of Vermont; Harvard University

E-Cigarette Use Among Women Of Reproductive Age: Impulsivity, Cigarette Smoking Status, And Other Risk Factors., Laura L. Chivers, Dennis J. Hand, Jeff S. Priest, Stephen T. Higgins

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant.

METHOD: Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smokingsociodemographics, tobacco/nicotine use, and impulsivity (i.e., delay discounting & Barratt Impulsiveness Scale). Predictors of smoking and e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression.

RESULTS: Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Ira S. Ockene

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.


Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.

METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...


Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health.

METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one ...


Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

Objective: Depression has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, and a depression–related elevation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The objective of this study was to examine association between 27 depression and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Methods: Subjects consisted of 508 healthy adults (mean age 48.5 years; 49% women, 88% white) residing in central Massachusetts. Data were collected at baseline and at quarterly intervals over a one-year period per individual. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association for the entire sample and by gender.

Results: The ...


Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

The objective of this investigation is to describe the associations of number of eating episodes and proportion of meals eaten away from home with total serum cholesterol. Data from 499 participants, recruited from a health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts, aged 20-70, were used for this analysis. Dietary information and total blood cholesterol were obtained at five sampling points (baseline and four consecutive quarters) during the one-year follow-up. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The results from the study do not support the hypothesis that the number of eating episodes per day is associated with total blood cholesterol. However, we noted ...


The Effectiveness Of E-& Mhealth Interventions To Promote Physical Activity And Healthy Diets In Developing Countries: A Systematic Review, Andre M. Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte 2016 University of Southampton

The Effectiveness Of E-& Mhealth Interventions To Promote Physical Activity And Healthy Diets In Developing Countries: A Systematic Review, Andre M. Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte

Andre M Müller

Background
Promoting physical activity and healthy eating is important to combat the unprecedented rise in NCDs in many developing countries. Using modern information-and communication technologies to deliver physical activity and diet interventions is particularly promising considering the increased proliferation of such technologies in many developing countries. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions to promote physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries.
Methods
Major databases and grey literature sources were searched to retrieve studies that quantitatively examined the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions on physical activity and diet outcomes in developing ...


A Pilot Study Of Comparison Gesture Analysis In Motion Driven Video Games, Fabrizio Valerio Covone, Brian Vaughan, Charlie Cullen 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Pilot Study Of Comparison Gesture Analysis In Motion Driven Video Games, Fabrizio Valerio Covone, Brian Vaughan, Charlie Cullen

Conference Papers

This study investigates whether there are significant differences in the gestures made by gamers and non-gamers whilst playing commercial games that employ gesture inputs. Specifically, the study focuses on testing a prototype of multimodal capture tool that we used to obtain real-time audio, video and skeletal gesture data. Additionally, we developed an experimental design framework for the acquisition of spatio-temporal gesture data and analysed the vector magnitude of a gesture to compare the relative displacement of each participant whilst playing a game.


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


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