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A Workload-Centered Perspective On Reduced Crew Operations In Commercial Aviation, Daniela Schmid 2017 DLR-German Aerospace Centre

A Workload-Centered Perspective On Reduced Crew Operations In Commercial Aviation, Daniela Schmid

2017

Mental workload of a pilot, in short workload, depends on various characteristics of different accumulated tasks on the flight deck. Exogenous task demands and endogenous supply of attentional or information processing resources determine workload [1]. Performance is expect to drop if the demand exceeds the available resources of the pilot. Expertise and experience modulate the endogenous sup- ply of resources like perceiving, updating memory, planing, making a decision, and executing and processing a response. Subsequently, workload manifests in performance variables, subjective experience, and physiological parameters [2]. This is how we can summarize workload very brie y to introduce a model ...


A Systems Approach To Predicting And Measuring Workload In Rail Traffic Management Systems, Joanna Evans 2017 Thales GTS, Human Factor Engineer

A Systems Approach To Predicting And Measuring Workload In Rail Traffic Management Systems, Joanna Evans

2017

The introduction of systems such as Traffic Management (TM) will result in a number of changes in how the railway is managed for operations and maintenance staff such as, an increase in collaborative working styles and shared responsibilities. In order to react to these changing operational demands and user needs, TM workstation designs need to have greater flexibility and be configurable to support the information requirements for each specific role as well as support each role during different scenarios. Although this flexibility in system design has the potential to enhance performance, it increases the complexity of measuring operator workload. The ...


A Secondary Analysis Of Survey Data Evaluating The Lifelines Suicide Prevention Program Among Middle School Students, Nicki Sullivan 2017 University of Kentucky

A Secondary Analysis Of Survey Data Evaluating The Lifelines Suicide Prevention Program Among Middle School Students, Nicki Sullivan

DNP Projects

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate student feedback of the 2015 Lifelines Suicide Prevention Program at Jessie Clark Middle School. Student feedback was examined by assessing students’ knowledge of suicide, attitudes toward suicide, knowledge of when and from whom to seek help if feeling suicidal or told by a friend that they are suicidal, and impressions of the educational presentation following participation in the Lifelines Suicide Prevention Program.

METHODS: In this secondary analysis, anonymous student responses (N=269) from a 2015 middle school survey were examined by using a mixed method design with the quantitative study measures ...


Psychophysiological Measures Of Mental Effort And Emotion Within User Research, Chase Rubin Meusel 2017 Iowa State University

Psychophysiological Measures Of Mental Effort And Emotion Within User Research, Chase Rubin Meusel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Psychophysiological measures have potential to aid the discipline of user research, but are currently under-utilized. Currently, across both academia and industry there is a need to increase the quality and quantity of feedback garnered from individuals during user tasks. Psychophysiological measures are beneficial in that they can collect data objectively, unobtrusively, and in real-time. The work put forth in this dissertation focuses on two separate contexts in which psychophysiological measures are used to increase the overall quality of user research data. The first context is described in Chapters 2 and 3, in which electrodermal activity (EDA) within a high fidelity ...


Personality And Life Events In A Personality Disorder Sample, Linden R. Timoney, Zach Walsh, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. McGlashan, Robert L. Stout, Andrew E. Skodol, Donna S. Bender, Charles A. Sanislow, Leslie C. Morey, John G. Gunderson 2016 University of British Columbia

Personality And Life Events In A Personality Disorder Sample, Linden R. Timoney, Zach Walsh, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Robert L. Stout, Andrew E. Skodol, Donna S. Bender, Charles A. Sanislow, Leslie C. Morey, John G. Gunderson

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than
positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts
both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality
traits were associated with positive and negative life events among individuals with 1 of 4 PDs: avoidant,
borderline, schizotypal, and obsessive– compulsive, and tested whether associations between the FFM of
personality and PLEs and NLEs were similar across the 4 PD groups and a control group. Among
aggregated PDs, neuroticism was positively associated with NLEs, whereas ...


University Students' Involvement In A Health Promoting Lifestyle: Influencing Factors Of The Health Promotion Model, Madison Estrada 2016 Pittsburg State University

University Students' Involvement In A Health Promoting Lifestyle: Influencing Factors Of The Health Promotion Model, Madison Estrada

Electronic Thesis Collection

Abstract: This is a correlational study utilizing Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) for examining the key influential factors regarding involvement in a health promoting lifestyle (HPL) among undergraduate students at Pittsburg State University. Ninety-six (96) undergraduate students enrolled in general psychology courses at Pittsburg State University completed the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II; Walker, Sechrist, & Pender, 1987), the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS; Pender, Walker, & Sechrist, 1987), the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE Scale; Resnick & Jenkins, 2000), and the Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire (Marcus, Selby, Niaura, & Rossi, 1992). Spearman Correlation coefficients (one-tailed tests), were used to identify significant characteristics of those participating in an HPL. These analyses revealed the students in this sample ...


Doctoring Undercover: Updating The Educational Tradition Of Shadowing, Claire D. Clark 2016 University of Kentucky

Doctoring Undercover: Updating The Educational Tradition Of Shadowing, Claire D. Clark

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

Background: Premedical students are educated in basic biological and health sciences. As a complement to traditional premedical coursework, medical school applicants are encouraged to shadow practitioners, with the hope that observation will introduce students to the culture and practice of healthcare. Yet the shadowing experience varies widely across practitioners and institutions; resources that guide students’ critical reflection and structure the experience are scarce.

Development: A pilot experiential learning course, Doctoring Undercover: Shadowing and the Culture of Medicine, was developed to fill this gap. The course consisted of three parts: an introduction to medical culture through the disciplines of medical sociology ...


Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai

Edwin D. Boudreaux

BACKGROUND: The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory.

OBJECTIVE: To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing ...


Characteristics And Practices Of Adults Who Use Tanning Beds In Private Residences, Vinayak K. Nahar, Meagen Rosenthal, Stephenie C. Lemon, Dawn M. Holman, Meg Watson, Joel Hillhouse, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Mississippi

Characteristics And Practices Of Adults Who Use Tanning Beds In Private Residences, Vinayak K. Nahar, Meagen Rosenthal, Stephenie C. Lemon, Dawn M. Holman, Meg Watson, Joel Hillhouse, Sherry L. Pagoto

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Recent research shows that 7.7% of individuals who use indoor tanning beds do so in private homes, but little is known about this group. This study evaluated the tanning practices, reasons for tanning, and association with tanning addiction of adults who use tanning beds in private residences.


Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes.

METHODS ...


Engaging Moms On Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol Of A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sherry L. Pagoto, Katie Baker, Julia Griffith, Jessica L. Oleski, Ashley Palumbo, Barbara J. Walkosz, Joel Hillhouse, Kimberly L. Henry, David B. Buller 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engaging Moms On Teen Indoor Tanning Through Social Media: Protocol Of A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sherry L. Pagoto, Katie Baker, Julia Griffith, Jessica L. Oleski, Ashley Palumbo, Barbara J. Walkosz, Joel Hillhouse, Kimberly L. Henry, David B. Buller

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children.

OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of a ...


Patient Prioritization Of Comorbid Chronic Conditions In The Veteran Population: Implications For Patient-Centered Care, Lorilei M. Richardson, Jennifer N. Hill, Bridget M. Smith, Erica D. Bauer, Frances M. Weaver, Howard S. Gordon, Kevin T. Stroupe, Timothy P. Hogan 2016 Veterans Health Administration

Patient Prioritization Of Comorbid Chronic Conditions In The Veteran Population: Implications For Patient-Centered Care, Lorilei M. Richardson, Jennifer N. Hill, Bridget M. Smith, Erica D. Bauer, Frances M. Weaver, Howard S. Gordon, Kevin T. Stroupe, Timothy P. Hogan

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Patients with comorbid chronic conditions may prioritize some conditions over others; however, our understanding of factors influencing those prioritizations is limited. In this study, we sought to identify and elaborate a range of factors that influence how and why patients with comorbid chronic conditions prioritize their conditions.

METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with 33 patients with comorbidities recruited from a single Veterans Health Administration Medical Center.

FINDINGS: The diverse factors influencing condition prioritization reflected three overarching themes: (1) the perceived role of a condition in the body, (2) self-management tasks, and (3) pain. In addition to these themes ...


Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The nonapeptide, oxytocin (OT), is implicated in a range of behavioural and physiological functions. However, OT's role in sickness behaviours remains unclear. This thesis examined effects of the OT agonist, carbetocin (CBT), and OT antagonist, L-368,899, on anxiety and locomotor sickness-related behaviours and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-6, in adult male CD-1 mice. Animals received 2 intraperitoneal treatment injections. The first treatment was carbetocin, L-368,899, or saline, while the second was lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Behaviours were evaluated via the light-dark test, and cytokines via immunoassay. OT antagonist treatment attenuated LPS induced perturbations in locomotor and ...


E-Cigarette Use Among Women Of Reproductive Age: Impulsivity, Cigarette Smoking Status, And Other Risk Factors., Laura L. Chivers, Dennis J. Hand, Jeff S. Priest, Stephen T. Higgins 2016 University of Vermont; Harvard University

E-Cigarette Use Among Women Of Reproductive Age: Impulsivity, Cigarette Smoking Status, And Other Risk Factors., Laura L. Chivers, Dennis J. Hand, Jeff S. Priest, Stephen T. Higgins

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant.

METHOD: Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smokingsociodemographics, tobacco/nicotine use, and impulsivity (i.e., delay discounting & Barratt Impulsiveness Scale). Predictors of smoking and e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression.

RESULTS: Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it ...


Simple Messages To Improve Dietary Quality: A Pilot Investigation, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Kristin L. Schneider, Philip A. Merriam, Annie L. Culver, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Simple Messages To Improve Dietary Quality: A Pilot Investigation, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Kristin L. Schneider, Philip A. Merriam, Annie L. Culver, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto

Ira S. Ockene

Public health recommendations for a healthy diet often involve complex messages, requiring in-depth knowledge for understanding and compliance. The present study compared the feasibility and initial efficacy of two simple messages (a high fiber diet or a low saturated fat diet) to a combination message (high fiber and low saturated fat) on the potential to impact dietary quality and metabolic health. Conclusions: A simple dietary message appears to improve overall dietary quality and aid in weight management. Simple messages are a novel approach which could make a significant impact on the prevention and treatment of chronic disease as well as ...


The Dietary Quality Of Persons With Heart Failure In Nhanes 1999-2006, Stephenie C. Lemon, Barbara C. Olendzki, Robert P. Magner, Wenjun Li, Annie L. Culver, Ira S. Ockene, Robert J. Goldberg 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Dietary Quality Of Persons With Heart Failure In Nhanes 1999-2006, Stephenie C. Lemon, Barbara C. Olendzki, Robert P. Magner, Wenjun Li, Annie L. Culver, Ira S. Ockene, Robert J. Goldberg

Ira S. Ockene

Describes the dietary quality and achievement of recommended dietary goals and assess correlates of goal achievement in a national sample of persons with heart failure. Data source is NHANES, a a series of cross-sectional studies conducted by the CDC to provide health information representative of the civilian population. Data from 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 cycles were used. Study limitations include self-reported heart failure diagnosis and diet and cross-sectional design. Study implications: Dietary quality of persons with heart failure is poor, with persons of lower education, overweight and obese persons and smokers at greatest risk. Poor diet places persons with heart ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Ira S. Ockene

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who ...


Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians. METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...


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