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Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The nonapeptide, oxytocin (OT), is implicated in a range of behavioural and physiological functions. However, OT's role in sickness behaviours remains unclear. This thesis examined effects of the OT agonist, carbetocin (CBT), and OT antagonist, L-368,899, on anxiety and locomotor sickness-related behaviours and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-6, in adult male CD-1 mice. Animals received 2 intraperitoneal treatment injections. The first treatment was carbetocin, L-368,899, or saline, while the second was lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Behaviours were evaluated via the light-dark test, and cytokines via immunoassay. OT antagonist treatment attenuated LPS induced perturbations in locomotor and ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Ira S. Ockene

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.


Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.

METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...


Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health.

METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one ...


Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

Objective: Depression has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, and a depression–related elevation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The objective of this study was to examine association between 27 depression and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Methods: Subjects consisted of 508 healthy adults (mean age 48.5 years; 49% women, 88% white) residing in central Massachusetts. Data were collected at baseline and at quarterly intervals over a one-year period per individual. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association for the entire sample and by gender.

Results: The ...


Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

The objective of this investigation is to describe the associations of number of eating episodes and proportion of meals eaten away from home with total serum cholesterol. Data from 499 participants, recruited from a health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts, aged 20-70, were used for this analysis. Dietary information and total blood cholesterol were obtained at five sampling points (baseline and four consecutive quarters) during the one-year follow-up. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The results from the study do not support the hypothesis that the number of eating episodes per day is associated with total blood cholesterol. However, we noted ...


Book Review, Juanita V. Field 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Juanita V. Field

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the following: Risk-TAKING BEHAVIOR. (J. Frank Yates, ed., Wiley 1992) [244 pp.] Acknowledgements, author index, figures, preface, references, series preface, subject index, tables. LC 91-21229, ISBN 0-471-92250-1. [Cloth $64.95. 1 Wiley Drive, Somerset NJ 08875.


Individual Response To Risk As A Function Of Normative Social Pressure: A Pilot Study Of Seat Belt Use, Kenneth D. Boehm, John T. Keating, Karl W. Pfefferkorn, Audra J. Pfeltz, Brady G. Serafin, Jessica L. Sullivan, Karen L. Thode, Kevin M. Vincent, Juanita V. Field 2016 University of New Hampshire

Individual Response To Risk As A Function Of Normative Social Pressure: A Pilot Study Of Seat Belt Use, Kenneth D. Boehm, John T. Keating, Karl W. Pfefferkorn, Audra J. Pfeltz, Brady G. Serafin, Jessica L. Sullivan, Karen L. Thode, Kevin M. Vincent, Juanita V. Field

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors attempt to clarify some of the variables that influence whether people act appropriately when a Risk is substantial and subject to individual control. They do so by reporting results of a pilot study of seat belt use. Also, the authors believe their approach to be generalizable to problems such as encouraging people to test for radon, to use condoms to prevent AIDS or to quit smoking.


The Effectiveness Of E-& Mhealth Interventions To Promote Physical Activity And Healthy Diets In Developing Countries: A Systematic Review, Andre M. Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte 2016 University of Southampton

The Effectiveness Of E-& Mhealth Interventions To Promote Physical Activity And Healthy Diets In Developing Countries: A Systematic Review, Andre M. Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte

Andre M Müller

Background
Promoting physical activity and healthy eating is important to combat the unprecedented rise in NCDs in many developing countries. Using modern information-and communication technologies to deliver physical activity and diet interventions is particularly promising considering the increased proliferation of such technologies in many developing countries. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions to promote physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries.
Methods
Major databases and grey literature sources were searched to retrieve studies that quantitatively examined the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions on physical activity and diet outcomes in developing ...


Nothing Recedes Like Success - Risk Analysis And The Organizational Amplification Of Risks, William R. Freudenburg 2016 University of New Hampshire

Nothing Recedes Like Success - Risk Analysis And The Organizational Amplification Of Risks, William R. Freudenburg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Professor Freudenburg believes that there is room for improvement in Risk analysis, particularly in drawing on systematic studies of human behavior in the calculation of real, empirical probabilities of failure. The need is argued to be especially acute where technological Risks are associated with low expected probabilities of failure and are managed by human organizations for extended periods of time. This permits complacency to set in.


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston

Stephenie C. Lemon

BACKGROUND: What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based ...


Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston

Kathleen M. Mazor

BACKGROUND: What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based ...


Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston

Sarah L. Cutrona

BACKGROUND: What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based ...


Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston

Rajani S. Sadasivam

BACKGROUND: What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based ...


Auditory Hallucinations And The Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings And Methodological Observations, Ben Alderson-Day, Kelly Diederen, Charles Fernyhough, Judith M. Ford, Guillermo Horga, Daniel S. Margulies, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Georg Northoff, James M. Shine, Jessica Turner, Vincent van de Ven, Remko van Lutterveld, Flavie Waters, Renaud Jardri 2016 Durham University

Auditory Hallucinations And The Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings And Methodological Observations, Ben Alderson-Day, Kelly Diederen, Charles Fernyhough, Judith M. Ford, Guillermo Horga, Daniel S. Margulies, Simon Mccarthy-Jones, Georg Northoff, James M. Shine, Jessica Turner, Vincent Van De Ven, Remko Van Lutterveld, Flavie Waters, Renaud Jardri

Open Access Articles

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals ...


Muscle Dysmorphia And Athletic Identity, Taylor McGohan 2016 Western Kentucky University

Muscle Dysmorphia And Athletic Identity, Taylor Mcgohan

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Society is creating a stronger importance for men to have muscular physiques. Therefore, increasing the dissatisfaction men have with their bodies and perceptions of body image. The current study assesses the possible relationship between muscle dysmorphia and athletic identity. As well as a relationship between lifting time and athletic identity. Participants for the current study took three different self-reported surveys to measure demographics, exercise history, level of athletic identity, and possible symptoms of muscle dysmorphia. It was hypothesized that those with strong athletic identities also have a stronger desire to gain muscle mass, increasing likelihood of displaying muscle dysmorphia symptoms ...


Barriers And Facilitators To Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons For Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’S Thesis, Melissa L. Anderson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Barriers And Facilitators To Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons For Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’S Thesis, Melissa L. Anderson

Melissa L. Anderson

Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility in the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted a secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors’ help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that can be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged are what we would expect of any research participant, Deaf or hearing – a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality ...


How Best To Study For A Test: A Comparison Of Practice Retrieval And Self-Explanation, Casey Fortney 2016 Western Kentucky University

How Best To Study For A Test: A Comparison Of Practice Retrieval And Self-Explanation, Casey Fortney

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Students often struggle to prepare for their exams, perhaps as a result of using an unhelpful study method. This study compared the effects of using three study methods: rereading, practice retrieval, and self-explanation. 79 college students studied a short science text passage and were tested with both verbatim and inference questions one week later. Students who reread the information did not perform differently from those who practiced retrieving or self-explained the information. Students who self-explained the information performed better on verbatim test questions than those who practiced retrieving the information. Possible explanations for these findings and implications are discussed.


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