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Understanding Alcoholics’ “Difficulty In Life”: An Empirical Comparison Of Alcoholics And Nonalcoholics, Keiko Ito 2017 Toho University

Understanding Alcoholics’ “Difficulty In Life”: An Empirical Comparison Of Alcoholics And Nonalcoholics, Keiko Ito

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

The Japanese success rate for alcoholism treatment is approximately 30%, indicating high relapse rates. Although “difficulty in life” is thought to contribute to alcoholics’ relapse, the characteristics of the phenomenon are unknown. This study examined the factors contributing to alcoholics’ difficulty in life. Alcoholic self-help group members, who indicated the extent of their difficulty in life and described the factors that contributed to this difficulty, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants’ hypersensitivity/grandiosity traits were also examined. A control group of nonalcoholic men also completed the questionnaire. Simple tabulation, descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, and multivariate analyses were used to compare ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


Backward Masking With Simultaneous Early, Middle And Late Evoked Potentials, Silas Smith 2017 University of Montana

Backward Masking With Simultaneous Early, Middle And Late Evoked Potentials, Silas Smith

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

Auditory processing disorders (APDs) affect a diverse range of people. These types of disorders impair auditory function, despite the outer, middle and inner ear maintaining proper function and health. APD is not necessarily related to auditory thresholds. When people with APD have difficulty discriminating sounds in connected speech, it may be due in part to an effect called Backward Masking (BM). Masking occurs when one stimulus inhibits another, which can lead to a variety of impairments. The neural locus of APDs is for the most part unknown, including the specific conditions which cause BM. A better understanding of these processes ...


Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai

Edwin D. Boudreaux

BACKGROUND: The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory.

OBJECTIVE: To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing ...


Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The nonapeptide, oxytocin (OT), is implicated in a range of behavioural and physiological functions. However, OT's role in sickness behaviours remains unclear. This thesis examined effects of the OT agonist, carbetocin (CBT), and OT antagonist, L-368,899, on anxiety and locomotor sickness-related behaviours and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-6, in adult male CD-1 mice. Animals received 2 intraperitoneal treatment injections. The first treatment was carbetocin, L-368,899, or saline, while the second was lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Behaviours were evaluated via the light-dark test, and cytokines via immunoassay. OT antagonist treatment attenuated LPS induced perturbations in locomotor and ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Ira S. Ockene

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.


Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.

METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...


Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health.

METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one ...


Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

Objective: Depression has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, and a depression–related elevation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The objective of this study was to examine association between 27 depression and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Methods: Subjects consisted of 508 healthy adults (mean age 48.5 years; 49% women, 88% white) residing in central Massachusetts. Data were collected at baseline and at quarterly intervals over a one-year period per individual. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association for the entire sample and by gender.

Results: The ...


Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

The objective of this investigation is to describe the associations of number of eating episodes and proportion of meals eaten away from home with total serum cholesterol. Data from 499 participants, recruited from a health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts, aged 20-70, were used for this analysis. Dietary information and total blood cholesterol were obtained at five sampling points (baseline and four consecutive quarters) during the one-year follow-up. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The results from the study do not support the hypothesis that the number of eating episodes per day is associated with total blood cholesterol. However, we noted ...


Book Review, Juanita V. Field 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Juanita V. Field

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the following: Risk-TAKING BEHAVIOR. (J. Frank Yates, ed., Wiley 1992) [244 pp.] Acknowledgements, author index, figures, preface, references, series preface, subject index, tables. LC 91-21229, ISBN 0-471-92250-1. [Cloth $64.95. 1 Wiley Drive, Somerset NJ 08875.


Individual Response To Risk As A Function Of Normative Social Pressure: A Pilot Study Of Seat Belt Use, Kenneth D. Boehm, John T. Keating, Karl W. Pfefferkorn, Audra J. Pfeltz, Brady G. Serafin, Jessica L. Sullivan, Karen L. Thode, Kevin M. Vincent, Juanita V. Field 2016 University of New Hampshire

Individual Response To Risk As A Function Of Normative Social Pressure: A Pilot Study Of Seat Belt Use, Kenneth D. Boehm, John T. Keating, Karl W. Pfefferkorn, Audra J. Pfeltz, Brady G. Serafin, Jessica L. Sullivan, Karen L. Thode, Kevin M. Vincent, Juanita V. Field

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors attempt to clarify some of the variables that influence whether people act appropriately when a Risk is substantial and subject to individual control. They do so by reporting results of a pilot study of seat belt use. Also, the authors believe their approach to be generalizable to problems such as encouraging people to test for radon, to use condoms to prevent AIDS or to quit smoking.


The Effectiveness Of E-& Mhealth Interventions To Promote Physical Activity And Healthy Diets In Developing Countries: A Systematic Review, Andre M. Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte 2016 University of Southampton

The Effectiveness Of E-& Mhealth Interventions To Promote Physical Activity And Healthy Diets In Developing Countries: A Systematic Review, Andre M. Müller, Stephanie Alley, Stephanie Schoeppe, Corneel Vandelanotte

Andre M Müller

Background
Promoting physical activity and healthy eating is important to combat the unprecedented rise in NCDs in many developing countries. Using modern information-and communication technologies to deliver physical activity and diet interventions is particularly promising considering the increased proliferation of such technologies in many developing countries. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions to promote physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries.
Methods
Major databases and grey literature sources were searched to retrieve studies that quantitatively examined the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions on physical activity and diet outcomes in developing ...


Nothing Recedes Like Success - Risk Analysis And The Organizational Amplification Of Risks, William R. Freudenburg 2016 University of New Hampshire

Nothing Recedes Like Success - Risk Analysis And The Organizational Amplification Of Risks, William R. Freudenburg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Professor Freudenburg believes that there is room for improvement in Risk analysis, particularly in drawing on systematic studies of human behavior in the calculation of real, empirical probabilities of failure. The need is argued to be especially acute where technological Risks are associated with low expected probabilities of failure and are managed by human organizations for extended periods of time. This permits complacency to set in.


A Pilot Study Of Comparison Gesture Analysis In Motion Driven Video Games, Fabrizio Valerio Covone, Brian Vaughan, Charlie Cullen 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Pilot Study Of Comparison Gesture Analysis In Motion Driven Video Games, Fabrizio Valerio Covone, Brian Vaughan, Charlie Cullen

Conference Papers

This study investigates whether there are significant differences in the gestures made by gamers and non-gamers whilst playing commercial games that employ gesture inputs. Specifically, the study focuses on testing a prototype of multimodal capture tool that we used to obtain real-time audio, video and skeletal gesture data. Additionally, we developed an experimental design framework for the acquisition of spatio-temporal gesture data and analysed the vector magnitude of a gesture to compare the relative displacement of each participant whilst playing a game.


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston

Stephenie C. Lemon

BACKGROUND: What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based ...


Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring For Health Behavior Change Into The 21st Century, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sarah L. Cutrona, Rebecca L. Kinney, Benjamin M. Marlin, Kathleen M. Mazor, Stephenie C. Lemon, Thomas K. Houston

Kathleen M. Mazor

BACKGROUND: What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based ...


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