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Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of African-Americans are classified as obese. Perceived racism has been associated with obesity, yet the internal experiences of racism have received little attention. African Americans who face racism may "ready themselves" to cope through survival strategies, including race-related vigilance. This study explores the association between race-related vigilance and obesity in African Americans. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Reactions to Race module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (years 2002-2010) was used. Our sample size consisted of 12,214 African-Americans. Race-related vigilance was assessed as: "How often do you think about your race?" and classified as: never, < daily, daily, and > daily ...


Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a chapter in a volume, Ethics Dilemmas in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Practice, edited by Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D. and to be published by Columbia University Press. The chapter addresses whether the use of new neuroscience techniques, especially non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the data from studies employing them raise new ethical issues for forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. The implicit thesis throughout is that if the legal questions, the limits of the new techniques and the relevance of neuroscience to law are properly understood, no new ethical issues are raised. A major ethical lapse ...


Age Differences In Personal Risk Perceptions: A Note On An Exploratory Descriptive Study, Juanita V. Field, George E. Schreer 2017 University of New Hampshire

Age Differences In Personal Risk Perceptions: A Note On An Exploratory Descriptive Study, Juanita V. Field, George E. Schreer

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors test for differences in risk perceptions among different age groups.


Varied Definitions Of Risk Related To Sensation Seeking Trait, Pål Ø.U. Dåstol, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg 2017 University of New Hampshire

Varied Definitions Of Risk Related To Sensation Seeking Trait, Pål Ø.U. Dåstol, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

[Excerpt] "Risk judgments seem related to which definitions of risk a person uses. Earlier studies suggest that people who use a "probability" definition of risk give different, and somewhat lower, subjective estimates of risk than those who instead prefer a "consequence" definition. In addition, an "optimistic bias" often can be found, and subjects usually evaluate personal risk systematically lower than risk for people in general."


Understanding Alcoholics’ “Difficulty In Life”: An Empirical Comparison Of Alcoholics And Nonalcoholics, Keiko Ito 2017 Toho University

Understanding Alcoholics’ “Difficulty In Life”: An Empirical Comparison Of Alcoholics And Nonalcoholics, Keiko Ito

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

The Japanese success rate for alcoholism treatment is approximately 30%, indicating high relapse rates. Although “difficulty in life” is thought to contribute to alcoholics’ relapse, the characteristics of the phenomenon are unknown. This study examined the factors contributing to alcoholics’ difficulty in life. Alcoholic self-help group members, who indicated the extent of their difficulty in life and described the factors that contributed to this difficulty, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants’ hypersensitivity/grandiosity traits were also examined. A control group of nonalcoholic men also completed the questionnaire. Simple tabulation, descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, and multivariate analyses were used to compare ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children’s later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p < 0.0001). Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495–7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [–3.5490 to –0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting.


Backward Masking With Simultaneous Early, Middle And Late Evoked Potentials, Silas Smith 2017 University of Montana

Backward Masking With Simultaneous Early, Middle And Late Evoked Potentials, Silas Smith

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Auditory processing disorders (APDs) affect a diverse range of people. These types of disorders impair auditory function, despite the outer, middle and inner ear maintaining proper function and health. APD is not necessarily related to auditory thresholds. When people with APD have difficulty discriminating sounds in connected speech, it may be due in part to an effect called Backward Masking (BM). Masking occurs when one stimulus inhibits another, which can lead to a variety of impairments. The neural locus of APDs is for the most part unknown, including the specific conditions which cause BM. A better understanding of these processes ...


The Effect Of Two Modes Of Aerobic Assessment On Fifth Grade Students' Self Efficacy, Debra Roth 2017 Walden University

The Effect Of Two Modes Of Aerobic Assessment On Fifth Grade Students' Self Efficacy, Debra Roth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Declining youth physical activity levels and lack of aerobic fitness have been well documented with a corresponding rise in obesity levels and health issues. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, healthy physical activity levels and aerobic fitness are strongly connected to positive physical activity self-efficacy beliefs. This study examined whether student physical activity self-efficacy, motivation, and effort were different for the FitnessGram® (FG) 1-Mile Run when compared to the 15-minute Aerobic Assessment Based on Improvement (AABI). A concurrent mixed method quasi-experimental approach measured 5th grade students' physical activity self-efficacy beliefs through a pretest and posttest survey while aerobic assessment ...


Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Implementation Of A Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing And Modification, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Andrew Christopher Fischer, Brianna Haskins, Zubair Saeed Zafar, Guanling Chen, Sneha A. Chinai

Edwin D. Boudreaux

BACKGROUND: The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory.

OBJECTIVE: To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing ...


Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Oxytocin’S Effects On Sickness Behaviours, Anxiety Responses, And Immune Function In Adult Male Mice, Julie Deleemans

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The nonapeptide, oxytocin (OT), is implicated in a range of behavioural and physiological functions. However, OT's role in sickness behaviours remains unclear. This thesis examined effects of the OT agonist, carbetocin (CBT), and OT antagonist, L-368,899, on anxiety and locomotor sickness-related behaviours and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-6, in adult male CD-1 mice. Animals received 2 intraperitoneal treatment injections. The first treatment was carbetocin, L-368,899, or saline, while the second was lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Behaviours were evaluated via the light-dark test, and cytokines via immunoassay. OT antagonist treatment attenuated LPS induced perturbations in locomotor and ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Ira S. Ockene

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.


Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.

METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...


Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health.

METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one ...


Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

Objective: Depression has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, and a depression–related elevation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The objective of this study was to examine association between 27 depression and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Methods: Subjects consisted of 508 healthy adults (mean age 48.5 years; 49% women, 88% white) residing in central Massachusetts. Data were collected at baseline and at quarterly intervals over a one-year period per individual. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association for the entire sample and by gender.

Results: The ...


Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

The objective of this investigation is to describe the associations of number of eating episodes and proportion of meals eaten away from home with total serum cholesterol. Data from 499 participants, recruited from a health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts, aged 20-70, were used for this analysis. Dietary information and total blood cholesterol were obtained at five sampling points (baseline and four consecutive quarters) during the one-year follow-up. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The results from the study do not support the hypothesis that the number of eating episodes per day is associated with total blood cholesterol. However, we noted ...


Book Review, Juanita V. Field 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Juanita V. Field

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the following: Risk-TAKING BEHAVIOR. (J. Frank Yates, ed., Wiley 1992) [244 pp.] Acknowledgements, author index, figures, preface, references, series preface, subject index, tables. LC 91-21229, ISBN 0-471-92250-1. [Cloth $64.95. 1 Wiley Drive, Somerset NJ 08875.


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