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Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, David Lovett 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, David Lovett

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to better understand alcohol use problems by examining the effect of alcohol liking on alcohol attentional bias among non-dependent drinkers. An adapted model of Robinson and Berridge’s (1993) incentive-sensitization theory of addiction was proposed which theorized that manipulation of alcohol liking would produce alcohol attentional bias (assessed via visual probe task) among non-dependent drinkers. To test this adapted model, alcohol liking was manipulated and the effect on alcohol attentional bias was examined. Participants were 53 legal-age, college drinkers (Mage = 23.49; 32.1% female; 67.9% White Non-Hispanic). Participants completed measures of ...


Effect Of Weather On Pedestrian Trip Count And Duration: City-Scale Evaluations Using Mobile Phone Application Data, Anthony P. Vanky, Santosh K. Verma, Theodore K. Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Effect Of Weather On Pedestrian Trip Count And Duration: City-Scale Evaluations Using Mobile Phone Application Data, Anthony P. Vanky, Santosh K. Verma, Theodore K. Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti

Open Access Articles

We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of ...


Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper

Haslam Scholars Projects

Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. Dominant and subordinate animals have been shown to exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to stress, with dominants often showing stress resistance and subordinates often showing stress vulnerability. We have previously found that dominant hamsters exhibit reduced social avoidance following social defeat stress compared to subordinate hamsters, although the extent to which stress resistance in dominants generalizes to non-social stressors is unknown. In this study, dominant, subordinate, and control male Syrian hamsters ...


Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich McLeod 2017 New Hampshire Musculoskeletal Institute, Manchester, NH

Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich Mcleod

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures.


Weight-Loss Treatment-Induced Physical Activity Associated With Improved Nutrition Through Changes In Social Cognitive Theory Variables In Women With Obesity, James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno 2017 YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta, Kennesaw State University

Weight-Loss Treatment-Induced Physical Activity Associated With Improved Nutrition Through Changes In Social Cognitive Theory Variables In Women With Obesity, James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno

Health Behavior Research

Behavioral weight-loss treatments have typically been unsuccessful and a theoretical. Even when treatments were scientifically derived, theory has rarely been used to decompose, and understand the bases of, their effects. This 2-year study evaluated mediation of the prediction of nutritional changes by changes in physical activity, through social cognitive theory variables. Data from women with Class 1–2 obesity, classified as “insufficiently active” (N = 50; Mage = 47.6 years), were extracted from 2 initial trials of a new cognitive-behavioral intervention. That treatment sought to improve self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy through increased physical activity, to then induce improved eating and ...


Re-Designing A Practice Test Into A Game, Hung-Tao Chen, Michael Lee 2017 Eastern Kentucky University

Re-Designing A Practice Test Into A Game, Hung-Tao Chen, Michael Lee

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Practice testing is an effective learning strategy, but it can lead to increased test anxiety and often has low voluntary participation rate. This paper describes a case study on the effects of a re-designed practice test using game-like elements. The results indicate that the gamified practice test had a high student participation rate and showed improved test performance.


The Association Between Breakfast Skipping And Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, And Metabolic Measures Among Participants With Metabolic Syndrome, Lijuan Zhang, Lorraine S. Cordeiro, Jinghua Liu, Yunsheng Ma 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Association Between Breakfast Skipping And Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, And Metabolic Measures Among Participants With Metabolic Syndrome, Lijuan Zhang, Lorraine S. Cordeiro, Jinghua Liu, Yunsheng Ma

Yunsheng Ma

The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake ...


The Effect Of The Dopamine Agonist Pramipexole On Measures Of Impulsivity In Young, Healthy Participants, Daniel Glizer 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of The Dopamine Agonist Pramipexole On Measures Of Impulsivity In Young, Healthy Participants, Daniel Glizer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients with Parkinson disease are prescribed dopamine agonists such as pramipexole to improve motor symptoms. Several studies have found that patients taking dopaminergic medication develop impulse control disorders. In contrast, other studies suggest that some behaviors become less impulsive with pramipexole. We evaluated the performance of 20 young, healthy participants who received pramipexole (0.5 mg) and 20 participants who received placebo, on the Go/No-Go, the Stop Signal Task, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. We found that the pramipexole group had more timed out Go trials on the Go/No-Go task than the placebo group, suggesting reduced motor ...


Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel 2017 Boston College

Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel

Faculty Scholarship

This brief is a critique of the brain disease model and many supposed implications of that model. It begins with a brief history of the model and moves to a discussion of the motivations behind the characterization of addiction as a “chronic and relapsing brain disease.” We follow with an enumeration of fallacious inferences based upon the brain disease model, including the very notion that addiction becomes a “brain disease” simply because it has neurobiological correlates. Regardless of whether addiction is labeled a brain disease, the real question, we contend, is whether the behavioral manifestations of addiction are unresponsive to ...


Variations In Recruitment Yield And Characteristics Of Participants Recruited Across Diverse Internet Platforms In An Hiv Testing Study Of Young Adult Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (Ymsm), Roland C. Merchant, Justin Romanoff, Melissa A. Clark, Tao Liu, Joshua G. Rosenberger, Jose Bauermeister, Kenneth H. Mayer 2017 Brown University

Variations In Recruitment Yield And Characteristics Of Participants Recruited Across Diverse Internet Platforms In An Hiv Testing Study Of Young Adult Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (Ymsm), Roland C. Merchant, Justin Romanoff, Melissa A. Clark, Tao Liu, Joshua G. Rosenberger, Jose Bauermeister, Kenneth H. Mayer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The Internet is a commonly used medium for recruiting geographically dispersed, smaller populations quickly, such as young adult men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM). One approach to improve reach and representativeness is to employ multiple Internet platforms to recruit this hard-to-reach population. The utility of this approach has not been studied adequately, and its impact on the study sample recruited is not yet known. Using data from a study of 18- to 24-year-old HIV-uninfected, Black, Hispanic, and White United States (US) YMSM, this investigation compared advertising and enrollment metrics and participant characteristics of those recruited across Internet platforms. Of the 2,444 participants, their ...


Trait Hope And Preparation For Future Care Needs Among Older Adult Primary Care Patients, Jodi L. Southerland, Deborah L. Slawson, Robert Pack, Silvia Sörensen, Jeffrey M. Lyness, Jameson K. Hirsch 2017 East Tennessee State University

Trait Hope And Preparation For Future Care Needs Among Older Adult Primary Care Patients, Jodi L. Southerland, Deborah L. Slawson, Robert Pack, Silvia Sörensen, Jeffrey M. Lyness, Jameson K. Hirsch

Jameson K. Hirsch

We examined associations between trait hope and preparation for future care needs (PFCN) among 66 older adult primary care patients in western New York. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing PFCN (awareness, information gathering, decision-making, concrete planning, and avoidance), and the Adult Trait Hope Scale. In multivariate regressions, lower hope, particularly less agency, was associated with more awareness of needing care, whereas higher hopefulness, particularly pathways thinking, was associated with increased decision-making and concrete planning. Greater hopefulness appears to be linked to goal-directed planning behaviors, although those with lower hope may actually be more aware of the need for planning. Evidence-based ...


Basic Psychological Needs, Suicidal Ideation, And Risk For Suicidal Behavior In Young Adults, Peter C. Britton, Kimberly A. Van Orden, Jameson K. Hirsch, Geoffrey C. Williams 2017 University of Rochester

Basic Psychological Needs, Suicidal Ideation, And Risk For Suicidal Behavior In Young Adults, Peter C. Britton, Kimberly A. Van Orden, Jameson K. Hirsch, Geoffrey C. Williams

Jameson K. Hirsch

Associations between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness with current suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior were examined. Two logistic regressions were conducted with a cross-sectional database of 440 university students to examine the association of need satisfaction with suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior, while controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15% of participants and 18% were found to be at risk for suicidal behavior. A one standard deviation increase in need satisfaction reduced the odds of suicidal ideation by 53%, OR (95% CI) = 0.47 (0 ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Optimism And Planning For Future Care Needs Among Older Adults, Silvia Sörensen, Jameson K. Hirsch, Jeffrey M. Lyness 2017 University of Rochester

Optimism And Planning For Future Care Needs Among Older Adults, Silvia Sörensen, Jameson K. Hirsch, Jeffrey M. Lyness

Jameson K. Hirsch

Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism ...


Perceived Health In Lung Cancer Patients: The Role Of Positive And Negative Affect, Jameson K. Hirsch, Andrea R. Floyd, Paul R. Duberstein 2017 East Tennessee State University

Perceived Health In Lung Cancer Patients: The Role Of Positive And Negative Affect, Jameson K. Hirsch, Andrea R. Floyd, Paul R. Duberstein

Jameson K. Hirsch

Purpose: To examine the association of affective experience and health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients, we hypothesized that negative affect would be positively, and positive affect would be negatively, associated with perceived health. Methods: A sample of 133 English-speaking lung cancer patients (33% female; mean age = 63.68 years old, SD = 9.37) completed a battery of self-report surveys. Results: Results of our secondary analysis indicate that trait negative affect was significantly associated with poor physical and social functioning, greater role limitations due to emotional problems, greater bodily pain, and poor general health. Positive affect was significantly associated ...


The Interrelations Between Spiritual Well-Being, Pain Interference And Depressive Symptoms In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Sheri A. Nsamenang, Jameson K. Hirsch, Raluca Topciu, Andrew D. Goodman, Paul R. Duberstein 2017 McMaster Childrens Hospital

The Interrelations Between Spiritual Well-Being, Pain Interference And Depressive Symptoms In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Sheri A. Nsamenang, Jameson K. Hirsch, Raluca Topciu, Andrew D. Goodman, Paul R. Duberstein

Jameson K. Hirsch

Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are frequently exacerbated by pain; however, spiritual well-being may allow persons with MS to more effectively cope with pain-related deficits in physical and role functioning. We explored the associations between spiritual well-being, pain interference and depressive symptoms, assessing each as a potential mediator, in eighty-one patients being treated for MS, who completed self-report measures: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Pain Effects Scale, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised. At the bivariate level, spiritual well-being and its subscale of meaning and peace were negatively associated ...


Health Behaviors Among College Students: The Influence Of Future Time Perspective And Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Preston L. Visser, Jameson K. Hirsch 2017 Lawndale Christian Health Center

Health Behaviors Among College Students: The Influence Of Future Time Perspective And Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Preston L. Visser, Jameson K. Hirsch

Jameson K. Hirsch

Health behavior change may prevent many fatal diseases, and may be influenced by social and motivational constructs. We assessed the interaction effect of future time perspective and basic psychological need fulfillment on positive and negative health behaviors. Future time perspective was associated with more positive, and less negative, health behaviors. Need fulfillment was associated with only positive health behaviors. In moderation analyses, individuals reporting both high need fulfillment and future perspective reported greater positive health behaviors, and were especially unlikely to smoke. Enhancing future-mindedness and supporting need satisfaction in interventions targeting modifiable health behaviors is encouraged.


Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, And Depressive Symptoms In Older Adults: Does Type Of Social Relationship Matter?, Joshua P. Hatfield, Jameson K. Hirsch, Jeffrey M. Lyness 2017 East Tennessee State University

Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, And Depressive Symptoms In Older Adults: Does Type Of Social Relationship Matter?, Joshua P. Hatfield, Jameson K. Hirsch, Jeffrey M. Lyness

Jameson K. Hirsch

Objective: The nature of interpersonal relationships, whether supportive or critical, may affect the association between health status and mental health outcomes. We examined the potential moderating effects of social support, as a buffer, and family criticism, as an exacerbating factor, on the association between illness burden, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Methods: Our sample of 735 older adults, 65 years and older, was recruited from internal and family medicine primary care offices. Trained interviewers administered the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Duke Social Support Inventory, and Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale. Physician-rated assessments of health, including the Karnofsky Performance ...


Family Criticism And Depressive Symptoms In Older Adult Primary Care Patients: Optimism And Pessimism As Moderators, Jameson K. Hirsch, Kristin L. Walker, Ross B. Wilkinson, Jeffrey M. Lyness 2017 East Tennessee State University

Family Criticism And Depressive Symptoms In Older Adult Primary Care Patients: Optimism And Pessimism As Moderators, Jameson K. Hirsch, Kristin L. Walker, Ross B. Wilkinson, Jeffrey M. Lyness

Jameson K. Hirsch

Objective: Depression is a significant global public health burden, and older adults may be particularly vulnerable to its effects. Among other risk factors, interpersonal conflicts, such as perceived criticism from family members, can increase risk for depressive symptoms in this population. We examined family criticism as a predictor of depressive symptoms and the potential moderating effect of optimism and pessimism.

Methods: One hundred five older adult, primary care patients completed self-report measures of family criticism, optimism and pessimism, and symptoms of depression. We hypothesized that optimism and pessimism would moderate the relationship between family criticism and depressive symptoms.

Results: In ...


Addressing Common Mental Health Issues Prevalent Among Honors College Students, Steven Pham 2017 Western Michigan University

Addressing Common Mental Health Issues Prevalent Among Honors College Students, Steven Pham

Honors Theses

The prevalence and severity of mental health disorders on college campuses has been increasing nationwide. This review aims to address some of the prevalent mental health issues that continuously plague college students today. Recent trends in college student mental health are analyzed as well as literature regarding common disorders including depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. A comparison of honors and non-honors students is provided to contribute to an otherwise lacking area of research surrounding honors student populations. Effective practices and policies for colleges and universities to incorporate into their counseling services are also considered, with viable goals centering on the ...


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