Mesotocin Influences Pinyon Jay Prosociality, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Mesotocin Influences Pinyon Jay Prosociality, J. F. Duque, W. Leichner, H. Ahmann, Jeffrey R. Stevens
Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications
Many species exhibit prosocial behavior , in which one individual’s actions benefit another individual, often without an immediate benefit to itself. The neuropeptide oxytocin is an important hormonal mechanism influencing prosociality in mammals, but it is unclear whether the avian homologue mesotocin plays a similar functional role in birds. Here, we experimentally tested prosociality in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), a highly social corvid species that spontaneously shares food with others. First, we measured prosocial preferences in a prosocial choice task with two different pay-off distributions: Prosocial trials delivered food to both the subject and either an empty cage or a ...
Factor Structure And Gender Invariance Testing For The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Sas-2), 2018 California State University Long Beach
Factor Structure And Gender Invariance Testing For The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Sas-2), Leilani Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur C. Maerlender, Debra Hope
Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications
This study aimed to provide further psychometric validation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) by assessing the factor structure, invariance across gender, and convergent and divergent validity of the SAS-2 by correlating both related (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, brief fear of negative evaluation, intolerance of uncertainty, and negative affect) and unrelated constructs (i.e., positive affect, self-confidence). A total of 542 current and former competitive athletes completed a questionnaire through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk system. All data were collected via online survey. Participants were randomly assigned to an exploratory factor analysis (n = 271) and confirmatory factor analysis group (n = 271 ...
Resilience Concepts In Psychiatry Demonstrated With Bipolar Disorder, 2018 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Resilience Concepts In Psychiatry Demonstrated With Bipolar Disorder, David G. Angeler, Craig R. Allen, Maj-Liz Persson
Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications
Background: The term resilience describes stress–response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of ...
Mental Health In Commercial Aviation - Depression & Anxiety Of Pilots, 2018 College of Aeronautics, Florida Institute of Technology - Melbourne
Mental Health In Commercial Aviation - Depression & Anxiety Of Pilots, Maurice C. Dehoff, Stephen K. Cusick
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace
Two landmark accidents invigorated the discussion regarding pilot mental health. Other incidents may also have a mental health component that is related to, but not the direct cause of, the event. It is suspected that these “other incidents” are much more commonplace and while not catastrophic, erode safety. Depression and anxiety are two commonly occurring mental health concerns. Research indicates that a considerable portion of the U. S. population suffers from some form of mental health issue. Most go undiagnosed and untreated. A similar rate of occurrence appears to be found within the airline pilot population. The stigma of mental ...
Human Error Analysis Of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (Hems) Accidents Using The Human Factors Analysis And Classification System (Hfacs), Paul E. Cline Ph.D.
Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research
Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) is among the most dangerous type of flying in commercial aviation. This research utilized the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to understand the errors, preconditions and violations that contribute to these accidents. Drawing upon source data from the National Transportation Safety Board’s Aviation Accident Database, HEMS accidents from 2000-2016 were analyzed according to the HFACS framework.
Computational Model For Behavior Shaping As An Adaptive Health Intervention Strategy, 2018 Chapman University
Computational Model For Behavior Shaping As An Adaptive Health Intervention Strategy, Vincent Berardi, Ricardo Carretero-González, Neil E. Klepeis, Sahar Ghanipoor Machiani, Arash Jahangiri, John Bellettiere, Melbourne Hovell
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
Adaptive behavioral interventions that automatically adjust in real-time to participants’ changing behavior, environmental contexts, and individual history are becoming more feasible as the use of real-time sensing technology expands. This development is expected to improve shortcomings associated with traditional behavioral interventions, such as the reliance on imprecise intervention procedures and limited/short-lived effects. JITAI adaptation strategies often lack a theoretical foundation. Increasing the theoretical fidelity of a trial has been shown to increase effectiveness. This research explores the use of shaping, a well-known process from behavioral theory for engendering or maintaining a target behavior, as a JITAI adaptation strategy. A ...
A Sensory-Based Program To Enhance Occupational Performance For Dementia, 2018 Dominican University of California
A Sensory-Based Program To Enhance Occupational Performance For Dementia, Naomi Grace Wong, Jacob Joseph Gantan, Ivy Annahi Torres-Flores, Heather Anne August
Student Research Posters
Dementia is a neurological disease, causing behavioral and cognitive symptoms, that progressively impairs an individual’s ability to engage in meaningful activities. Progressive deterioration associated with dementia impacts occupational performance and independence and quality of life. Sensory based interventions, such as drumming groups, have been hypothesized to be a non-pharmacological intervention for individuals with dementia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a sensory based intervention program, in this case participation in a drumming group, on functional engagement during self-feeding for individuals with dementia. Researchers gathered data over the course of two days using the Functional ...
Revisiting The Alerting Effect Of Light: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], 2018 Australian Catholic University
Revisiting The Alerting Effect Of Light: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Qunyan Xu, Cathryne Patrice Lang
Faculty of Health Sciences Publications
Light plays an essential role in maintaining alertness levels. Like other non-image-forming responses, the alerting effect of light is influenced by its spectral wavelength, duration and intensity. Alertness levels are also dependent on circadian rhythm (Process C) and homeostatic sleep pressure (Process S), consistent with the classic two-process model of sleep regulation. Over the last decade, there has been increasing recognition of an additional process (referred to as the third process) in sleep regulation. This third process seems to receive sensory inputs from body systems such as digestion, and is usually synchronised with Process C and Process S. Previous studies ...
The Signature Of Undetected Change: An Exploratory Electrotomographic Investigation Of Gradual Change Blindness, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The Signature Of Undetected Change: An Exploratory Electrotomographic Investigation Of Gradual Change Blindness, John E. Kiat, Michael D. Dodd, Robert F. Belli, Jacob E. Cheadle
Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology
Neuroimaging-based investigations of change blindness, a phenomenon in which seemingly obvious changes in visual scenes fail to be detected, have significantly advanced our understanding of visual awareness. The vast majority of prior investigations, however, utilize paradigms involving visual disruptions (e.g., intervening blank screens, saccadic movements, “mudsplashes”), making it difficult to isolate neural responses toward visual changes cleanly. To address this issue in this present study, high-density EEG data (256 channel) were collected from 25 participants using a paradigm in which visual changes were progressively introduced into detailed real-world scenes without the use of visual disruption. Oscillatory activity associated with ...
The Effect Of Early Life Photoperiod Manipulation On Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Male And Female Japanese Quail, Shannon Elizabeth Eaton
Theses and Dissertations--Psychology
Estrogens seem to play a role in the locomotor activating effects of cocaine. Japanese quail provide a good model for hormonal manipulation as alterations of their photoperiod controls hormone levels. The current study aims to examine the role of early life photoperiod manipulation in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in quail. It was expected that if quail were raised on a short photoperiod, they would have a reduction in gonadal hormones and this reduction in hormones would affect the acquisition of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Quail were raised on an 8L:16D or a 16L:8D light cycle. Following 2 days of habituation ...
Cocaine Choice: A Novel Procedure For Investigating Neuronal Activation Mediating Cocaine Preference, 2018 University of Kentucky
Cocaine Choice: A Novel Procedure For Investigating Neuronal Activation Mediating Cocaine Preference, Jonathan Jenn-Sheng Chow
Theses and Dissertations--Psychology
Cocaine use disorder is a significant health problem, negatively impacting individuals afflicted. While preclinical self-administration research has provided invaluable insight into the neurobehavioral mechanisms that underlie cocaine abuse, cocaine use outside of the laboratory occurs within an environment where other goods are also available ubiquitously. Although there is an ever-increasing literature investigating drug vs. non-drug choice in rodent models and how alternative goods can compete with the subjective value of cocaine, the neurobiological mechanisms that are associated with cocaine preference remains largely unknown. Additionally, current drug vs. non-drug choice studies use procedures that confound preference with intake, such that preference ...
Stasi Brainwashing In The Gdr 1957 - 1990, 2017 Jacob H. Solbrig
Stasi Brainwashing In The Gdr 1957 - 1990, Jacob H. Solbrig, Jacob Hagen Solbrig
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
This thesis examines the methods used by the Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS), more commonly known as the Stasi, or East German secret police, for extraction of information from citizens of the German Democratic Republic for the purpose of espionage and covert operations inside East Germany, as it pertains to the deliberate brainwashing of East German citizens. As one of the most efficient intelligence agencies to ever exist, the Stasi’s main purpose was to monitor the population, gather intelligence, and collect or turn informants. They used brainwashing techniques to control the people of the GDR, keeping the populace paralyzed with ...
Methods For Evaluating The Content, Usability, And Efficacy Of Commercial Mobile Health Apps, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Methods For Evaluating The Content, Usability, And Efficacy Of Commercial Mobile Health Apps, Danielle E. Jake-Schoffman, Valerie J. Silfee, Molly E. Waring, Edwin D. Boudreaux, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Sean P. Mullen, Jennifer L. Carey, Rashelle B. Hayes, Eric Y. Ding, Gary G. Bennett, Sherry L. Pagoto
Emergency Medicine Publications and Presentations
Commercial mobile apps for health behavior change are flourishing in the marketplace, but little evidence exists to support their use. This paper summarizes methods for evaluating the content, usability, and efficacy of commercially available health apps. Content analyses can be used to compare app features with clinical guidelines, evidence-based protocols, and behavior change techniques. Usability testing can establish how well an app functions and serves its intended purpose for a target population. Observational studies can explore the association between use and clinical and behavioral outcomes. Finally, efficacy testing can establish whether a commercial app impacts an outcome of interest via ...
Physical And Psychosomatic Health Outcomes In People Bereaved By Suicide Compared To People Bereaved By Other Modes Of Death: A Systematic Review, Ailbhe Spillane, Celine Larkin, Paul Corcoran, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Fiona Riordan, Ella Arensman
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted into the physical health implications of suicide bereavement compared to other causes of death. There is some evidence that suicide bereaved parents have higher morbidity, particularly in terms of chronic illness. This systematic review aims to examine the physical and psychosomatic morbidities of people bereaved by a family member's suicide and compare them with family members bereaved by other modes of death.
METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from 1985 to February 2016. The search was re-run in March 2017. Peer-reviewed English language articles comparing suicide-bereaved family members to non-suicide bereaved ...
Clinic Versus Online Social Network-Delivered Lifestyle Interventions: Protocol For The Get Social Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial, Monica L. Wang, Molly E. Waring, Danielle E. Jake-Schoffman, Jessica L. Oleski, Zachary Michaels, Jared M. Goetz, Stephenie C. Lemon, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Online social networks may be a promising modality to deliver lifestyle interventions by reducing cost and burden. Although online social networks have been integrated as one component of multimodality lifestyle interventions, no randomized trials to date have compared a lifestyle intervention delivered entirely via online social network with a traditional clinic-delivered intervention.
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the design and methods of a noninferiority randomized controlled trial, testing (1) whether a lifestyle intervention delivered entirely through an online social network would produce weight loss that would not be appreciably worse than that induced by a traditional clinic-based lifestyle intervention among ...
Effect Of Weather On Pedestrian Trip Count And Duration: City-Scale Evaluations Using Mobile Phone Application Data, 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Effect Of Weather On Pedestrian Trip Count And Duration: City-Scale Evaluations Using Mobile Phone Application Data, Anthony P. Vanky, Santosh K. Verma, Theodore K. Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti
Open Access Articles
We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of ...
A Cluster Analysis Of Challenging Behaviors In Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2017 Chapman University
A Cluster Analysis Of Challenging Behaviors In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Elizabeth Stevens, Abigail Atchison, Laura Stevens, Esther Hong, Doreen Granpeesheh, Dennis Dixon, Erik J. Linstead
Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research
We apply cluster analysis to a sample of 2,116 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to identify patterns of challenging behaviors observed in home and centerbased clinical settings. The largest study of this type to date, and the first to employ machine learning, our results indicate that while the presence of multiple challenging behaviors is common, in most cases a dominant behavior emerges. Furthermore, the trend is also observed when we train our cluster models on the male and female samples separately. This work provides a basis for future studies to understand the relationship of challenging behavior profiles ...
Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, David Lovett
Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of the present study was to better understand alcohol use problems by examining the effect of alcohol liking on alcohol attentional bias among non-dependent drinkers. An adapted model of Robinson and Berridge’s (1993) incentive-sensitization theory of addiction was proposed which theorized that manipulation of alcohol liking would produce alcohol attentional bias (assessed via visual probe task) among non-dependent drinkers. To test this adapted model, alcohol liking was manipulated and the effect on alcohol attentional bias was examined. Participants were 53 legal-age, college drinkers (Mage = 23.49; 32.1% female; 67.9% White Non-Hispanic). Participants completed measures of ...
Test Of A Workforce Development Intervention To Expand Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Pharmacotherapy Prescribers: Protocol For A Cluster Randomized Trial, 2017 University of Wisconsin - Madison
Test Of A Workforce Development Intervention To Expand Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Pharmacotherapy Prescribers: Protocol For A Cluster Randomized Trial, Todd Molfenter, Hannah K. Knudsen, Randy Brown, Nora Jacobson, Julie Horst, Mark Van Etten, Jee-Seon Kim, Eric Haram, Elizabeth Collier, Sanford Starr, Alexander Toy, Lynn Madden
Behavioral Science Faculty Publications
Background: Overdoses due to non-medical use of prescription opioids and other opiates have become the leading cause of accidental deaths in the USA. Buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone are key evidence-based pharmacotherapies available to addiction treatment providers to address opioid use disorder (OUD) and prevent overdose deaths. Treatment organizations’ efforts to provide these pharmacotherapies have, however, been stymied by limited success in recruiting providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to prescribe these medications. Historically, the addiction treatment field has not attracted physicians, and many barriers to implementing OUD pharmacotherapy exist, ranging from lack of confidence in treating OUD patients to ...
It Is Time For Zero Tolerance For Sexual Harassment In Academic Medicine, 2017 Harvard Medical School
It Is Time For Zero Tolerance For Sexual Harassment In Academic Medicine, Carol K. Bates, Reshma Jagsi, Lynn K. Gordon, Elizabeth Travis, Archana Chatterjee, Marin Gillis, Olivia Means, Linda Chaudron, Rebecca Ganetzky, Martha Gulati, Barbara Fivush, Poonam Sharma, Amelia Grover, Diana Lautenberger, Terence R. Flotte
Pediatric Publications and Presentations
While there are more women in leadership positions in academic medicine now than ever before in our history, evidence from recent surveys of women and from graduating medical students demonstrates that sexual harassment continues in our institutions. Our ability to change the culture is hampered by fear of reporting episodes of harassment, which is largely due to fear of retaliation. We describe some efforts in scientific societies that are addressing this and working to establish safe environments at national meetings. We must also work at the level of each institution to make it safe for individuals to come forward, to ...