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Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


How Best To Study For A Test: A Comparison Of Practice Retrieval And Self-Explanation, Casey Fortney 2016 Western Kentucky University

How Best To Study For A Test: A Comparison Of Practice Retrieval And Self-Explanation, Casey Fortney

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Students often struggle to prepare for their exams, perhaps as a result of using an unhelpful study method. This study compared the effects of using three study methods: rereading, practice retrieval, and self-explanation. 79 college students studied a short science text passage and were tested with both verbatim and inference questions one week later. Students who reread the information did not perform differently from those who practiced retrieving or self-explained the information. Students who self-explained the information performed better on verbatim test questions than those who practiced retrieving the information. Possible explanations for these findings and implications are discussed.


Teacher Child Interaction Therapy: An Ecological Approach To Intervening With Young Children Who Display Disruptive Behaviors, Sara Marie Hinojosa 2016 University of South Florida

Teacher Child Interaction Therapy: An Ecological Approach To Intervening With Young Children Who Display Disruptive Behaviors, Sara Marie Hinojosa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A model of Teacher Child Interaction Therapy (TCIT) was implemented in two kindergarten classrooms of students (n = 2) who successfully completed Parent Child Interaction Therapy, but continued to demonstrate disruptive behaviors in the classroom. The current study first indicated that TCIT was implemented with integrity by both the therapists and teacher participants. Next, the effects of this intervention on the teacher’s skills, students’ disruptive behaviors, teacher’s stress, and teacher-child relationships were investigated. The treatment acceptability was also examined. Both visual and statistical analyses found a treatment effect in both cases was seen for both teachers’ increased use of ...


An Evaluation Of An Assessment Of Check-In/Check-Out With Children Who Are Homeless In An After School Care Program, Ana Paula Camacho 2016 University of South Florida

An Evaluation Of An Assessment Of Check-In/Check-Out With Children Who Are Homeless In An After School Care Program, Ana Paula Camacho

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (SWPBIS) is an approach designed to improve the correct implementation, consistent use, and maintenance of evidence-based practices related to behavior, classroom management and school discipline systems. Check-in/Check-out (CICO) is often recognized as a successful intervention in SWPBIS. However, most of the research on the use of CICO has focused on the school setting. This study provided an extension to the literature by examining the effects of the CICO program with homeless children attending an afterschool program. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the CICO program effects. Students were ...


Evaluating Video Modeling To Teach Caregivers To Conduct Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessments, Cristina Diane Andersen 2016 University of South Florida

Evaluating Video Modeling To Teach Caregivers To Conduct Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessments, Cristina Diane Andersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stimulus preference assessments have been shown to identify stimuli that are likely to function as reinforcers for individuals with disabilities. It is important to identify these stimuli to increase the effectiveness of interventions. The ability to conduct a stimulus preference assessment is a skill that parents and caregivers should have. Research on training preference assessments is limited to staff, teachers, and students. The following study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach caregivers to conduct paired stimulus preference assessments. The results showed that video modeling was effective and that the results maintained during a one week follow up.


Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, Gabriela Marie Hungerford MS 2016 Florida International University

Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, Gabriela Marie Hungerford Ms

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Infants who experience multiple risk factors, such as preterm birth, developmental delay, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk for mental health problems. Mental health interventions for infants typically target infants from high-risk groups, and there is strong evidence that some intervention programs for infants can prevent long-term negative outcomes and promote long-term positive outcomes. Despite emerging research and federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined community-based mental health services during infancy. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of routine care requires close examination of current practices. The current study characterized current usual care practices in infant mental ...


Sedentary Behavior And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Latino Adults, Valerie J. Silfee, Stephenie C. Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros C. Rosal 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sedentary Behavior And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Latino Adults, Valerie J. Silfee, Stephenie C. Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros C. Rosal

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Compared to other racial/ethnic subgroups in the U.S., Latinos experience increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, inactivity, and diabetes. Sedentary behavior has also been defined as an additional risk factor for CVD, independent of physical activity participation. However, while sedentary behavior has been associated with increased risk for CVD among primarily White samples, previous studies in Latinos have shown mixed results.

Purpose: To explore the relationships between sedentary behavior and CVD risk factors, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, among a sample of Latino adults ...


Concurrent Mental Health And Sport Performance Enhancement In An Athlete Initiating Behavioral Intervention With No Assessed Pathology: A Case Examination Supporting Optimization, Yulia Gavrilova 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Concurrent Mental Health And Sport Performance Enhancement In An Athlete Initiating Behavioral Intervention With No Assessed Pathology: A Case Examination Supporting Optimization, Yulia Gavrilova

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Collegiate athletes are often exposed to unique environmental stressors that may negatively impact the way they think, behave, and feel in athletic, academic, and social domains, potentially compromising their performance and mental health when cognitive and behavioral skills are relatively underdeveloped. Behavioral interventions have been shown to enhance cognitive and behavioral skills in persons with assessed mental health deficits in the general population. However, little is known about the relative effects of psychologically-based programs in persons who do not evidence pathology. Along these lines, The Optimum Performance Program in Sports (TOPPS), based on Family Behavior Therapy, was recently developed with ...


Capturing Success At Autistry Studios: A Qualitative Study, Ali Ives, Vince Colombano, Joey Bava 2016 Dominican University of California

Capturing Success At Autistry Studios: A Qualitative Study, Ali Ives, Vince Colombano, Joey Bava

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

This qualitative study examined the perceived outcomes of participation at Autistry Studios among young adult students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Autistry Studios is a unique program offering services to individuals with ASD similar to that of a pre-vocational training program. The mission of Autistry Studios is to help students with ASD become independent adults by engaging in “project-based therapy.” A setting is provided where individuals with ASD can achieve personal and functional growth with the use of creative resources like art supplies, raw materials, and power tools to pursue and complete a project that is client-centered. The purpose of ...


Designing A Mobile Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Matthew Burkhard, Timothy Disher 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Designing A Mobile Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Matthew Burkhard, Timothy Disher

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Design And Methods For A Randomized Clinical Trial Of A Diabetes Self-Management Intervention For Low-Income Latinos: Latinos En Control, Milagros C. Rosal, Mary Jo White, Angela Restrepo, Barbara C. Olendzki, Jeffrey Scavron, Elise Sinagra, Ira S. Ockene, Michael Thompson, Stephenie C. Lemon, Lucy M. Candib, George W. Reed 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods For A Randomized Clinical Trial Of A Diabetes Self-Management Intervention For Low-Income Latinos: Latinos En Control, Milagros C. Rosal, Mary Jo White, Angela Restrepo, Barbara C. Olendzki, Jeffrey Scavron, Elise Sinagra, Ira S. Ockene, Michael Thompson, Stephenie C. Lemon, Lucy M. Candib, George W. Reed

Jeffrey Scavron

BACKGROUND: US Latinos have greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes), uncontrolled diabetes and diabetes co-morbidities compared to non-Latino Whites. They also have lower literacy levels and are more likely to live in poverty. Interventions are needed to improve diabetes control among low-income Latinos.

METHODS AND DESIGN: This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a culturally- and literacy-tailored diabetes self-management intervention (Latinos en Control) on glycemic control among low-income Latinos with diabetes, compared to usual care (control). Participants were recruited from five community health centers (CHCs) in Massachusetts. The theory-based intervention included an intensive phase of 12 weekly sessions ...


The Effects Of Alarm System Errors On Dependence: Moderated Mediation Of Trust With And Without Risk, Eric T. Chancey 2016 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Alarm System Errors On Dependence: Moderated Mediation Of Trust With And Without Risk, Eric T. Chancey

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Research on sensor-based signaling systems suggests that false alarms and misses affect operator dependence via two independent psychological processes, hypothesized as two types of trust. These two types of trust manifest in two categorically different behaviors: compliance and reliance. The current study links the theoretical perspective outlined by Lee and See (2004) to the compliance-reliance paradigm, and argues that trust mediates the false alarm-compliance relationship but not the miss-reliance relationship. Specifically, the key conditions to allow the mediation of trust are: The operator is presented with a salient choice to depend on the signaling system and the risk associated with ...


Investigating The Determinants Of Recycling Behavior In Youth By Using Theory Of Planned Behavior., Tejaswini Gadiraju 2016 University of South Florida

Investigating The Determinants Of Recycling Behavior In Youth By Using Theory Of Planned Behavior., Tejaswini Gadiraju

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study is to understand the determinants that influence the youth recycling behavior intention. In other words, this study wants to know the motivations and barriers behind university students’ recycling behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which provides a theoretical framework for systematically identifying the determinants of recycling behavior, is the basis for this study. Along with the TPB variables, additional predictor variables (moral norm, past experience, knowledge of how and what to recycle, knowledge of consequences, and inconvenience) that can influence behavior intentions were tested in the study. Online survey was used to collect the ...


Effects Of Stability Balls On Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Patricia A. Krombach 2016 University of South Florida

Effects Of Stability Balls On Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Patricia A. Krombach

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children with ASD often display behavior problems that can lead to daily academic and social disruptions. Many teachers and therapists have sought to create classroom interventions that improve the length of time a child stays seated and focused on the required task. This has led to the introduction of stability balls as an alternative seating method for children, both on the autism spectrum and with other needs. This study used a multiple baseline design and duration data to evaluate the effects of stability ball seating on attending and in-seat behavior for children with ASD who received ABA therapy in their ...


Effects Of Delay To Reinforcement On Selections For High-Tech And Low-Tech Leisure Items, Yuram Kim 2016 University of South Florida

Effects Of Delay To Reinforcement On Selections For High-Tech And Low-Tech Leisure Items, Yuram Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many children are exposed to excessively technology. Such use of technology may lead to health issues including obesity, attention deficits, and sleep disorders. Research has shown that parameters of reinforcement, such as quality and delay, may influence how children allocate their preferences. One way to drive preference away from high-tech toys may be to arrange delays to reinforcement following such selections and immediate reinforcement for an alternative response. In Experiment 1, four subjects who preferred high-tech leisure items over low-tech leisure items were identified through the pair-stimulus preference assessments. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that all subjects were sensitive ...


Transportation And Retention In Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Programs, Peter Friedmann, Stephenie Lemon, Michael Stein 2016 Brown University School of Medicine

Transportation And Retention In Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Programs, Peter Friedmann, Stephenie Lemon, Michael Stein

Peter D. Friedmann MD

To determine whether certain types of transportation assistance improve outpatient treatment retention beyond thresholds shown to have therapeutic benefits, we analyzed data from 1,144 clients in 22 outpatient methadone maintenance (OMM) programs and 2,031 clients in 22 outpatient drug-free (ODF) programs in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a national, 12-month, longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs. Directors' surveys provided information about provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services or individual vouchers/payment for public transportation. Chart-abstracted treatment retention was dichotomized at 365 days for OMM and 90 days for ODF. Separate multivariate hierarchical linear ...


Perceptions Of Harm And Addiction Among Dual Users Of Cigarettes And E-Cigarettes, Julia S. Rozman 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Perceptions Of Harm And Addiction Among Dual Users Of Cigarettes And E-Cigarettes, Julia S. Rozman

Undergraduate Research Posters

Background: Tobacco harm perceptions are important factors in why individuals may initiate, substitute, and/or engage in dual or poly-tobacco use patterns. Identifying correlates of these perceptions is important for understanding why these cognitions may exist and help provide intervention targets. The purpose of the current study was to examine perceptions of harm and addiction among a sample of cigarette and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users and examine whether these perceptions differ by demographics, other substance use, and tobacco use history.

Methods: The current sample consisted of 29 individuals who consented to participate in a clinical laboratory study of dual cigarette ...


Exercise In Developing Rats Promotes Plasticity In The Prefrontal Cortex: Behavioral And Neurobiological Indications, Meghan Eddy 2016 University of Vermont

Exercise In Developing Rats Promotes Plasticity In The Prefrontal Cortex: Behavioral And Neurobiological Indications, Meghan Eddy

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Physical exercise has repeatedly been shown to trigger positive effects on brain function including improved learning, memory, and executive functions. In addition, corresponding physiological changes have been observed, such as increased neurotrophic factors, changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, and increased dendritic spines. However, these changes have not been well described outside of the hippocampus, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and have not been directly compared at different points of development. Because the prefrontal cortex is one of the last brain areas to fully mature, considering the age at which intervention, such as exercise, takes place is particularly important. Additionally, in ...


Examining The Psychological Adjustments Of Neurotypical Siblings Of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd) And Determining The Efficiency Of Support Groups, Swathi Deo Sambatha 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Examining The Psychological Adjustments Of Neurotypical Siblings Of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd) And Determining The Efficiency Of Support Groups, Swathi Deo Sambatha

Undergraduate Research Posters

Neurotypical siblings of individuals with behavioral disorders are reported to have complex, complicated psychological adjustments that vary significantly due to a multitude of sociodemographic factors. In addition, these children are at risk of mental health disorders and negative psychological symptoms. Support groups or extensive social support are known to increase intra-communication and create better sibling dynamics between the neurotypical and autistic siblings. This paper investigates such complications to the psychological adjustment of neurotypical siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determines the implications of the utilization of support groups/social support. The analyzed trends and reportings of multiple ...


Mentalistic Explanations For Autistic Behavior: A Behavioral Phenomenological Analysis, Lee Mason, Don Davis, Alonzo Andrews 2015 The University of Texas at San Antonio

Mentalistic Explanations For Autistic Behavior: A Behavioral Phenomenological Analysis, Lee Mason, Don Davis, Alonzo Andrews

Lee Mason

In this paper we analyze autism as a hypothetical construct and explain how an Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis functions to derail scientific investigations of autistic behavior. To support this argument, we employ a series of behavioral phenomenological investigations to analyze potential sources of control over the verbal behavior of parents, who were asked to observe their children with autism and record explanations for each occurrence of problem behavior. Autistic behaviors were recorded cumulatively, and the parents’ explanatory responses were then mapped onto the cumulative records to identify the controlling relations for each response. We then analyzed the parents’ responses for ...


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