Towards Computational Human Behavior Modeling For Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions, 2016 University of South Florida
Towards Computational Human Behavior Modeling For Just-In-Time Adaptive Interventions, Tylar Murray
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
The advent of powerful wearable devices and smartphones has enabled a new generation of “in-the-wild” user studies, adaptive behavioral intervention strategies, and context measurement. Though numerous proof-of-concept studies continue to push the limitations of what a behavioral scientist can do with these technologies, there remains a major methodological roadblock separating behavioral theory and application. Avatar-user interaction theory, for example, is not well defined in its formulation, and thus guidelines for intervention designers depend on heuristic methods and designer intuition. Computational modeling has been slow to move into behavioral science in general, but a growing population of behavioral scientists recognize this ...
Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi
Ira S. Ockene
A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.
Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene
Ira S. Ockene
BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.
METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...
Methodological Limitations Of Psychosocial Interventions In Patients With An Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (Icd) A Systematic Review., 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Methodological Limitations Of Psychosocial Interventions In Patients With An Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (Icd) A Systematic Review., Elena Salmoirago Blotcher, Ira S. Ockene
Ira S. Ockene
BACKGROUND: Despite the potentially life-saving benefits of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), a significant group of patients experiences emotional distress after ICD implantation. Different psychosocial interventions have been employed to improve this condition, but previous reviews have suggested that methodological issues may limit the validity of such interventions.
AIM: To review the methodology of previously published studies of psychosocial interventions in ICD patients, according to CONSORT statement guidelines for non-pharmacological interventions, and provide recommendations for future research.
METHODS: We electronically searched the PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases. To be included, studies needed to be published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1980 ...
Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto
Ira S. Ockene
BACKGROUND: The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health.
METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one ...
Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene
Ira S. Ockene
Objective: Depression has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, and a depression–related elevation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The objective of this study was to examine association between 27 depression and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).
Methods: Subjects consisted of 508 healthy adults (mean age 48.5 years; 49% women, 88% white) residing in central Massachusetts. Data were collected at baseline and at quarterly intervals over a one-year period per individual. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association for the entire sample and by gender.
Results: The ...
Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene
Ira S. Ockene
The objective of this investigation is to describe the associations of number of eating episodes and proportion of meals eaten away from home with total serum cholesterol. Data from 499 participants, recruited from a health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts, aged 20-70, were used for this analysis. Dietary information and total blood cholesterol were obtained at five sampling points (baseline and four consecutive quarters) during the one-year follow-up. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The results from the study do not support the hypothesis that the number of eating episodes per day is associated with total blood cholesterol. However, we noted ...
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.
The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.
To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.
The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).
There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...
How Best To Study For A Test: A Comparison Of Practice Retrieval And Self-Explanation, 2016 Western Kentucky University
How Best To Study For A Test: A Comparison Of Practice Retrieval And Self-Explanation, Casey Fortney
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
Students often struggle to prepare for their exams, perhaps as a result of using an unhelpful study method. This study compared the effects of using three study methods: rereading, practice retrieval, and self-explanation. 79 college students studied a short science text passage and were tested with both verbatim and inference questions one week later. Students who reread the information did not perform differently from those who practiced retrieving or self-explained the information. Students who self-explained the information performed better on verbatim test questions than those who practiced retrieving the information. Possible explanations for these findings and implications are discussed.
Teacher Child Interaction Therapy: An Ecological Approach To Intervening With Young Children Who Display Disruptive Behaviors, 2016 University of South Florida
Teacher Child Interaction Therapy: An Ecological Approach To Intervening With Young Children Who Display Disruptive Behaviors, Sara Marie Hinojosa
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
A model of Teacher Child Interaction Therapy (TCIT) was implemented in two kindergarten classrooms of students (n = 2) who successfully completed Parent Child Interaction Therapy, but continued to demonstrate disruptive behaviors in the classroom. The current study first indicated that TCIT was implemented with integrity by both the therapists and teacher participants. Next, the effects of this intervention on the teacher’s skills, students’ disruptive behaviors, teacher’s stress, and teacher-child relationships were investigated. The treatment acceptability was also examined. Both visual and statistical analyses found a treatment effect in both cases was seen for both teachers’ increased use of ...
Evaluating Video Modeling To Teach Caregivers To Conduct Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessments, 2016 University of South Florida
Evaluating Video Modeling To Teach Caregivers To Conduct Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessments, Cristina Diane Andersen
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Stimulus preference assessments have been shown to identify stimuli that are likely to function as reinforcers for individuals with disabilities. It is important to identify these stimuli to increase the effectiveness of interventions. The ability to conduct a stimulus preference assessment is a skill that parents and caregivers should have. Research on training preference assessments is limited to staff, teachers, and students. The following study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach caregivers to conduct paired stimulus preference assessments. The results showed that video modeling was effective and that the results maintained during a one week follow up.
An Evaluation Of An Assessment Of Check-In/Check-Out With Children Who Are Homeless In An After School Care Program, 2016 University of South Florida
An Evaluation Of An Assessment Of Check-In/Check-Out With Children Who Are Homeless In An After School Care Program, Ana Paula Camacho
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (SWPBIS) is an approach designed to improve the correct implementation, consistent use, and maintenance of evidence-based practices related to behavior, classroom management and school discipline systems. Check-in/Check-out (CICO) is often recognized as a successful intervention in SWPBIS. However, most of the research on the use of CICO has focused on the school setting. This study provided an extension to the literature by examining the effects of the CICO program with homeless children attending an afterschool program. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the CICO program effects. Students were ...
Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, 2016 Florida International University
Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, Gabriela Marie Hungerford Ms
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Infants who experience multiple risk factors, such as preterm birth, developmental delay, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk for mental health problems. Mental health interventions for infants typically target infants from high-risk groups, and there is strong evidence that some intervention programs for infants can prevent long-term negative outcomes and promote long-term positive outcomes. Despite emerging research and federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined community-based mental health services during infancy. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of routine care requires close examination of current practices. The current study characterized current usual care practices in infant mental ...
Sedentary Behavior And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Latino Adults, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Sedentary Behavior And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Latino Adults, Valerie J. Silfee, Stephenie C. Lemon, Vilma Lora, Milagros C. Rosal
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Background: Compared to other racial/ethnic subgroups in the U.S., Latinos experience increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, inactivity, and diabetes. Sedentary behavior has also been defined as an additional risk factor for CVD, independent of physical activity participation. However, while sedentary behavior has been associated with increased risk for CVD among primarily White samples, previous studies in Latinos have shown mixed results.
Purpose: To explore the relationships between sedentary behavior and CVD risk factors, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, physical activity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, among a sample of Latino adults ...
Concurrent Mental Health And Sport Performance Enhancement In An Athlete Initiating Behavioral Intervention With No Assessed Pathology: A Case Examination Supporting Optimization, 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Concurrent Mental Health And Sport Performance Enhancement In An Athlete Initiating Behavioral Intervention With No Assessed Pathology: A Case Examination Supporting Optimization, Yulia Gavrilova
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
Collegiate athletes are often exposed to unique environmental stressors that may negatively impact the way they think, behave, and feel in athletic, academic, and social domains, potentially compromising their performance and mental health when cognitive and behavioral skills are relatively underdeveloped. Behavioral interventions have been shown to enhance cognitive and behavioral skills in persons with assessed mental health deficits in the general population. However, little is known about the relative effects of psychologically-based programs in persons who do not evidence pathology. Along these lines, The Optimum Performance Program in Sports (TOPPS), based on Family Behavior Therapy, was recently developed with ...
Capturing Success At Autistry Studios: A Qualitative Study, 2016 Dominican University of California
Capturing Success At Autistry Studios: A Qualitative Study, Ali Ives, Vince Colombano, Joey Bava
Master's Theses and Capstone Projects
This qualitative study examined the perceived outcomes of participation at Autistry Studios among young adult students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Autistry Studios is a unique program offering services to individuals with ASD similar to that of a pre-vocational training program. The mission of Autistry Studios is to help students with ASD become independent adults by engaging in “project-based therapy.” A setting is provided where individuals with ASD can achieve personal and functional growth with the use of creative resources like art supplies, raw materials, and power tools to pursue and complete a project that is client-centered. The purpose of ...
Designing A Mobile Space Habitat Analog, 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach
Designing A Mobile Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Matthew Burkhard, Timothy Disher
Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference
No abstract provided.
Design And Methods For A Randomized Clinical Trial Of A Diabetes Self-Management Intervention For Low-Income Latinos: Latinos En Control, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Design And Methods For A Randomized Clinical Trial Of A Diabetes Self-Management Intervention For Low-Income Latinos: Latinos En Control, Milagros C. Rosal, Mary Jo White, Angela Restrepo, Barbara C. Olendzki, Jeffrey Scavron, Elise Sinagra, Ira S. Ockene, Michael Thompson, Stephenie C. Lemon, Lucy M. Candib, George W. Reed
BACKGROUND: US Latinos have greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes), uncontrolled diabetes and diabetes co-morbidities compared to non-Latino Whites. They also have lower literacy levels and are more likely to live in poverty. Interventions are needed to improve diabetes control among low-income Latinos.
METHODS AND DESIGN: This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a culturally- and literacy-tailored diabetes self-management intervention (Latinos en Control) on glycemic control among low-income Latinos with diabetes, compared to usual care (control). Participants were recruited from five community health centers (CHCs) in Massachusetts. The theory-based intervention included an intensive phase of 12 weekly sessions ...
The Effects Of Alarm System Errors On Dependence: Moderated Mediation Of Trust With And Without Risk, 2016 Old Dominion University
The Effects Of Alarm System Errors On Dependence: Moderated Mediation Of Trust With And Without Risk, Eric T. Chancey
Psychology Theses & Dissertations
Research on sensor-based signaling systems suggests that false alarms and misses affect operator dependence via two independent psychological processes, hypothesized as two types of trust. These two types of trust manifest in two categorically different behaviors: compliance and reliance. The current study links the theoretical perspective outlined by Lee and See (2004) to the compliance-reliance paradigm, and argues that trust mediates the false alarm-compliance relationship but not the miss-reliance relationship. Specifically, the key conditions to allow the mediation of trust are: The operator is presented with a salient choice to depend on the signaling system and the risk associated with ...
Investigating The Determinants Of Recycling Behavior In Youth By Using Theory Of Planned Behavior., 2016 University of South Florida
Investigating The Determinants Of Recycling Behavior In Youth By Using Theory Of Planned Behavior., Tejaswini Gadiraju
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
The aim of this study is to understand the determinants that influence the youth recycling behavior intention. In other words, this study wants to know the motivations and barriers behind university students’ recycling behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which provides a theoretical framework for systematically identifying the determinants of recycling behavior, is the basis for this study. Along with the TPB variables, additional predictor variables (moral norm, past experience, knowledge of how and what to recycle, knowledge of consequences, and inconvenience) that can influence behavior intentions were tested in the study. Online survey was used to collect the ...