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Schizophrenia And Its Effects On An American Family: A Call To Action For The 21st Century, Cynthia Newton Captain 2017 Dominican University of California

Schizophrenia And Its Effects On An American Family: A Call To Action For The 21st Century, Cynthia Newton Captain

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Our country’s healthcare system is at a moral crossroads. The way we treat those whom we call “the homeless” is deplorable. The majority of the homeless are mentally ill and need treatment. Our country needs to treat those with the severe brain diseases of schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, and bi-polar disorder just as we would Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Those with severe mental illness, who have no insight into their illness, should not be allowed to dictate their own treatment. If a homeless person is brought to San Francisco General Hospital and is found to be a ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

Clinicians have long understood the immense impact the health of our gut has on things like weight, energy, depression, autoimmunity and more. With the recent advancements in microbiota research we have learned much more about this connection. Like never before we understand how we can alleviate chronic health conditions and enhance well-being through improving the health of the gut.

However, with this increased research has also come over speculation and ill-informed recommendations. This has high impact on today's healthcare professional or consumer who could unintentionally do harm. For example by replicating the microbiota of hunter-gatherers of Africa, we could ...


Parental Quality Of Life 10 Years After Their Child’S Epilepsy Diagnosis, Klajdi Puka, Kathy Nixon Speechley 2017 Western University

Parental Quality Of Life 10 Years After Their Child’S Epilepsy Diagnosis, Klajdi Puka, Kathy Nixon Speechley

Western Research Forum

Background: Although the long-term course of childhood epilepsy is favorable in terms of seizure control, patients often face debilitating cognitive and psychosocial deficits that persist even after seizure remission. Pediatric epilepsy also has a large impact on the family and has been shown to be associated with diminished quality of life (QOL) among parents. However, the long-term outcome of parental QOL is unknown. This study aimed to 1) evaluate parental QOL 10 years after their child was diagnosed with epilepsy and 2) identify epilepsy-, child- and family-related characteristics associated with diminished parental QOL.

Methods: Data were derived from the Health-Related ...


Multi-Scale Motility Amplitude Associated With Suicidal Thoughts In Major Depression, Premananda Indic, Greg Murray, Carlo Maggini, Mario Amore, Tiziana Meschi, Loris Borghi, Ross J. Baldessarini, Paola Salvatore 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Multi-Scale Motility Amplitude Associated With Suicidal Thoughts In Major Depression, Premananda Indic, Greg Murray, Carlo Maggini, Mario Amore, Tiziana Meschi, Loris Borghi, Ross J. Baldessarini, Paola Salvatore

Premananda Indic

Major depression occurs at high prevalence in the general population, often starts in juvenile years, recurs over a lifetime, and is strongly associated with disability and suicide. Searches for biological markers in depression may have been hindered by assuming that depression is a unitary and relatively homogeneous disorder, mainly of mood, rather than addressing particular, clinically crucial features or diagnostic subtypes. Many studies have implicated quantitative alterations of motility rhythms in depressed human subjects. Since a candidate feature of great public-health significance is the unusually high risk of suicidal behavior in depressive disorders, we studied correlations between a measure (vulnerability ...


Multi-Scale Motility Amplitude Associated With Suicidal Thoughts In Major Depression, Premananda Indic, Greg Murray, Carlo Maggini, Mario Amore, Tiziana Meschi, Loris Borghi, Ross J. Baldessarini, Paola Salvatore 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Multi-Scale Motility Amplitude Associated With Suicidal Thoughts In Major Depression, Premananda Indic, Greg Murray, Carlo Maggini, Mario Amore, Tiziana Meschi, Loris Borghi, Ross J. Baldessarini, Paola Salvatore

Premananda Indic

Major depression occurs at high prevalence in the general population, often starts in juvenile years, recurs over a lifetime, and is strongly associated with disability and suicide. Searches for biological markers in depression may have been hindered by assuming that depression is a unitary and relatively homogeneous disorder, mainly of mood, rather than addressing particular, clinically crucial features or diagnostic subtypes. Many studies have implicated quantitative alterations of motility rhythms in depressed human subjects. Since a candidate feature of great public-health significance is the unusually high risk of suicidal behavior in depressive disorders, we studied correlations between a measure (vulnerability ...


Preference Assessment Of Teacher Behaviors For Students With Autism And Resulting Behaviors, Diane Grzebyk 2017 Long Island University

Preference Assessment Of Teacher Behaviors For Students With Autism And Resulting Behaviors, Diane Grzebyk

Post & Beyond

With the rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), studies must seek to evaluate enriched, innovative teaching experiences for this growing population. Preference assessments are widely used to evaluate favored edibles, objects and activities for children with ASD. Less research has been conducted regarding children’s preferences for staff. Since children with ASD spend a large part of their day with teachers in their schools or therapeutic environments, it seems fitting that they would develop a preference for teachers. If students develop preferences for teachers, it would also make sense that these preferences may have an effect on the student ...


Spatial Memory Decreased By Ghrelin Antagonist, Birgitte Hovland 2017 Long Island University

Spatial Memory Decreased By Ghrelin Antagonist, Birgitte Hovland

Post & Beyond

Ghrelin is known as the hunger hormone. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone, which is produced in the stomach to regulate appetite. When the stomach is empty ghrelin is produced, and when the stomach is stretched secretion stops. Ghrelin has also been linked to long-term potentiation and cognition. Specifically, previous research on ghrelin agonists has shown enhancement on spatial memory performance. This study seeks to find if the same results will be achieved with a ghrelin antagonist. Instead of using an agonist, we will produce ghrelin organically by food restriction, and then administer ghrelin antagonist to counter the effects of the ...


Polyvagal Theory Improves Dental Desensitization Programs For Children With Intellectual Disability, Lindsay Miller 2017 Long Island University

Polyvagal Theory Improves Dental Desensitization Programs For Children With Intellectual Disability, Lindsay Miller

Post & Beyond

Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) often avoid or escape dental procedures. Dental professionals typically resort to restraints, sedation or general anesthesia, which are dangerous, alter results and may increase future problem behaviors. Desensitization programs can increase patient compliance. The Polyvagal theory, proposed by Stephen Porges, focuses on the prevention of biological setting events such as stress responses. The purpose of our research is to determine if a Polyvagal intervention would improve cooperation with dental procedures for individuals with a diagnosis of ID. The participants for this study were two children with a diagnosis of ID and Autism Spectrum Disorder and ...


Eating Disorders: Identifying, Assessing, And Treatment, Valerie M. Miranda 2017 Eating Disorders Recovery Center of Athens

Eating Disorders: Identifying, Assessing, And Treatment, Valerie M. Miranda

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This presentation will address DSM-V criteria for feeding and eating disorders, demographics for eating disorders, long-term medical issues associated with eating disorders, assessment measures for feeding and eating disorders, and resources for the community. Being able to identify, assess, and treat eating disorders within the children and adolescent population is crucial in their long-term physical development and mental health as eating disorders typically begin in mid-adolescence.


Youth Outcomes Of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Tf-Cbt) In The Child Trauma Training Center (Cttc), Crystaltina Montagna, Jessica L. Griffin, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Genevieve Kane-Howse, MaryBeth Todd 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Youth Outcomes Of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Tf-Cbt) In The Child Trauma Training Center (Cttc), Crystaltina Montagna, Jessica L. Griffin, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Genevieve Kane-Howse, Marybeth Todd

Jessica L. Griffin

Objectives: Exposure to trauma among youth is common and can cause behavioral, social and functioning problems. Use of evidence-based trauma treatment can reduce post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms and behavioral problems. This poster highlights the outcomes of youth who participated in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) provided by clinicians who were trained through the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) Child Trauma Training Center (CTTC).

Methods: 308 youth ages 6-18 were enrolled into the CTTC evaluation with a mean age of 11.31 years (SD = 3.5); over half were female (58.1%), the majority were white (62.3%) and 37 ...


Youth Outcomes Of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Tf-Cbt) In The Child Trauma Training Center (Cttc), Crystaltina Montagna, Jessica L. Griffin, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Genevieve Kane-Howse, MaryBeth Todd 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Youth Outcomes Of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Tf-Cbt) In The Child Trauma Training Center (Cttc), Crystaltina Montagna, Jessica L. Griffin, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Genevieve Kane-Howse, Marybeth Todd

Community Engagement and Research Symposia

Objectives: Exposure to trauma among youth is common and can cause behavioral, social and functioning problems. Use of evidence-based trauma treatment can reduce post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms and behavioral problems. This poster highlights the outcomes of youth who participated in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) provided by clinicians who were trained through the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) Child Trauma Training Center (CTTC).

Methods: 308 youth ages 6-18 were enrolled into the CTTC evaluation with a mean age of 11.31 years (SD = 3.5); over half were female (58.1%), the majority were white (62.3%) and 37 ...


Sibling Support Program: A Family-Centered Mental Health Initiative, Emily Rubin, Leah Baigell, Emily Lauer, Louis Ostrowsky, Elizabeth Janopaul-Naylor, Greg Barnett, James Mackenzie, Nikhil Patel, Yana Kotlar, Adele Pressman, Jacob Venter 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sibling Support Program: A Family-Centered Mental Health Initiative, Emily Rubin, Leah Baigell, Emily Lauer, Louis Ostrowsky, Elizabeth Janopaul-Naylor, Greg Barnett, James Mackenzie, Nikhil Patel, Yana Kotlar, Adele Pressman, Jacob Venter

Community Engagement and Research Symposia

Sibling Support Program: A Family-Centered Mental Health Initiative was developed at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center of the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The project is currently implemented at Cambridge Health Alliance in Cambridge, Massachusetts as an IRB-approved research study, and at another Boston-based hospital as a Quality Improvement (QI) initiative. The program was also piloted at Boston Children's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. The project explores the impact of mental illness on typically developing siblings and caregivers of children with psychiatric needs. Project goals: to increase resiliency and mitigate the trauma commonly experienced by siblings of children admitted for ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Coping Strategies Used During An Extreme Antarctic Expedition, Nathan Smith, Florence Kinnafick, Ben Saunders 2017 University of Northampton

Coping Strategies Used During An Extreme Antarctic Expedition, Nathan Smith, Florence Kinnafick, Ben Saunders

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

The present report documents the strategies used to deal with stress during an extreme Antarctic expedition. Coping strategies identified are based on experiences shared by the leader of the Scott Expedition and co-author of the report, Ben Saunders. A variety of problem- and emotion-focused techniques were utilized during the expedition and specific contextual and practical details are provided. Information offered in the article can be used to prepare future Antarctic expedition teams to manage stressors faced while undertaking extreme journeys in the higher latitudes.


Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker 2017 Brandman University

Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker

Dissertations

The intent of this study was to elicit perspectives from law enforcement counselors, clinicians, chaplains, and peer group leaders for factors affecting law enforcement officer’s (LEOs) seeking mental health assistance. The law enforcement and mental health communities have gone to great lengths to ensure assistance is available to LEOs in an effort to counter the stress and trauma associated with the policing profession. Past studies attempted to elicit LEOs attitudes on mental health services, generating mixed results and were unable to establish why available services were underutilized. This study employed a qualitative methodology to elicit perspectives on this phenomena ...


On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of African-Americans are classified as obese. Perceived racism has been associated with obesity, yet the internal experiences of racism have received little attention. African Americans who face racism may "ready themselves" to cope through survival strategies, including race-related vigilance. This study explores the association between race-related vigilance and obesity in African Americans. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Reactions to Race module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (years 2002-2010) was used. Our sample size consisted of 12,214 African-Americans. Race-related vigilance was assessed as: "How often do you think about your race?" and classified as: never, < daily, daily, and > daily ...


Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl 2017 University of New Mexico

Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

Gina M. Vincent

Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...


Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a chapter in a volume, Ethics Dilemmas in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Practice, edited by Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D. and to be published by Columbia University Press. The chapter addresses whether the use of new neuroscience techniques, especially non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the data from studies employing them raise new ethical issues for forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. The implicit thesis throughout is that if the legal questions, the limits of the new techniques and the relevance of neuroscience to law are properly understood, no new ethical issues are raised. A major ethical lapse ...


Successful Clozapine Re-Challenge In A Patient With Three Previous Episodes Of Clozapine-Associated Blood Dyscrasia, John Lally, Jessica Foster, Victoria Bell, Sukhi Shergill 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Successful Clozapine Re-Challenge In A Patient With Three Previous Episodes Of Clozapine-Associated Blood Dyscrasia, John Lally, Jessica Foster, Victoria Bell, Sukhi Shergill

Psychiatry Articles

A case is presented of a 30-year-old female with treatment-resistant schizoaffective disorder who was referred to a tertiary-level specialist psychosis service. We describe the history of clozapine trials and associated episodes of agranulocytosis and neutropenia, followed by the successfully tolerated third clozapine re-challenge within our service.


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