Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychiatry and Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,003 Full-Text Articles 3,294 Authors 740,097 Downloads 108 Institutions

All Articles in Psychiatry and Psychology

Faceted Search

2,003 full-text articles. Page 1 of 40.

Prison Abuse And Mental Health, Hayley R. Wolfe, Shelby Haas, Candace Olley 2014 Cedarville University

Prison Abuse And Mental Health, Hayley R. Wolfe, Shelby Haas, Candace Olley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Abuse among mentally ill inmates is a relevant issue in prison systems worldwide. This presentation will focus on the pervasiveness and severity of this abuse in the US and abroad. Pertinent statistics regarding the prevalence of abuse among the mentally ill in prison systems, as well as the obstacles to obtaining such statistics will be presented. Following the major deinstitutionalization of mental hospitals in the 1970s, the mentally ill inmate population has seen exponential increase in the United States. Abuse statistics of the mentally ill in United Kingdom prisons will also be presented and analyzed, including concerns in prison staff ...


Possible Psychosocial Benefits Of Having A Sibling With A Disability, Jenna M. Talbott 2014 Liberty University

Possible Psychosocial Benefits Of Having A Sibling With A Disability, Jenna M. Talbott

Senior Honors Theses

Possible psychosocial benefits resulting from exposure to siblings with disabilities are investigated in the current study. Previous literature has generally overlooked the possibility of psychosocial benefits by exclusively focusing on the negative effects of having a sibling with disabilities. Contact theory suggests that the increased exposure to individuals with disabilities should increase positive attitude toward those who are struggling with disadvantages. This investigation hypothesized that this tendency would be manifested as elevated empathy and compassion in individuals who have siblings with disabilities, and that these traits would be influenced by certain demographic variables. A survey was distributed, and the responses ...


Mental Health In Jamaica: An Approach To Awareness And Treatment In Children, Sam Curran, Lilly Naqvi 2014 Providence College

Mental Health In Jamaica: An Approach To Awareness And Treatment In Children, Sam Curran, Lilly Naqvi

Annual Undergraduate Conference on Health and Society

The awareness, perception and treatment of Autism was studied during a service study abroad class to Petersfield, Jamaica during the winters of 2013 and 2014. The program was developed to gain a basic understanding of the etiology of the disorder, and to examine the dynamic of a rural population’s outlook on health. Parents, teachers, and other community members were interviewed and engaged in discussion to share knowledge and perceptions of Autism. We will discuss our experience and findings.

Our preliminary conclusions include the following. First, the amount and availability of resources affects the parents and children, impacting his or ...


Preschoolers’ Responses To Suboptimal Sources Of Information, Sonia Jamani 2014 Georgia State University

Preschoolers’ Responses To Suboptimal Sources Of Information, Sonia Jamani

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Psychotic Symptoms, Functioning And Coping In Adolescents With Mental Illness., Johanna TW Wigman, Nina Devlin, Ian Kelleher, Aileen Murtagh, Michelle Harley, Anne Kehoe, Carol Fitzpatrick, Mary Cannon 2014 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Psychotic Symptoms, Functioning And Coping In Adolescents With Mental Illness., Johanna Tw Wigman, Nina Devlin, Ian Kelleher, Aileen Murtagh, Michelle Harley, Anne Kehoe, Carol Fitzpatrick, Mary Cannon

Psychiatry Articles

BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual's ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association.

METHODS: In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was ...


The Prevalence Of Psychosis In Epilepsy; A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Maurice J. Clancy, Mary C. Clarke, Dearbhla J. Connor, Mary Cannon, David R. Cotter 2014 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Prevalence Of Psychosis In Epilepsy; A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Maurice J. Clancy, Mary C. Clarke, Dearbhla J. Connor, Mary Cannon, David R. Cotter

Psychiatry Articles

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy has long been considered to be a risk factor for psychosis. However there is a lack of consistency in findings across studies on the effect size of this risk which reflects methodological differences in studies and changing diagnostic classifications within neurology and psychiatry. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychosis in epilepsy and to estimate the risk of psychosis among individuals with epilepsy compared with controls.

METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of all published literature pertaining to prevalence rates of psychosis in epilepsy using electronic databases PUBMED, OVIDMEDLINE, PsychINFO and ...


Weight Gain Prevention In The School Worksite Setting: Results Of A Multi-Level Cluster Randomized Trial, Stephenie C. Lemon, Monica L. Wang, Nicole M. Wedick, Barbara Estabrook, Susan Druker, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Lori Pbert 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Weight Gain Prevention In The School Worksite Setting: Results Of A Multi-Level Cluster Randomized Trial, Stephenie C. Lemon, Monica L. Wang, Nicole M. Wedick, Barbara Estabrook, Susan Druker, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Lori Pbert

UMass Worcester Prevention Research Center Publications and Presentations

OBJECTIVE: To describe the effectiveness, reach and implementation of a weight gain prevention intervention among public school employees.

METHOD: A multi-level intervention was tested in a cluster randomized trial among 782 employees in 12 central Massachusetts public high schools from 2009 to 2012. The intervention targeted the nutrition and physical activity environment and policies, the social environment and individual knowledge, attitudes and skills. The intervention was compared to a materials only condition. The primary outcome measures were change in weight and body mass index (BMI) at 24-month follow-up. Implementation of physical environment, policy and social environment strategies at the school ...


The Efficacy Of Mathematics Education, Eric Geimer 2014 Claremont Colleges

The Efficacy Of Mathematics Education, Eric Geimer

The STEAM Journal

Evidence supports the notion that mathematics education in the United States is inadequate. There is also evidence that mathematics education deficiencies extend internationally. The worldwide mathematics education deficit appears large enough that improving student performance in this educational problem area could yield great economic benefit. To improve the efficacy of mathematics education, education’s root problems must first be understood. Often supposed educational root problems are considered and contrasted against potential deficiencies of mathematics methodologies and curricula that are based on mainstream educational philosophies. The educational philosophies utilized to form early-grade mathematics methodologies and related curricula are judged to be ...


Severity Of Depressive Symptoms And Accuracy Of Dietary Reporting Among Obese Women With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Weight Loss Treatment, Matthew C. Whited, Kristin L. Schneider, Bradley M. Appelhans, Yunsheng Ma, Molly E. Waring, Michele A. DeBiasse, Andrew M. Busch, Jessica L. Oleski, Philip A. Merriam, Barbara C. Olendzki, Sybil L. Crawford, Ira S. Ockene, Stephenie C. Lemon, Sherry L. Pagoto 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Severity Of Depressive Symptoms And Accuracy Of Dietary Reporting Among Obese Women With Major Depressive Disorder Seeking Weight Loss Treatment, Matthew C. Whited, Kristin L. Schneider, Bradley M. Appelhans, Yunsheng Ma, Molly E. Waring, Michele A. Debiasse, Andrew M. Busch, Jessica L. Oleski, Philip A. Merriam, Barbara C. Olendzki, Sybil L. Crawford, Ira S. Ockene, Stephenie C. Lemon, Sherry L. Pagoto

Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations

An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese ...


The Effect Of Smoking On Dna Methylation Of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From African American Women, Meeshanthini V. Dogan, Bridget Shields, Carolyn E. Cutrona, Long Gao, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ronald Simons, Martha Monick, Gene H. Brody, Kai Tan, Steven R. H. Beach, Robert A. Philibert 2014 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Smoking On Dna Methylation Of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From African American Women, Meeshanthini V. Dogan, Bridget Shields, Carolyn E. Cutrona, Long Gao, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ronald Simons, Martha Monick, Gene H. Brody, Kai Tan, Steven R. H. Beach, Robert A. Philibert

Psychology Publications and Papers

Background

Regular smoking is associated with a wide variety of syndromes with prominent inflammatory components such as cancer, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Heavy regular smoking is also associated with changes in the DNA methylation of peripheral mononuclear cells. However, in younger smokers, inflammatory epigenetic findings are largely absent which suggests the inflammatory response(s) to smoking may be dose dependent. To help understand whether peripheral mononuclear cells have a role in mediating these responses in older smokers with higher cumulative smoke exposure, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation in a group of well characterized adult African American subjects informative for ...


Universal Design And Cognitions Of Choice: An Integrated Approach To Effective Substance Misuse Treatment Efforts, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D. 2014 Pacific University

Universal Design And Cognitions Of Choice: An Integrated Approach To Effective Substance Misuse Treatment Efforts, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D.

Faculty Scholarship (COE)

Having the ability to exercise critical thinking at a conscious level of choice versus impulsively responding may support the difference between health and continued substance misuse during periods of vulnerability. Cognitions of Choice offers twenty four critical thinking skills that are connected to three levels of developmental choice that engages self-dialog between automatic thinking, meta-thinking, and conscious thought patterns. By the time many individuals make their way into treatment and recovery programs the likelihood of their presenting with physical disabilities and mental health conditions is heightened. Incorporating the principles of Universal Design into program development allows for full access for ...


Change In Coping And Defense Mechanisms Across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings In A European-American Sample, Manfred Diehl, Helena Chui, Elizabeth L. Hay, Mark A. Lumley, Daniel Grühn, Gisela Labouvie-Vief 2014 Wayne State University

Change In Coping And Defense Mechanisms Across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings In A European-American Sample, Manfred Diehl, Helena Chui, Elizabeth L. Hay, Mark A. Lumley, Daniel Grühn, Gisela Labouvie-Vief

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender- stratified sample of 392 European-American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age, and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started ...


Is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy An Effective Treatment For Autism? A Review, Daniel Dunleavy, Bruce A. Thyer 2014 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Is Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy An Effective Treatment For Autism? A Review, Daniel Dunleavy, Bruce A. Thyer

Journal of Adolescent and Family Health

Objectives: We review outcome studies regarding the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were identified through electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches of article reference lists. Results: A total of 8 studies met eligibility criteria, consisting of three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one quasi-experimental study involving a comparison group, two pre-experimental one-group pretest–posttest studies, and two single-system designs. Studies reviewed did not offer credible evidence to suggest that HBOT is an effective treatment for autism. Conclusion: It is premature to call HBOT an effective treatment for Autism and ASD. Individuals clinically treated ...


Measuring Fragmentation In Dissociative Identity Disorder: The Integration Measure And Relationship To Switching And Time In Therapy, M. Rose Barlow, James A. Chu 2014 Boise State University

Measuring Fragmentation In Dissociative Identity Disorder: The Integration Measure And Relationship To Switching And Time In Therapy, M. Rose Barlow, James A. Chu

Psychology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Some people with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have very little communication or awareness among the parts of their identity, while others experience a great deal of cooperation among alternate identities. Previous research on this topic has been sparse. Currently, there is no empirical measure of integration versus fragmentation in a person with DID. In this study, we report the development of such a measure.

Objective: The goal of this study was to pilot the integration measure (IM) and to address its psychometric properties and relationships to other measures. The IM is the first standardized measure of integration in DID ...


Challenges In Sodium Intake Reduction And Meal Consumption Patterns Among Participants With Metabolic Syndrome In A Dietary Trial, Jinsong Wang, Barbara C. Olendzki, Nicole M. Wedick, Gioia M. Persuitte, Annie L. Culver, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James Carmody, Hua Julia Fang, Zhiying Zhang, Gin-Fei Olendzki, Liang Zheng, Yunsheng Ma 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Challenges In Sodium Intake Reduction And Meal Consumption Patterns Among Participants With Metabolic Syndrome In A Dietary Trial, Jinsong Wang, Barbara C. Olendzki, Nicole M. Wedick, Gioia M. Persuitte, Annie L. Culver, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James Carmody, Hua Julia Fang, Zhiying Zhang, Gin-Fei Olendzki, Liang Zheng, Yunsheng Ma

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines suggest limiting daily sodium intake to

METHODS: Two hundred forty participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a dietary intervention trial to lose weight and improve dietary quality. Three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at each visit which provided meal patterns and nutrient data, including sodium intake. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine sodium consumption patterns at baseline and at one-year study visits. Sodium consumption patterns over time were examined using linear mixed models.

RESULTS: The percentage of meals reported eaten in the home at both baseline and one-year follow-up was approximately 69%. Follow-up for the ...


Comparison Between Two Methodological Paradigms Of Conditioned Place Preference With Methlyphenidate., Bryce D. Watson 2013 East Tennessee State University

Comparison Between Two Methodological Paradigms Of Conditioned Place Preference With Methlyphenidate., Bryce D. Watson

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Series

The aim of this thesis is to examine the mechanisms of Methylphenidate (MPH) on Conditioned Place Preference (CPP), a behavioral test of reward. The psychostimulant MPH is therapeutically used in the treatment of ADHD, but has been implicated in many pharmacological actions related to drug addiction and is considered to have abuse potential. Past work in our lab and others have shown substantial sex-differences in the neuropharmacological profile of MPH. Here a discussion of the relevant mechanisms of action of MPH and its relationship to neurotrophins and CPP are reviewed. Furthermore, previous work is reviewed and a rationale for two ...


Resilience As Health Promotion In Action: University Students Who Grew Up Amid Violence Directed Towards Their Mothers, Tatiana Murkin (Zdyb) 2013 Western University

Resilience As Health Promotion In Action: University Students Who Grew Up Amid Violence Directed Towards Their Mothers, Tatiana Murkin (Zdyb)

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Violence against women is among the greatest threats to the health of our population. An estimated three hundred and sixty thousand children in Canada, and over two million worldwide are exposed to violence in their homes (UNICEF, 2006). Growing up amidst such violence seriously compromises children’s capacities for healthy development. Violence against women is not limited by culture, geography or socioeconomic status. It constitutes one of the most pervasive and yet least openly discussed human rights violations and public health issues known today.

Researchers and allied health professionals generally agree that children whose development has been interfered with ...


Euthanasia - An Act Of Love, David San Filippo Ph.D. 2013 National Louis University

Euthanasia - An Act Of Love, David San Filippo Ph.D.

David San Filippo Ph.D.

Attitudes towards euthanasia are changing. According to a 2005 Gallup poll, 75% of the respondents believed that people should have the right to choose to die. A person in intractable pain with no hope of improvement may have the moral right to commit end her/his life.


Media's Influence On The Drive For Muscularity In Undergraduates, Brooke Cramblitt, Mary Pritchard 2013 Boise State University

Media's Influence On The Drive For Muscularity In Undergraduates, Brooke Cramblitt, Mary Pritchard

Psychology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Although research has found that body ideals presented by the media influence women's body dissatisfaction, less is known about media's influence on men's body satisfaction. An online survey examining media use, the drive for muscularity, and internalization of appearance and body shape ideals was given to a sample of 311 participants comprised of both men and women. Results indicated (a) the more time men and women reported watching television, the higher their reported drive for muscularity (b) total hours of viewing sports-related, image-focused, and entertainment television related to increased drive for muscularity in women (c) drive for ...


Examining The Inner Experience Of Four Individuals With Bipolar Disorder Using Descriptive Experience Sampling, Johanah Kang 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Examining The Inner Experience Of Four Individuals With Bipolar Disorder Using Descriptive Experience Sampling, Johanah Kang

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong mood disorder with diagnostic criteria that provide a description of expected experiences of individuals diagnosed with BD (e.g., elevated mood, sadness, difficulty concentrating). Despite these criteria, the inner experience of these individuals is largely unknown. Understanding the inner experience of individuals diagnosed with BD may prove essential in understanding and treating BD. The present study examined the inner experience of four individuals diagnosed with BD using the Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) method (Hurlburt 1990, 1993, 2011). Results revealed all our participants had clear and prevalent experiences of sensory awareness. They also had difficulties apprehending ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress