Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Liking, Craving, And Attentional Bias In Non-Dependent Drinkers, David Lovett
Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of the present study was to better understand alcohol use problems by examining the effect of alcohol liking on alcohol attentional bias among non-dependent drinkers. An adapted model of Robinson and Berridge’s (1993) incentive-sensitization theory of addiction was proposed which theorized that manipulation of alcohol liking would produce alcohol attentional bias (assessed via visual probe task) among non-dependent drinkers. To test this adapted model, alcohol liking was manipulated and the effect on alcohol attentional bias was examined. Participants were 53 legal-age, college drinkers (Mage = 23.49; 32.1% female; 67.9% White Non-Hispanic). Participants completed measures of ...
Assessing The Long-Term Effects Of Brief Behavioral Health Treatment In Primary Care Patients, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Assessing The Long-Term Effects Of Brief Behavioral Health Treatment In Primary Care Patients, Debbie Gomez
Theses and Dissertations
Although increasingly studies show brief behavioral health services are effective for primary care patients (Bridges et al., 2013; Bryan, Morrow, & Appolonio, 2009; Corso et al., 2012; Gomez et al., 2014), there is a paucity of research exploring the long-term effects of these interventions (e.g., Ray-Sannerud, 2012). The primary aim of the current study was to explore long-term effectiveness. Specifically, the current study 1) examined whether reductions in patient global distress following brief behavioral health care services were maintained long-term, 2) evaluated whether improvements were reliable and not due to regression to the mean effects, and 3) explored medical cost offset via ...
Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress: An Integrative Literature Review, 2017 DePaul University
Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress: An Integrative Literature Review, Cassia Onken
Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium
Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress (PMTS) is a common occurrence and not well understood by the medical community. Therefore, identifying key concepts is necessary to provide early intervention for children and parents. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate current research to determine common themes of PMTS. Questions included “What is known about the defining characteristics of PMTS?” and “What variable interactions predispose a child to PMTS development?” Articles were found using CINAHL, PsychInfo, PubMed, ProQuest, and Academic Search Complete using key words like acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress, medical traumatic stress, pediatric, child, parent, and guardian. Studies had ...
Using Standardized Patients For Training And Evaluating Medical Trainees In Behavioral Health, 2017 Rutgers University and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ
Using Standardized Patients For Training And Evaluating Medical Trainees In Behavioral Health, Jeffrey D. Shahidullah, Paul W. Kettlewell
International Journal of Health Sciences Education
Training delivered to medical students and residents in behavioral health is widely acknowledged to be inadequate. While the use of standardized patients is common in medical training and education for physical health conditions via the adherence to clinical protocols for evaluation and treatment, this approach is infrequently used for behavioral health conditions. Used under specific circumstances, standardized patient encounters have long been considered a reliable method of training and assessing trainee performance on addressing physical health conditions, and are even comparable to ratings of directly observed encounters with real patients. This paper discusses common issues and challenges that arise in ...
Associations Between Medical Cannabis And Prescription Opioid Use In Chronic Pain Patients: A Preliminary Cohort Study [Dataset], Jacob M. Vigil, Sarah S. Stith, Ian M. Adams, Anthony P. Reeve
No abstract provided.
Do Eye Movements During Shape Discrimination Reveal An Underlying Geometric Structure?, 2017 Georgia Southern University
Do Eye Movements During Shape Discrimination Reveal An Underlying Geometric Structure?, Bradley R. Sturz, Ty W. Boyer, John F. Magnotti, Kent D. Bodily
Ty W. Boyer
Using a psychophysical approach coupled with eye-tracking measures, we varied length and width of shape stimuli to determine the objective parameters that corresponded to subjective determination of square/rectangle judgments. Participants viewed a two-dimensional shape stimulus and made a two-alternative forced-choice whether it was a square or rectangle. Participants’ gaze was tracked throughout the task to explore directed visual attention to the vertical and horizontal axes of space. Behavioral results provide threshold values for two-dimensional square/rectangle perception, and eye-tracking data indicated that participants directed attention to the major and minor principal axes. Results are consistent with the use of ...
Spatial Attention To Social Cues Is Not A Monolithic Process, 2017 Indiana University Bloomington
Spatial Attention To Social Cues Is Not A Monolithic Process, Samuel M. Harding, Ty W. Boyer, Bennett I. Bertenthal
Ty W. Boyer
Social stimuli are a highly salient source of information, and seem to possess unique qualities that set them apart from other well-known categories. One characteristic is their ability to elicit spatial orienting, whereby directional stimuli like eyegaze and pointing gestures act as exogenous cues that trigger automatic shifts of attention that are difficult to inhibit. This effect has been extended to non-social stimuli, like arrows, leading to some uncertainty regarding whether spatial orienting is specialized for social cues. Using a standard spatial cueing paradigm, we found evidence that both a pointing hand and arrow are effective cues, but that the ...
Elementary School Students' Quantitative Reasoning: Processing Whole Numbers And Proportions, 2017 Georgia Southern University
Elementary School Students' Quantitative Reasoning: Processing Whole Numbers And Proportions, Ty W. Boyer, Natalie Branch
Ty W. Boyer
Elementary school-aged children have great difficulty reasoning proportionally and struggle with fractions and decimals, theoretically because proportions do not abide by the same principles as more familiar whole number quantities. The present study examines individual differences in proportional reasoning and whole number representations and tests a prediction for a nonlinearity in the development of relations between the two. Pre-kindergarten through fifth-grade students completed a battery of computerized tasks, including a proportional reasoning task, “which is more?” and “which is #?” whole number comparison tasks, and symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical line-estimation tasks. The results indicate that though younger children’s performance on ...
Stroop Interference In A Delayed Match-To-Sample Task: Evidence For Semantic Competition, 2017 Georgia Southern University
Stroop Interference In A Delayed Match-To-Sample Task: Evidence For Semantic Competition, Bradley R. Sturz, Marshall L. Green, Lawrence Locker Jr., Ty W. Boyer
Bradley R. Sturz
Discussions of the source of the Stroop interference effect continue to pervade the literature. Semantic competition posits that interference results from competing semantic activation of word and color dimensions of the stimulus prior to response selection. Response competition posits that interference results from competing responses for articulating the word dimension vs. the color dimension at the time of response selection. We embedded Stroop stimuli into a delayed match-to-sample (DMTS) task in an attempt to test semantic and response competition accounts of the interference effect. Participants viewed a sample color word in black or colored fonts that were ongruent or incongruent ...
Asymmetrical Interference Effects Between Two-Dimensional Geometric Shapes And Their Corresponding Shape Words, 2017 Georgia Southern University
Asymmetrical Interference Effects Between Two-Dimensional Geometric Shapes And Their Corresponding Shape Words, Bradley R. Sturz, Joshua E. Edwards, Ty W. Boyer
Bradley R. Sturz
Nativists have postulated fundamental geometric knowledge that predates linguistic and symbolic thought. Central to these claims is the proposal for an isolated cognitive system dedicated to processing geometric information. Testing such hypotheses presents challenges due to difficulties in eliminating the combination of geometric and non-geometric information through language. We present evidence using a modified matching interference paradigm that an incongruent shape word interferes with identifying a two-dimensional geometric shape, but an incongruent two-dimensional geometric shape does not interfere with identifying a shape word. This asymmetry in interference effects between two-dimensional geometric shapes and their corresponding shape words suggests that shape ...
Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability ￼, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability ￼, Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper
Haslam Scholars Projects
Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. Dominant and subordinate animals have been shown to exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to stress, with dominants often showing stress resistance and subordinates often showing stress vulnerability. We have previously found that dominant hamsters exhibit reduced social avoidance following social defeat stress compared to subordinate hamsters, although the extent to which stress resistance in dominants generalizes to non-social stressors is unknown. In this study, dominant, subordinate, and control male Syrian hamsters ...
Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, 2017 New Hampshire Musculoskeletal Institute, Manchester, NH
Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich Mcleod
Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications
We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures.
Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, 2017 University of California, Los Angeles
Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants ...
Polyvagal Theory, 2017 Long Island University
Polyvagal Theory, Shawn Mccabe
Post & Beyond
In many cases, operant learning procedures follow regimented methods of
measurable behaviors such as responsiveness to cues and reactions to the
consequences that follow. Recently it has been recognized that subjective
traits such as feelings or disposition still affect the responsiveness of the
subject and must be taken into consideration. However, certain techniques
such as those described in Polyvagal Theory could be the key to affording
receptive and compliant behaviors in the subject, even when they previously
were noncompliant. Proposed by Stephen Porges, Polyvagal Theory is
broken into three stages of the vagal system. When we suddenly encounter
a stranger ...
Weight-Loss Treatment-Induced Physical Activity Associated With Improved Nutrition Through Changes In Social Cognitive Theory Variables In Women With Obesity, 2017 YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta, Kennesaw State University
Weight-Loss Treatment-Induced Physical Activity Associated With Improved Nutrition Through Changes In Social Cognitive Theory Variables In Women With Obesity, James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno
Health Behavior Research
Behavioral weight-loss treatments have typically been unsuccessful and a theoretical. Even when treatments were scientifically derived, theory has rarely been used to decompose, and understand the bases of, their effects. This 2-year study evaluated mediation of the prediction of nutritional changes by changes in physical activity, through social cognitive theory variables. Data from women with Class 1–2 obesity, classified as “insufficiently active” (N = 50; Mage = 47.6 years), were extracted from 2 initial trials of a new cognitive-behavioral intervention. That treatment sought to improve self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy through increased physical activity, to then induce improved eating and ...
A 6-Month Open-Label Extension Study Of Vortioxetine In Pediatric Patients With Depressive Or Anxiety Disorders., 2017 George Washington University
A 6-Month Open-Label Extension Study Of Vortioxetine In Pediatric Patients With Depressive Or Anxiety Disorders., Robert L Findling, Adelaide S Robb, Melissa P Delbello, Michael Huss, Nora K Mcnamara, Elias H Sarkis, Russell E Scheffer, Lis H Poulsen, Grace Chen, Ole M Lemming, Philippe Auby
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Faculty Publications
OBJECTIVES: In this 6-month open-label extension (OLE) of NCT01491035 (a 14-day, open-label, pharmacokinetic/safety lead-in study), the long-term safety and tolerability of vortioxetine (5-20 mg/day) were investigated in children and adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR™ diagnosis of depressive or anxiety disorder in the United States or Germany. The study also was designed to provide data to inform dose selection and titration in future pediatric studies with vortioxetine.
METHODS: Safety evaluations included spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs), the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), and the Pediatric Adverse Events Rating Scale (PAERS; clinician administered). Clinical effectiveness was determined by Clinical Global ...
Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, 2017 Cedarville University
Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist
Bioethics in Faith and Practice
This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.
Re-Designing A Practice Test Into A Game, 2017 Eastern Kentucky University
Re-Designing A Practice Test Into A Game, Hung-Tao Chen, Michael Lee
EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship
Practice testing is an effective learning strategy, but it can lead to increased test anxiety and often has low voluntary participation rate. This paper describes a case study on the effects of a re-designed practice test using game-like elements. The results indicate that the gamified practice test had a high student participation rate and showed improved test performance.
Dose-Dependent Expression Of Claudin-5 Is A Modifying Factor In Schizophrenia., 2017 Trinity College Dublin
Dose-Dependent Expression Of Claudin-5 Is A Modifying Factor In Schizophrenia., C Greene, J Kealy, M M. Humphries, Y Gong, J Hou, N Hudson, L M. Cassidy, R Martiniano, V Shashi, S R. Hooper, G A. Grant, P F. Kenna, K Norris, C K. Callaghan, M D. Islam, S M. O'Mara, Z Najda, S G. Campbell, J S. Pachter, J Thomas, N M. Williams, P Humphries, Kieran C. Murphy, M Campbell
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 1% of the general population. Various genes show associations with schizophrenia and a very weak nominal association with the tight junction protein, claudin-5, has previously been identified. Claudin-5 is expressed in endothelial cells forming part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Furthermore, schizophrenia occurs in 30% of individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population who are haploinsufficient for the claudin-5 gene. Here, we show that a variant in the claudin-5 gene is weakly associated with schizophrenia in 22q11DS, leading to 75% less claudin-5 being expressed in endothelial cells. We also show ...
The Psychological Influence Of The Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer On Therapeutic Options Selection, 2017 Carol Davila University, Colțea Clinical Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Bucharest, Romania
The Psychological Influence Of The Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer On Therapeutic Options Selection, Razvan V. Scaunasu, Stefan Voiculescu, Bogdan Popescu, Cristina Cozma, Radu Jecan, Cristian Balalau
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
The therapeutic management decision-making process for breast cancer is complex, and is influenced by multiple factors including patient age, comorbidities, ethnicity, education, and availability of immediate or delayed reconstruction options. Our study analysed 276 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the “Colțea” Clinical Hospital between 2014 and 2015. Mean patients age was 61.24, median 62, with a range of 31 to 89 years. Younger age was associated with a less advanced local disease and younger patients were more likely to choose and benefit from conservative surgery. Most patients (61.76%) came from rural areas. Place of origin had a ...