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An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger 2019 Université Paris Descartes

An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Integration-to-bound models are among the most widely used models of perceptual decision-making due to their simplicity and power in accounting for behavioral and neurophysiological data. They involve temporal integration over an input signal (“evidence”) plus Gaussian white noise. However, brain data shows that noise in the brain is long-term correlated, with a spectral density of the form 1/fα (with typically 1 < α < 2), also known as pink noise or ‘1/f’ noise. Surprisingly, the adequacy of the spectral properties of drift-diffusion models to electrophysiological data has received little attention in the literature. Here we propose a model of accumulation of evidence for decision-making that takes into consideration the spectral properties of brain signals. We develop a generalization of the leaky stochastic accumulator model using a Langevin equation whose non-linear noise term allows for varying levels of autocorrelation in the time course of the decision variable. We derive this equation directly from magnetoencephalographic data recorded while subjects performed a spontaneous movement initiation task. We then propose a nonlinear model of accumulation of evidence that accounts for the ‘1/f’ spectral properties of brain signals, and the observed variability in the power spectral properties of brain signals. Furthermore, our model outperforms the standard drift-diffusion model at approximating the empirical waiting time distribution.


Exploring The Impact Of Challenging Behaviors On Treatment Efficacy In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Juliana Hoag 2019 Chapman University

Exploring The Impact Of Challenging Behaviors On Treatment Efficacy In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Juliana Hoag

Computational and Data Sciences (MS) Theses

The focus of this study was to explore the impact of challenging behaviors on Applied Behaviors Analysis treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder. The prevalence of ASD is on the rise, so it is important that we understand how patients are responding to treatment. In this study, we cluster patients (N=854) based on their eight observed challenging behaviors using k-means, a machine learning algorithm, and then perform a multiple linear regression analysis to find significant differences between average exemplars mastered. The goal of this study was to expand the research in the area of ABA treatment for ASD and to ...


Impact Of Disclosure Of Military Service History On Diagnosis Of Ptsd, Crystal Shelton 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Impact Of Disclosure Of Military Service History On Diagnosis Of Ptsd, Crystal Shelton

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Objective Variability in how clinicians diagnose PTSD has been studied across treatment settings. Research shows several factors impact diagnostic variability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which disclosure of military service leads to an increase in diagnosis of PTSD when considering an otherwise vague symptom profile. We hypothesize veteran status will increase the likelihood of a PTSD diagnosis than status as a teacher. Methods Clinician were recruited online through professional message boards and listservs. Participants were randomly assigned a vignette (veteran or teacher status) and subsequently asked to make diagnostic judgments. Two vignettes, identical with ...


Expressive Mindfulness: A Trauma-Sensitive Expressive Arts Therapy Group Method, Meghan Daly 2019 Lesley University

Expressive Mindfulness: A Trauma-Sensitive Expressive Arts Therapy Group Method, Meghan Daly

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Mindfulness and expressive arts therapy are both supportive of directing attention in a manner that promotes integration and function of a person. In this paper, a trauma-sensitive method was created for use in a day treatment setting for adults with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). This method utilized expressive movement, visual art making with three different materials, and creative writing to encourage mindful, non-judgmental acceptance of the present moment; a sense of relaxation; and an overall increase in quality of life. During development of the method arts-based research informed the choice of materials, music, and structure of the group ...


A Literature Review Of Nature-Based Expressive Arts Therapy For Bereaved Children, Wendy Dalton 2019 Lesley University

A Literature Review Of Nature-Based Expressive Arts Therapy For Bereaved Children, Wendy Dalton

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

There is a need for increased visibility of child bereavement to expand research in and accessibility of developmentally appropriate supports, which views the child holistically and within their biopsychosocial context. Worden’s (1996) formative work with child bereavement resulting in the "tasks" of child bereavement was the first and most recent study of its scale and kind. This marked an affirming of grief as normative response to death and occurring throughout the developmental lifespan. This work also highlights the need for additional inquiry to expand and deepen understanding of child bereavement. A growing body of research suggests that ecotherapy and ...


A Meta-Analytic Review Of Cognitive Functioning In Negative And Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Tiffany Forsythe 2019 Abilene Christian University

A Meta-Analytic Review Of Cognitive Functioning In Negative And Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Tiffany Forsythe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to conduct two meta-analytic reviews examining cognitive functioning and schizophrenia. The first review examined the literature comparing the cognitive functioning of schizophrenic patients to healthy controls. A second review examined the cognitive functioning within schizophrenic patients, examining the differences between individuals with primarily positive symptomatology and those with primarily negative symptomatology. The first meta-analysis included 19 studies which assessed 861 schizophrenic patients and 858 healthy volunteers overall. The second meta-analysis included 10 studies comparing the cognitive functioning of 1,263 schizophrenics across positive and negative symptoms. Results of the first review indicated that healthy ...


The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog 2019 EPFL – École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

How can we explain consciousness? This question has become a vibrant topic of neuroscience research in recent decades. A large body of empirical results has been accumulated, and many theories have been proposed. Certain theories suggest that consciousness should be explained in terms of brain functions, such as accessing information in a global workspace, applying higher order to lower order representations, or predictive coding. These functions could be realized by a variety of patterns of brain connectivity. Other theories, such as Information Integration Theory (IIT) and Recurrent Processing Theory (RPT), identify causal structure with consciousness. For example, according to these ...


Development Of A School Boredom Proneness Scale For Children, Taylor Carrington 2019 James Madison University

Development Of A School Boredom Proneness Scale For Children, Taylor Carrington

Educational Specialist

One common phrase heard from students is, “I’m bored.” However, there is no real understanding of what this actually means. In this study, elementary-age students were asked to respond to a newly developed School Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) including questions relating to a five-factor model of boredom. Students were also asked to rate how often they become bored at school and how bored they seem compared to classmates. In addition to student responses, parents and teachers were asked to rate how bored they thought the student was, and teachers were additionally asked to rate students’ level of work completion ...


Violence Against Women: Group Treatment Mental Health Strategies In The Integral Women's Centers In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, 2017, Margaret Newman 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Violence Against Women: Group Treatment Mental Health Strategies In The Integral Women's Centers In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, 2017, Margaret Newman

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Measuring Neural Time Series Data In A Sensory Deprivation Tank, Jackson Gregory, Tian Lan, Uri Maoz, Amir Raz 2019 Chapman University

Measuring Neural Time Series Data In A Sensory Deprivation Tank, Jackson Gregory, Tian Lan, Uri Maoz, Amir Raz

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

We are interested in studying the neurological and physiological effects of the float pod, also known as REST therapy, or sensory deprivation tank. Float pods rely on the concept of depriving most senses (from sound and light to temperature and proprioception) in a pool filled with buoyant salt water at body temperature. While float pods are most commonly used in spa environments, we intend to look at the potential benefits of floating under the empirical lens. In this study, we aim to measure neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG). We intend to look at the different levels of relaxation and the ...


Does It Matter Whether You Or Your Brain Did It? An Empirical Investigation Of The Influence Of The Double Subject Fallacy On Moral Responsibility Judgments, Uri Maoz, Kellienne R. Sita, Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, Liad Mudrik 2019 Chapman University

Does It Matter Whether You Or Your Brain Did It? An Empirical Investigation Of The Influence Of The Double Subject Fallacy On Moral Responsibility Judgments, Uri Maoz, Kellienne R. Sita, Jeroen J. A. Van Boxtel, Liad Mudrik

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Despite progress in cognitive neuroscience, we are still far from understanding the relations between the brain and the conscious self. We previously suggested that some neuroscientific texts that attempt to clarify these relations may in fact make them more difficult to understand. Such texts—ranging from popular science to high-impact scientific publications—position the brain and the conscious self as two independent, interacting subjects, capable of possessing opposite psychological states. We termed such writing ‘Double Subject Fallacy’ (DSF). We further suggested that such DSF language, besides being conceptually confusing and reflecting dualistic intuitions, might affect people’s conceptions of moral ...


Adverse Childhood Experiences (Aces) And Alcohol Use In Native American Young Adults: A Systematic Review, Amanda Skaflestad 2019 Carroll College

Adverse Childhood Experiences (Aces) And Alcohol Use In Native American Young Adults: A Systematic Review, Amanda Skaflestad

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Objective: This systematic review was conducted to explore the relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences and alcohol use in Native American young adults.

Methods: Seven articles were selected through the PubMed database based on their relationship between childhood trauma and alcohol use within Native American young adults.

Results: Exposure to childhood trauma was associated with an increased risk of alcohol use. All the articles reviewed found significant evidence to support this claim. Therefore, there is a compelling need for the development of programs to address the causes Adverse Childhood Experiences in a culturally appropriate and trauma informed manner.

Conclusions: This study ...


Changing Healthcare Provider And Parent Behaviors In The Pediatric Post‐Anesthesia‐Care‐Unit To Reduce Child Pain: Nurse And Parent Training In Postoperative Stress (Np‐Tips), Brooke N. Jenkins, Michelle Fortier, Robert S. Stevenson, Mai Makhlouf, Paulina Lim, Remy Converse, Zeev N. Kain 2019 Chapman University

Changing Healthcare Provider And Parent Behaviors In The Pediatric Post‐Anesthesia‐Care‐Unit To Reduce Child Pain: Nurse And Parent Training In Postoperative Stress (Np‐Tips), Brooke N. Jenkins, Michelle Fortier, Robert S. Stevenson, Mai Makhlouf, Paulina Lim, Remy Converse, Zeev N. Kain

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Children who undergo surgery experience significant pain in the post anesthesia care unit. Nurse and parent behaviors in the post anesthesia care unit directly impact child postoperative pain. Therefore, we have developed and evaluated (Phase 1) and then tested (Phase 2) the feasibility of a new intervention (Nurse and Parent Training in Postoperative Stress) to alter parent and nurse behaviors in a way consistent with reducing child postoperative pain.

Methods

In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary team of experts (physicians, nurses, and psychologists) developed an empirically‐based intervention which was then evaluated by experienced nurses (N = 8) and parents (N ...


Managing Madness: The Ethics Of Identifying And Treating Mental Illness, Mason Seely 2019 Santa Clara University

Managing Madness: The Ethics Of Identifying And Treating Mental Illness, Mason Seely

Library Undergraduate Research Award

This essay analyzes different contemporary models for defining mental illness and offers a new framework that promotes the use of normative values during the clinical diagnostic process. Although ethic centric models for identifying mental illness do currently exist, these accounts are limited. Specifically, these accounts acknowledge the relationship between mental illness labels and implied responsibility in making their argument to support a normative framework, yet do not explain what capacities are necessary for an agent to have full responsibility. Recognizing this shortcoming, this paper provides an enriched model for identifying mental illness by marrying a normative conception of psychiatric dysfunction ...


Age-Related Metric Invariance Of The Bis/Bas, William Hornsby 2019 Western Kentucky University

Age-Related Metric Invariance Of The Bis/Bas, William Hornsby

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The goals of this study were to examine the suitability of Carver and White’s (1994) BIS/BAS for use in adults of different ages, by examining the construct validity of the BIS/BAS, and testing for age-related invariance of the BIS/BAS. In addition, this study predicted that older adults would score higher on subscales of the BIS/BAS related to pursuit of immediate positivity, based on Carstensen’s (2006) theory of Socioemotional Selectivity. This study recruited 314 adults under the age of 30, 320 adults of age between 30 and 60, and 341 adults over the age of ...


Meeting Point: Partner Dancing As Couple's Therapy, Rami Eckhaus 2019 Lesley University

Meeting Point: Partner Dancing As Couple's Therapy, Rami Eckhaus

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This dissertation research explored the experience of partner dancing as a therapeutic process that reflects upon the dynamics and interactions of couples who are in the process of couple's therapy. The research also aimed to gain insight on the ways in which the experience of partner dancing can support these couples' therapeutic processes. Partner dancing is a dance-form that is based on the interaction between two individuals. Such interaction requires the dancing couples to communicate on many levels that may uncover layers of their relational dynamics. In this research, five couples who were undergoing couple's therapy were asked ...


Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour 2019 American University of Health Sciences

Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour

Library Articles and Research

Objective:

The purpose of this article was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine compared with placebo or other interventions for psychosis in parkinsonism.

Methods:

Participants with a diagnosis of parkinsonism participated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine for psychotic symptoms within a defined follow-up period. The authors conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and EMBASE for articles published from January 1991 to October 2017. Study methodology and patient- and treatment-level data were independently extracted and summarized by using descriptive statistics. Studies underwent quality assessment for risk of bias.

Results ...


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives ...


How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2019 University of California, Los Angeles

How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Relation Of Depression Symptoms To Sustained Reward And Loss Sensitivity, Michael P. Berry, Ema Tanovic, Jutta Joormann, Charles A. Sanislow 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital

Relation Of Depression Symptoms To Sustained Reward And Loss Sensitivity, Michael P. Berry, Ema Tanovic, Jutta Joormann, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Depression is characterized by altered sensitivity to rewards, with recent evidence suggesting that the ability to sustain responses to rewards across long experimental tasks is diminished. Most work on sustained reward responsiveness has taken a cat- egorical approach and focused on major depressive disorder. However, impairments in reward sensitivity are also found at lower levels of symptom severity and may be relevant for understanding basic mechanisms linking reward processing abnormali- ties to depression. The current study took a dimensional approach to examine the relation between depression symptoms and sustained reward responsiveness by examining how early neural responses to rewards and ...


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