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Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

In sports concussion research, obtaining quality data from a sufficient number of participants to reach statistical power has been a particular problem. In addition, the necessary requirements of accessibility, informed consent, and confidentiality must be met. There is need to develop more efficient and controlled methods for collecting data to answer research questions in this realm, but the ability to collect and store these data in an efficient manner at the local level is limited. By virtue of their training, neuropsychologists can play a key role in improving data collection quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe a ...


Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, Gabriela Marie Hungerford MS 2016 Florida International University

Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, Gabriela Marie Hungerford Ms

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Infants who experience multiple risk factors, such as preterm birth, developmental delay, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk for mental health problems. Mental health interventions for infants typically target infants from high-risk groups, and there is strong evidence that some intervention programs for infants can prevent long-term negative outcomes and promote long-term positive outcomes. Despite emerging research and federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined community-based mental health services during infancy. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of routine care requires close examination of current practices. The current study characterized current usual care practices in infant mental ...


Reflection, Interrupted: Material Mirror Work In The Confessio Amantis, Jenny Boyar 2016 University of Rochester

Reflection, Interrupted: Material Mirror Work In The Confessio Amantis, Jenny Boyar

Accessus

The Confessio Amantis concludes with a revelatory scene in which Venus holds up a mirror to Amans, allowing him to recognize John Gower the poet— a moment that is often read as a mimetic and healing counterpoint to the Confessio’s sickness and self-questioning. My intention in this paper is to very slightly modify certain aspects of this narrative, to consider how the materiality of the mirror can inform its metaphoric deployments in the Confessio. I organize my discussion around two seemingly contrasting moments in the poem in which the self is seen and in different ways recognized through a ...


Understanding The Employment Barriers And Support Needs Of People Living With Psychosis, Margaret Hampson, Richard Hicks, Bruce Watt 2016 Bond University

Understanding The Employment Barriers And Support Needs Of People Living With Psychosis, Margaret Hampson, Richard Hicks, Bruce Watt

The Qualitative Report

This study investigated the employment barriers and support needs of people living with psychosis. A purposive community sample of 137 volunteers drawn from six key stakeholder groups were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews to elicit their perceptions on the employment barriers and support needs of people living with psychosis. The stakeholder groups included in this study were people with lived experience of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, carers, health professionals, employers, employment service providers, and community members. Data obtained from 14 focus groups and 31 semi-structured individual interviews were transcribed, imported into NVivo 10, and coded ...


Nursing Perception Of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Spells: Improving Patient Outcomes, Amanda J. Cramer 2016 Otterbein University

Nursing Perception Of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Spells: Improving Patient Outcomes, Amanda J. Cramer

Doctoral Theses

Patients with psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES) have generally poor outcomes and many fail to engage in evidence-based treatments (Thompson et al., 2013). Negative healthcare provider perceptions have been implicated as a barrier to patient engagement in treatment recommendations for PNES (Whitehead, Kandler, & Reuber, 2013; Worsely et al., 2011). Illness perception of these patients has been evaluated from the perspective of physicians in multiple settings but perceptions by nurses are not well studied despite the close interactions that nurses have with these patients.

This project used Pender’s health promotion model to collect information about the nursing experience with patients with PNES at ...


Psychiatric Boarding In New Hampshire: Violation Of A Statutory Right To Treatment, James A. McClure 2016 University of New Hampshire School of Law

Psychiatric Boarding In New Hampshire: Violation Of A Statutory Right To Treatment, James A. Mcclure

University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "New Hampshire law provides for the involuntary commitment of a patient such as Jane when she is a danger to herself or others as a result of mental illness. The patient has a right to treatment under N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 135-C:1, et seq. Specifically, the patient should receive "adequate and humane treatment" pursuant to an "individual service plan" and "in the least restrictive environment necessary." However, appropriate facilities often are not available for patients waiting in emergency rooms, and patients can become trapped for hours or even days. This phenomenon is called "psychiatric boarding." New Hampshire ...


Neuroimaging The Brain Function Of Schizophrenia Patients On Clozapine, Antoinette Richards 2016 Georgia State University

Neuroimaging The Brain Function Of Schizophrenia Patients On Clozapine, Antoinette Richards

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Characteristics Of Patients Who Experience Fear During Hospitalization, Marlena Vande Streek 2016 Western Michigan University

Characteristics Of Patients Who Experience Fear During Hospitalization, Marlena Vande Streek

Honors Theses

Purpose/Background The purpose of this study is to describe individuals likely to experience fear, apprehension, or anxiety during hospitalization. Supporting literature has much to say about intervening once these feelings occur, but little on the description or characteristics of patients exhibiting these feelings during hospitalization. The intent of this exploration is to allow nurses to identify these patients sooner and prevent unnecessary stress and delays in care.

Theoretical Framework When a patient experiences fear, they respond through the stress response cycle commonly observed as delays in wound healing and immunosuppression when feelings are prolonged. Identifying individuals likely to experience ...


Effects Of Impulsivity And Poor Inhibitory Control On Food Addiction Symptoms, Payton Hagerdorn 2016 Department of Psychological Sciences

Effects Of Impulsivity And Poor Inhibitory Control On Food Addiction Symptoms, Payton Hagerdorn

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Problem: Food addiction, which is characterized by poor control of eating and dietary habits, has been linked to aspects of reduced executive functioning, including impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. Impulsivity and inhibitory control can be measured by subjective self-report inventories and objective, performance-based cognitive tasks. No prior works have examined whether subjective or objective assessment is more closely related to symptoms of food addiction. The current study examined this question. We predicted that objective assessment of executive functioning would be more closely related to symptoms of food addiction.

Method: Participants were 79 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern University (Mean ...


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams 2016 University of South Florida

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


Applying The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model Of Hiv- Risk To Youth In Psychiatric Care, Geri Donenberg, Rebecca Schwartz, Erin Emerson, Helen Wilson, Fred Bryant, Gloria Coleman 2016 University of Illinois at Chicago

Applying The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model Of Hiv- Risk To Youth In Psychiatric Care, Geri Donenberg, Rebecca Schwartz, Erin Emerson, Helen Wilson, Fred Bryant, Gloria Coleman

Fred B. Bryant

This study examined the utility of cognitive and behavioral constructs (AIDS in-formation, motivation, and behavioral skills) in explaining sexual risk taking among 172 12–20–year-old ethnically diverse urban youths in outpatient psy-chiatric care. Structural equation modeling revealed only moderate support for the model, explaining low to moderate levels of variance in global sexual risk taking. The amount of explained variance improved when age was included as a predictor in the model. Findings shed light on the contribution of AIDS informa-tion, motivation, and behavioral skills to risky sexual behavior among teens re-ceiving outpatient psychiatric care. Results suggest that cognitive and ...


Test–Retest, Retest, And Retest: Growth Curve Models Of Repeat Testing With Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment And Cognitive Testing (Impact), Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Tiffany D. James, Jonathan Beckwith, Per Gunner Brolinson, Joe Crisco, Stefan Duma, Laura A. Flashman, Rick Greenwald, Steven Rowson, Beth Wilcox, Tom W. McAllister 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Test–Retest, Retest, And Retest: Growth Curve Models Of Repeat Testing With Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment And Cognitive Testing (Impact), Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Tiffany D. James, Jonathan Beckwith, Per Gunner Brolinson, Joe Crisco, Stefan Duma, Laura A. Flashman, Rick Greenwald, Steven Rowson, Beth Wilcox, Tom W. Mcallister

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test–retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best ...


Chronic Pain Causal Attributions In An Interdisciplinary Primary Care Clinic: Patient-Provider And Provider-Provider Discrepancies, Bryan Jensen 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Chronic Pain Causal Attributions In An Interdisciplinary Primary Care Clinic: Patient-Provider And Provider-Provider Discrepancies, Bryan Jensen

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of pain causal attributions on patient pain-related functioning, treatment engagement, and clinical outcomes. Additionally, the impact of discordant pain causal attributions between patients and their providers as well as between interdisciplinary providers was examined. Patients rated their pain functioning and causal pain attributions during a regular clinic visit. Following the patient’s visit both the behavioral medicine provider and internal medicine resident provided ratings of similar pain-related functioning domains and causal attributions. Follow-up data were collected from the electronic medical record three months following that clinic visit. Overall, results ...


Predictors Of Caffeine-Related Withdrawal Symptoms In College Freshmen, David J. Pomm 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Predictors Of Caffeine-Related Withdrawal Symptoms In College Freshmen, David J. Pomm

Theses and Dissertations

While caffeine withdrawal has been well-characterized, research on caffeine intake and factors associated with withdrawal has been limited. The present study examined prevalence rates of caffeine use and identified psychosocial factors associated with having caffeine withdrawal headaches (CWH). Participants were N = 1,989 college freshmen who participated in the 2011 Spit for Science project. Caffeine use was reported by 80% of the sample. Females were more likely than males to consume caffeine, and soda was the primary source of caffeine for both genders. As hypothesized, daily caffeine users were more likely to report CWH than non-daily users. When multivariable analyses ...


Rapid Cortisol And Testosterone Responses To Sex-Linked Stressors: Implications For The Tend-And-Befriend Hypothesis, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Jessica L. Calvi, Shelia M. Kennison 2016 Oklahoma State University

Rapid Cortisol And Testosterone Responses To Sex-Linked Stressors: Implications For The Tend-And-Befriend Hypothesis, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Jessica L. Calvi, Shelia M. Kennison

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Current evolutionary theories regarding the nature of hormonal responses to a variety of salient social stimuli are incomplete in yielding evidentiary support for their assertions. This study offers more nuanced evidence for the Tend-and- Befriend model of sex differences in responses to social stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to a mortality salience prime or a control condition prior to viewing a video of an out-group threat or a video of infants crying. Cortisol and testosterone responses were assessed. The results showed that in mortality salience conditions, females showed significantly higher cortisol responses to infants crying compared to males. Further, in ...


Ultrasonic Vocalizations As A Predictor Of Resilience To Intermittent Swim Stress-Induced Anxiety: An Investigation Of Re-Exposure Effects, Yandan Wang, Robert C. Drugan, Nathaniel Stafford 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Ultrasonic Vocalizations As A Predictor Of Resilience To Intermittent Swim Stress-Induced Anxiety: An Investigation Of Re-Exposure Effects, Yandan Wang, Robert C. Drugan, Nathaniel Stafford

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Decision-Making Processes, Driving Performance, And Acute Responses To Alcohol In Dui Offenders, Walter Roberts 2016 University of Kentucky

Decision-Making Processes, Driving Performance, And Acute Responses To Alcohol In Dui Offenders, Walter Roberts

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Alcohol-impaired driving is a major cause of motor vehicle accident and death in the United States. People who are arrested for DUI (Driving under the Influence) are at high risk to reoffend; approximately one in three of these individuals will commit another DUI offense in the three years following their first conviction (Nochajski & Stasiewicz, 2006). This high risk for recidivism in these individuals suggests that cognitive characteristics may contribute to a pattern of pathological decision making leading to impaired driving. Indeed, individuals with a history of DUI report higher rates of impulsiveness and behavioral dysregulation compared to their nonoffending peers ...


Psychoneuroimmunology: Enhancing Treatment Efficacy And Reducing Sexual Offender Recidivism In Court-Mandated Treatment, Cameron F. Zeidler 2016 Antioch University Santa Barbara

Psychoneuroimmunology: Enhancing Treatment Efficacy And Reducing Sexual Offender Recidivism In Court-Mandated Treatment, Cameron F. Zeidler

Dissertations & Theses

Despite astronomical costs, state-funded sex offender treatment has a sole purpose of protecting communities at large. Designed to treat sexual psychopaths, costly state risk management programs are required to use traditional, outdated treatment models, which lack empirical support, lack published research, and lack curricula written at the seventh grade reading level. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) eagerly proves to be a new modality for Psychoeducation (PE) enhancing treatment efficacy and reducing offender recidivism in court-mandated treatment. The distinction in the present study is the difference between PE alone (control group) and PE with PNI (experimental group). Specifically, this study investigated the extent to ...


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