Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.
The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.
To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.
The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).
There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...
Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker
Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications
In sports concussion research, obtaining quality data from a sufficient number of participants to reach statistical power has been a particular problem. In addition, the necessary requirements of accessibility, informed consent, and confidentiality must be met. There is need to develop more efficient and controlled methods for collecting data to answer research questions in this realm, but the ability to collect and store these data in an efficient manner at the local level is limited. By virtue of their training, neuropsychologists can play a key role in improving data collection quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe a ...
Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, 2016 Florida International University
Characterizing Community-Based Usual Mental Health Care For Infants, Gabriela Marie Hungerford Ms
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Infants who experience multiple risk factors, such as preterm birth, developmental delay, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk for mental health problems. Mental health interventions for infants typically target infants from high-risk groups, and there is strong evidence that some intervention programs for infants can prevent long-term negative outcomes and promote long-term positive outcomes. Despite emerging research and federal initiatives promoting early intervention, minimal research has examined community-based mental health services during infancy. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of routine care requires close examination of current practices. The current study characterized current usual care practices in infant mental ...
Reflection, Interrupted: Material Mirror Work In The Confessio Amantis, 2016 University of Rochester
Reflection, Interrupted: Material Mirror Work In The Confessio Amantis, Jenny Boyar
The Confessio Amantis concludes with a revelatory scene in which Venus holds up a mirror to Amans, allowing him to recognize John Gower the poet— a moment that is often read as a mimetic and healing counterpoint to the Confessio’s sickness and self-questioning. My intention in this paper is to very slightly modify certain aspects of this narrative, to consider how the materiality of the mirror can inform its metaphoric deployments in the Confessio. I organize my discussion around two seemingly contrasting moments in the poem in which the self is seen and in different ways recognized through a ...
Understanding The Employment Barriers And Support Needs Of People Living With Psychosis, 2016 Bond University
Understanding The Employment Barriers And Support Needs Of People Living With Psychosis, Margaret Hampson, Richard Hicks, Bruce Watt
The Qualitative Report
This study investigated the employment barriers and support needs of people living with psychosis. A purposive community sample of 137 volunteers drawn from six key stakeholder groups were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews to elicit their perceptions on the employment barriers and support needs of people living with psychosis. The stakeholder groups included in this study were people with lived experience of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, carers, health professionals, employers, employment service providers, and community members. Data obtained from 14 focus groups and 31 semi-structured individual interviews were transcribed, imported into NVivo 10, and coded ...
Nursing Perception Of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Spells: Improving Patient Outcomes, 2016 Otterbein University
Nursing Perception Of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Spells: Improving Patient Outcomes, Amanda J. Cramer
Patients with psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES) have generally poor outcomes and many fail to engage in evidence-based treatments (Thompson et al., 2013). Negative healthcare provider perceptions have been implicated as a barrier to patient engagement in treatment recommendations for PNES (Whitehead, Kandler, & Reuber, 2013; Worsely et al., 2011). Illness perception of these patients has been evaluated from the perspective of physicians in multiple settings but perceptions by nurses are not well studied despite the close interactions that nurses have with these patients.
This project used Pender’s health promotion model to collect information about the nursing experience with patients with PNES at ...
Psychiatric Boarding In New Hampshire: Violation Of A Statutory Right To Treatment, 2016 University of New Hampshire School of Law
Psychiatric Boarding In New Hampshire: Violation Of A Statutory Right To Treatment, James A. Mcclure
University of New Hampshire Law Review
[Excerpt] "New Hampshire law provides for the involuntary commitment of a patient such as Jane when she is a danger to herself or others as a result of mental illness. The patient has a right to treatment under N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 135-C:1, et seq. Specifically, the patient should receive "adequate and humane treatment" pursuant to an "individual service plan" and "in the least restrictive environment necessary." However, appropriate facilities often are not available for patients waiting in emergency rooms, and patients can become trapped for hours or even days. This phenomenon is called "psychiatric boarding." New Hampshire ...
Neuroimaging The Brain Function Of Schizophrenia Patients On Clozapine, 2016 Georgia State University
Neuroimaging The Brain Function Of Schizophrenia Patients On Clozapine, Antoinette Richards
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Characteristics Of Patients Who Experience Fear During Hospitalization, 2016 Western Michigan University
Characteristics Of Patients Who Experience Fear During Hospitalization, Marlena Vande Streek
Purpose/Background The purpose of this study is to describe individuals likely to experience fear, apprehension, or anxiety during hospitalization. Supporting literature has much to say about intervening once these feelings occur, but little on the description or characteristics of patients exhibiting these feelings during hospitalization. The intent of this exploration is to allow nurses to identify these patients sooner and prevent unnecessary stress and delays in care.
Theoretical Framework When a patient experiences fear, they respond through the stress response cycle commonly observed as delays in wound healing and immunosuppression when feelings are prolonged. Identifying individuals likely to experience ...
Effects Of Impulsivity And Poor Inhibitory Control On Food Addiction Symptoms, 2016 Department of Psychological Sciences
Effects Of Impulsivity And Poor Inhibitory Control On Food Addiction Symptoms, Payton Hagerdorn
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Problem: Food addiction, which is characterized by poor control of eating and dietary habits, has been linked to aspects of reduced executive functioning, including impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. Impulsivity and inhibitory control can be measured by subjective self-report inventories and objective, performance-based cognitive tasks. No prior works have examined whether subjective or objective assessment is more closely related to symptoms of food addiction. The current study examined this question. We predicted that objective assessment of executive functioning would be more closely related to symptoms of food addiction.
Method: Participants were 79 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern University (Mean ...
Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, 2016 University of South Florida
Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams
William D. Kearns, PhD
Applying The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model Of Hiv- Risk To Youth In Psychiatric Care, 2016 University of Illinois at Chicago
Applying The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model Of Hiv- Risk To Youth In Psychiatric Care, Geri Donenberg, Rebecca Schwartz, Erin Emerson, Helen Wilson, Fred Bryant, Gloria Coleman
Fred B. Bryant
This study examined the utility of cognitive and behavioral constructs (AIDS in-formation, motivation, and behavioral skills) in explaining sexual risk taking among 172 12–20–year-old ethnically diverse urban youths in outpatient psy-chiatric care. Structural equation modeling revealed only moderate support for the model, explaining low to moderate levels of variance in global sexual risk taking. The amount of explained variance improved when age was included as a predictor in the model. Findings shed light on the contribution of AIDS informa-tion, motivation, and behavioral skills to risky sexual behavior among teens re-ceiving outpatient psychiatric care. Results suggest that cognitive and ...
Perceived Threat Associated With Police Officers And Black Men Predicts Support For Policing Policy Reform, 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus
Perceived Threat Associated With Police Officers And Black Men Predicts Support For Policing Policy Reform, Allison L. Skinner, Ingrid J. Haas
Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing ...
Decision-Making Processes, Driving Performance, And Acute Responses To Alcohol In Dui Offenders, 2016 University of Kentucky
Decision-Making Processes, Driving Performance, And Acute Responses To Alcohol In Dui Offenders, Walter Roberts
Theses and Dissertations--Psychology
Alcohol-impaired driving is a major cause of motor vehicle accident and death in the United States. People who are arrested for DUI (Driving under the Influence) are at high risk to reoffend; approximately one in three of these individuals will commit another DUI offense in the three years following their first conviction (Nochajski & Stasiewicz, 2006). This high risk for recidivism in these individuals suggests that cognitive characteristics may contribute to a pattern of pathological decision making leading to impaired driving. Indeed, individuals with a history of DUI report higher rates of impulsiveness and behavioral dysregulation compared to their nonoffending peers ...
Test–Retest, Retest, And Retest: Growth Curve Models Of Repeat Testing With Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment And Cognitive Testing (Impact), 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Test–Retest, Retest, And Retest: Growth Curve Models Of Repeat Testing With Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment And Cognitive Testing (Impact), Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Tiffany D. James, Jonathan Beckwith, Per Gunner Brolinson, Joe Crisco, Stefan Duma, Laura A. Flashman, Rick Greenwald, Steven Rowson, Beth Wilcox, Tom W. Mcallister
Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology
Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test–retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best ...
Chronic Pain Causal Attributions In An Interdisciplinary Primary Care Clinic: Patient-Provider And Provider-Provider Discrepancies, 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University
Chronic Pain Causal Attributions In An Interdisciplinary Primary Care Clinic: Patient-Provider And Provider-Provider Discrepancies, Bryan Jensen
Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of pain causal attributions on patient pain-related functioning, treatment engagement, and clinical outcomes. Additionally, the impact of discordant pain causal attributions between patients and their providers as well as between interdisciplinary providers was examined. Patients rated their pain functioning and causal pain attributions during a regular clinic visit. Following the patient’s visit both the behavioral medicine provider and internal medicine resident provided ratings of similar pain-related functioning domains and causal attributions. Follow-up data were collected from the electronic medical record three months following that clinic visit. Overall, results ...
Predictors Of Caffeine-Related Withdrawal Symptoms In College Freshmen, 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University
Predictors Of Caffeine-Related Withdrawal Symptoms In College Freshmen, David J. Pomm
Theses and Dissertations
While caffeine withdrawal has been well-characterized, research on caffeine intake and factors associated with withdrawal has been limited. The present study examined prevalence rates of caffeine use and identified psychosocial factors associated with having caffeine withdrawal headaches (CWH). Participants were N = 1,989 college freshmen who participated in the 2011 Spit for Science project. Caffeine use was reported by 80% of the sample. Females were more likely than males to consume caffeine, and soda was the primary source of caffeine for both genders. As hypothesized, daily caffeine users were more likely to report CWH than non-daily users. When multivariable analyses ...
Development Of The Adherence Predictive Index (Api) For Medication Taking, 2016 University of Minnesota
Development Of The Adherence Predictive Index (Api) For Medication Taking, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown, Daniel M. Tomaszewski
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
The objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire, in concert with the demographic characteristics of age, education, and race/ethnicity, are associated with, and help predict, individuals’ medication adherence behavior.
Data were collected via an on-line survey, sent to a sample of adults residing in the United States, between April 28 and June 22, 2015. Out of 26,173 responses to the survey, 16,736 reported taking one or more medications and were eligible for inclusion in this study.
The development of the Adherence Predictive Index (API) used mean ...
Ultrasonic Vocalizations As A Predictor Of Resilience To Intermittent Swim Stress-Induced Anxiety: An Investigation Of Re-Exposure Effects, 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham
Ultrasonic Vocalizations As A Predictor Of Resilience To Intermittent Swim Stress-Induced Anxiety: An Investigation Of Re-Exposure Effects, Yandan Wang, Robert C. Drugan, Nathaniel Stafford
Honors Theses and Capstones
No abstract provided.
The Relationship Between Traumatic Events And Psychological Symptomatology And The Moderating Role Of Mentalization, 2016 Georgia Southern Universtiy
The Relationship Between Traumatic Events And Psychological Symptomatology And The Moderating Role Of Mentalization, Sean Fowler
Electronic Theses & Dissertations
Traumatic events can lead to a number of disparate psychological responses. Ranging from diagnosable psychological symptomatology to little or no distress, the outcomes of potentially traumatic events are difficult to narrow down. Research on individual differences has indicated the potential for a number of characteristics that influence the relationship between traumatic events and psychological well-being. Some researchers have proposed that one of these factors, an individual’s ability to mentalize, can influence the onset of psychological symptoms after a traumatic event. Mentalization is seen as one’s ability to maintain a sense of self, which enables understanding and differentiating between ...