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Psychological Phenomena and Processes Commons

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Computational Modeling Of Contrast Sensitivity And Orientation Tuning In Schizophrenia, Steven M. Silverstein, Docia L. Demmin, James A. Bednar 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

Computational Modeling Of Contrast Sensitivity And Orientation Tuning In Schizophrenia, Steven M. Silverstein, Docia L. Demmin, James A. Bednar

MODVIS Workshop

Computational modeling is being increasingly used to understand schizophrenia, but, to date, it has not been used to account for the common perceptual disturbances in the disorder. We manipulated schizophrenia-relevant parameters in the GCAL (gain control, adaptation, laterally connected) model (Stevens et al., 2013), run using the Topographica simulator (Bednar, 2012), to model low-level visual processing changes in the disorder. Our models incorporated: separate sheets for retinal, LGN, and V1 activity; gain control in the LGN; homeostatic adaptation in V1 based on a weighted sum of all inputs and limited by a logistic (sigmoid) nonlinearity; lateral excitation and inhibition in ...


Sleep-Wake Disorders And A Look At Insomnia Through Biological And Behavioral Perspectives, Mia Fontanarosa 2017 St. John Fisher College

Sleep-Wake Disorders And A Look At Insomnia Through Biological And Behavioral Perspectives, Mia Fontanarosa

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Insomnia is defined by difficulties in falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and problems with early morning awakenings. Unfortunately, due to these symptoms daytime fatigue often follows. Daytime fatigue may have a severe impact on an individual’s day. Insomnia symptoms may not exist alone, however. Individuals who are diagnosed with insomnia have another disorder present as well. Often insomnia is paired with anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore, insomnia can be viewed through the biological and behavioral perspectives. Insomnia is a disorder that can be treated. The most common treatment would be cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but treatment is not limited ...


Reconnecting The Mind And Body: A Pilot Study Of Developing Compassion For Persistent Pain, Sarah L. Parry Dr, Zoey Malpus Dr 2017 Manchester Metropolitan University

Reconnecting The Mind And Body: A Pilot Study Of Developing Compassion For Persistent Pain, Sarah L. Parry Dr, Zoey Malpus Dr

Patient Experience Journal

As an alternative to the more typical cognitive behavioural approach to pain management, a novel pain management group based on the principles of compassionate mind training was developed for a particular sub-group of patients. Participants were patients of a community pain clinic, who were invited to participate in this alternative approach to pain management. The eight-week Compassion in Pain Groups included psychoeducation around persistent pain, the underlying principles of compassionate mind training, practical exercises such as diaphragmatic breathing, followed by a series of compassionate imagery exercises and group discussions. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken to gain further insights ...


Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci 2017 Ursinus College

Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci

Neuroscience Honors Papers

In recent years, there has been an upswing in the number of concussion diagnoses per year in the United States, particularly in young athletes with still-developing brains. Accompanying this recent trend is an increased amount of research on concussions and their long-term impacts. This ongoing research project collects and compares data from concussed and non-concussed individuals using various neuropsychological batteries, self-report surveys and participants’ EEG readings. Data analysis of the results from 51 participants indicates that previously concussed individuals differ from their non-concussed counterparts. Specifically, individuals who have suffered a concussion exhibit specific and occasionally idiosyncratic deficits in executive control ...


The Phenomenon Of Teacher Burnout: Mitigating Its Influence On New Teachers, Kaila Sanford 2017 Dominican University of California

The Phenomenon Of Teacher Burnout: Mitigating Its Influence On New Teachers, Kaila Sanford

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

Burnout is a psychological condition with physical, emotional, and mental dimensions. Burnout often includes feelings of exhaustion, long-term fatigue, negative self-concept, despair or hopelessness, frustration, and a lack of productivity at work.

Teacher burnout is a well-known and researched field. It has been documented in the literature that teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion, which leads to high levels of burnout and professional attrition. This study examined the incidence of burnout in new elementary school teachers and makes recommendations for changes to organizational structure that may reduce professional burnout.

For the purpose of this study five new ...


Relationship Quality Of Siblings Attending The Same University, Ashley M. Belles 2017 Cedarville University

Relationship Quality Of Siblings Attending The Same University, Ashley M. Belles

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

This phenomenological qualitative study explores the relationship quality of siblings who both attend Cedarville University. This study seeks to identify commonalities and key components to close sibling relationships. The desire to attend the same school, or remain close to a sibling was explored, as well. Questions specifically focused on family life growing up, and current family life, while attending Cedarville University. These questions were designed to gain background information, while also gaining insight to current relationship quality and conflict. Some themes that have emerged are similarities in sibling roles based on birth order, and influencing each other in making morally ...


Oliver Sacks And The Neurology Of The Self, Sam Martin 2017 Germanna Community College

Oliver Sacks And The Neurology Of The Self, Sam Martin

Student Writing

No abstract provided.


Reward Vs. Punishment: An Fmri Analysis Approach To Identifying The Neural Substrates Of Motivation And Cognitive Control, Ya'el Courtney, Todd Braver PhD, Debbie Yee 2017 Kent State University

Reward Vs. Punishment: An Fmri Analysis Approach To Identifying The Neural Substrates Of Motivation And Cognitive Control, Ya'el Courtney, Todd Braver Phd, Debbie Yee

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Every day, humans face the complex cost-benefit analysis of integrating numerous different incentives to pursue behavioral goals. Impairments in cognitive control (and particularly an abnormal response to motivation) underlie disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, and addictions; as such it is important to illustrate how differing motivational cues are processed in healthy humans. Research has made great progress in discovering the behavioral and neural mechanisms that underlie motivation and cognitive control. However, a significant question that remains to be addressed is whether rewards and punishments utilize the same or different neural substrates to yield motivational effects. In the ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker 2017 Brandman University

Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker

Dissertations

The intent of this study was to elicit perspectives from law enforcement counselors, clinicians, chaplains, and peer group leaders for factors affecting law enforcement officer’s (LEOs) seeking mental health assistance. The law enforcement and mental health communities have gone to great lengths to ensure assistance is available to LEOs in an effort to counter the stress and trauma associated with the policing profession. Past studies attempted to elicit LEOs attitudes on mental health services, generating mixed results and were unable to establish why available services were underutilized. This study employed a qualitative methodology to elicit perspectives on this phenomena ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson 2017 Case Western Reserve University

Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: African Americans experience unique stressors that may inhibit smoking cessation and enhance relapse rates. Few studies, however, have focused on risk factors for perceived stress among treatment seekers. Because African Americans are less likely to quit compared to the larger community, understanding factors associated with perceived stress among smokers has the potential to improve intervention outcomes. This study examined psychosocial and cultural correlates of stress in a sample of African American participants in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: At baseline, participants reported demographic factors and completed assessments of smoking history, alcohol use, friend and household smoking, weight concerns, acculturation ...


Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children’s later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p < 0.0001). Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495–7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [–3.5490 to –0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting.


Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 Of The Test Of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without A “Gold Standard”, Douglas Mossman, Dustin B. Wygant, Roger O. Gervais, Kathleen J. Hart 2017 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 Of The Test Of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without A “Gold Standard”, Douglas Mossman, Dustin B. Wygant, Roger O. Gervais, Kathleen J. Hart

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations ...


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Object Relations In Children's Projective Testing: Applying The Mutuality Of Autonomy Scale To The Thematic Apperception Test, Lily A. Thom 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Object Relations In Children's Projective Testing: Applying The Mutuality Of Autonomy Scale To The Thematic Apperception Test, Lily A. Thom

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychodynamic assessment of object relations on projective tests has consistently been shown to contribute to a better understanding of children’s psychological functioning and to guide therapeutic interventions (Tuber, 1992). This research examines the enhanced utility of applying a psychodynamically-derived scale of children’s object relations to a commonly used projective assessment tool, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (Morgan & Murray, 1935; Murray, 1943). The current study investigates the adaptation and application of the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MOA) (Urist, 1977; Urist & Shill, 1982), commonly used as a Rorschach Inkblot Method object relations scale, to examine verbal narratives on the TAT. It was hypothesized that findings from the proposed study would demonstrate that the MOA is a readily employable scale for examining children’s object relational paradigms on TAT responses. A second aim of the study was to demonstrate concurrent validity between MOA scores and the Defense Mechanisms Manual (DMM), a well-validated tool for assessing developmental level of defenses on the TAT (Cramer, 1991). In addition, this work contributes to the need for empirically-validated, systematic approaches to interpreting TAT data (Rossini & Moretti, 1997; Cramer, 2004). The findings showed several expected, significant relationships between level of defense and object relations that confirmed the study’s ...


Muscle Dysmorphia And Athletic Identity, Taylor McGohan 2016 Western Kentucky University

Muscle Dysmorphia And Athletic Identity, Taylor Mcgohan

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Society is creating a stronger importance for men to have muscular physiques. Therefore, increasing the dissatisfaction men have with their bodies and perceptions of body image. The current study assesses the possible relationship between muscle dysmorphia and athletic identity. As well as a relationship between lifting time and athletic identity. Participants for the current study took three different self-reported surveys to measure demographics, exercise history, level of athletic identity, and possible symptoms of muscle dysmorphia. It was hypothesized that those with strong athletic identities also have a stronger desire to gain muscle mass, increasing likelihood of displaying muscle dysmorphia symptoms ...


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Suicidal Behaviors, And Body Investment In Heterosexual And Sexual Minority Young Adults, Emily Cox 2016 Western Kentucky University

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Suicidal Behaviors, And Body Investment In Heterosexual And Sexual Minority Young Adults, Emily Cox

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

College-aged individuals who identify with a sexual minority orientation are at high risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. Research is lacking on identification of factors contributing to increased risk for this population. This study examined two facets of body investment, body protection and body feelings, as they relate to NSSI, individual and total suicidal behaviors, and sexual orientation. It was hypothesized that NSSI and individual suicidal behaviors would be more frequent in the sexual minority sample compared to the heterosexual sample, body protection and body feelings would be poorer in sexual minorities compared to the heterosexual sample, and ...


Cultural Diversity And The Impact Of Acculturation And Personal Experience On Perceptions Of Suicide, Susan Breidenich 2016 Western Kentucky University

Cultural Diversity And The Impact Of Acculturation And Personal Experience On Perceptions Of Suicide, Susan Breidenich

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Many factors influence cross-cultural differences in suicide rates and behaviors. One potential explanation is that attitudes and values influence the way individuals perceive suicide. In addition, previous literature indicates that attitudes can change in response to individual experiences. Further research on cultural attitudes toward suicide and individual experiences that influence them could inform prevention and treatment efforts targeted toward multicultural populations. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of culture, acculturation, and personal experience (i.e., exposure to suicidal behavior through close relationship) on suicide attitudes. The hypotheses were (1) that significant differences in attitudes towards suicide ...


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