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Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Women’S Sexual Fantasies In Context: The Emotional Content Of Sexual Fantasies, Psychological And Interpersonal Distress, And Satisfaction In Romantic Relationships, Sarah Constantine

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Psychoanalytic thinkers propose that aspects of an individual’s sexual fantasies are related to her psychological and interpersonal functioning. The present study aims to elucidate the significance of sexual fantasies with respect to women’s emotional and interpersonal lives. The study evaluated a model, which hypothesized that internal representations of self and others (e.g. attachment security, maturity of object relations) along with psychological and interpersonal factors would predict both the emotional content (guilt, fear, affection) of written sexual fantasy narratives, and overall romantic satisfaction in heterosexual women. Methods: Five hundred and thirty four women completed self-report questionnaires online ...


Computational Modeling Of Contrast Sensitivity And Orientation Tuning In Schizophrenia, Steven M. Silverstein, Docia L. Demmin, James A. Bednar 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

Computational Modeling Of Contrast Sensitivity And Orientation Tuning In Schizophrenia, Steven M. Silverstein, Docia L. Demmin, James A. Bednar

MODVIS Workshop

Computational modeling is being increasingly used to understand schizophrenia, but, to date, it has not been used to account for the common perceptual disturbances in the disorder. We manipulated schizophrenia-relevant parameters in the GCAL (gain control, adaptation, laterally connected) model (Stevens et al., 2013), run using the Topographica simulator (Bednar, 2012), to model low-level visual processing changes in the disorder. Our models incorporated: separate sheets for retinal, LGN, and V1 activity; gain control in the LGN; homeostatic adaptation in V1 based on a weighted sum of all inputs and limited by a logistic (sigmoid) nonlinearity; lateral excitation and inhibition in ...


Informal Caregivers’ Experience During Acute Exacerbation Of Copd In Older Adults: A Dissertation, Helen M. Flaherty 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Informal Caregivers’ Experience During Acute Exacerbation Of Copd In Older Adults: A Dissertation, Helen M. Flaherty

Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality in older adults involving acute exacerbations as life-threatening events that lead to frequent hospitalization for care. Informal caregivers have been essential to helping older adults with COPD during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A lack of empirical knowledge exists regarding the experience of informal caregivers of older adults with AECOPD in situation awareness for recognizing, understanding, and responding to an AECOPD in an emergent situation. This qualitative descriptive study explored situation awareness and its components of perception, comprehension and projection of next ...


Sleep-Wake Disorders And A Look At Insomnia Through Biological And Behavioral Perspectives, Mia Fontanarosa 2017 St. John Fisher College

Sleep-Wake Disorders And A Look At Insomnia Through Biological And Behavioral Perspectives, Mia Fontanarosa

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Insomnia is defined by difficulties in falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and problems with early morning awakenings. Unfortunately, due to these symptoms daytime fatigue often follows. Daytime fatigue may have a severe impact on an individual’s day. Insomnia symptoms may not exist alone, however. Individuals who are diagnosed with insomnia have another disorder present as well. Often insomnia is paired with anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore, insomnia can be viewed through the biological and behavioral perspectives. Insomnia is a disorder that can be treated. The most common treatment would be cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but treatment is not limited ...


Reconnecting The Mind And Body: A Pilot Study Of Developing Compassion For Persistent Pain, Sarah L. Parry Dr, Zoey Malpus Dr 2017 Manchester Metropolitan University

Reconnecting The Mind And Body: A Pilot Study Of Developing Compassion For Persistent Pain, Sarah L. Parry Dr, Zoey Malpus Dr

Patient Experience Journal

As an alternative to the more typical cognitive behavioural approach to pain management, a novel pain management group based on the principles of compassionate mind training was developed for a particular sub-group of patients. Participants were patients of a community pain clinic, who were invited to participate in this alternative approach to pain management. The eight-week Compassion in Pain Groups included psychoeducation around persistent pain, the underlying principles of compassionate mind training, practical exercises such as diaphragmatic breathing, followed by a series of compassionate imagery exercises and group discussions. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken to gain further insights ...


Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci 2017 Ursinus College

Examination Of Neurocorrelates Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Young Adults, Rachel J. Raucci

Neuroscience Honors Papers

In recent years, there has been an upswing in the number of concussion diagnoses per year in the United States, particularly in young athletes with still-developing brains. Accompanying this recent trend is an increased amount of research on concussions and their long-term impacts. This ongoing research project collects and compares data from concussed and non-concussed individuals using various neuropsychological batteries, self-report surveys and participants’ EEG readings. Data analysis of the results from 51 participants indicates that previously concussed individuals differ from their non-concussed counterparts. Specifically, individuals who have suffered a concussion exhibit specific and occasionally idiosyncratic deficits in executive control ...


The Phenomenon Of Teacher Burnout: Mitigating Its Influence On New Teachers, Kaila Sanford 2017 Dominican University of California

The Phenomenon Of Teacher Burnout: Mitigating Its Influence On New Teachers, Kaila Sanford

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

Burnout is a psychological condition with physical, emotional, and mental dimensions. Burnout often includes feelings of exhaustion, long-term fatigue, negative self-concept, despair or hopelessness, frustration, and a lack of productivity at work.

Teacher burnout is a well-known and researched field. It has been documented in the literature that teachers experience high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion, which leads to high levels of burnout and professional attrition. This study examined the incidence of burnout in new elementary school teachers and makes recommendations for changes to organizational structure that may reduce professional burnout.

For the purpose of this study five new ...


Relationship Quality Of Siblings Attending The Same University, Ashley M. Belles 2017 Cedarville University

Relationship Quality Of Siblings Attending The Same University, Ashley M. Belles

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

This phenomenological qualitative study explores the relationship quality of siblings who both attend Cedarville University. This study seeks to identify commonalities and key components to close sibling relationships. The desire to attend the same school, or remain close to a sibling was explored, as well. Questions specifically focused on family life growing up, and current family life, while attending Cedarville University. These questions were designed to gain background information, while also gaining insight to current relationship quality and conflict. Some themes that have emerged are similarities in sibling roles based on birth order, and influencing each other in making morally ...


Oliver Sacks And The Neurology Of The Self, Sam Martin 2017 Germanna Community College

Oliver Sacks And The Neurology Of The Self, Sam Martin

Student Writing

No abstract provided.


Reward Vs. Punishment: An Fmri Analysis Approach To Identifying The Neural Substrates Of Motivation And Cognitive Control, Ya'el Courtney, Todd Braver PhD, Debbie Yee 2017 Kent State University

Reward Vs. Punishment: An Fmri Analysis Approach To Identifying The Neural Substrates Of Motivation And Cognitive Control, Ya'el Courtney, Todd Braver Phd, Debbie Yee

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Every day, humans face the complex cost-benefit analysis of integrating numerous different incentives to pursue behavioral goals. Impairments in cognitive control (and particularly an abnormal response to motivation) underlie disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, and addictions; as such it is important to illustrate how differing motivational cues are processed in healthy humans. Research has made great progress in discovering the behavioral and neural mechanisms that underlie motivation and cognitive control. However, a significant question that remains to be addressed is whether rewards and punishments utilize the same or different neural substrates to yield motivational effects. In the ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker 2017 Brandman University

Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker

Dissertations

The intent of this study was to elicit perspectives from law enforcement counselors, clinicians, chaplains, and peer group leaders for factors affecting law enforcement officer’s (LEOs) seeking mental health assistance. The law enforcement and mental health communities have gone to great lengths to ensure assistance is available to LEOs in an effort to counter the stress and trauma associated with the policing profession. Past studies attempted to elicit LEOs attitudes on mental health services, generating mixed results and were unable to establish why available services were underutilized. This study employed a qualitative methodology to elicit perspectives on this phenomena ...


Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson 2017 Case Western Reserve University

Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: African Americans experience unique stressors that may inhibit smoking cessation and enhance relapse rates. Few studies, however, have focused on risk factors for perceived stress among treatment seekers. Because African Americans are less likely to quit compared to the larger community, understanding factors associated with perceived stress among smokers has the potential to improve intervention outcomes. This study examined psychosocial and cultural correlates of stress in a sample of African American participants in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: At baseline, participants reported demographic factors and completed assessments of smoking history, alcohol use, friend and household smoking, weight concerns, acculturation ...


Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 Of The Test Of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without A “Gold Standard”, Douglas Mossman, Dustin B. Wygant, Roger O. Gervais, Kathleen J. Hart 2017 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 Of The Test Of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without A “Gold Standard”, Douglas Mossman, Dustin B. Wygant, Roger O. Gervais, Kathleen J. Hart

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

A recent body of work in neuroscience examines the brains of people suffering from social and economic disadvantage. This article assesses claims that this research can help generate more effective strategies for addressing these social conditions and their effects. It concludes that the so-called neuroscience of deprivation has no unique practical payoff, and that scientists, journalists, and policy-makers should stop claiming otherwise. Because this research does not, and generally cannot, distinguish between innate versus environmental causes of brain characteristics, it cannot predict whether neurological and behavioral deficits can be addressed by reducing social deprivation. Also, knowledge of brain mechanisms yields ...


A Study Of Subthreshold Hallucinatory Experiences And Their Relationship To Genetic Liability For Schizophrenia, Hannah Young 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

A Study Of Subthreshold Hallucinatory Experiences And Their Relationship To Genetic Liability For Schizophrenia, Hannah Young

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background

One of the hallmarks of schizophrenia is the presence of psychosis. However, subthreshold psychotic symptoms characterized by attenuated delusions and hallucinations also occur in healthy individuals from the general population. A body of evidence suggests that this phenomenon represents a continuum of schizophrenia, with severe and attenuated symptoms sharing a common genetic etiology. Hallucinations are one subthreshold psychotic symptom in which a clear continuum has been observed. The aim of this study is to assess if subthreshold hallucinatory experiences and schizophrenia share genetic liability.

Method

3,028 participants were administered the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS), which measures a predisposition ...


The Effects Of Abilify On Memory, Coordination, And Stereotypy In Cd-1 Mice, Jostein Andersen 2017 Long Island University

The Effects Of Abilify On Memory, Coordination, And Stereotypy In Cd-1 Mice, Jostein Andersen

Undergraduate Honors College Theses

The atypical antipsychotic Abilify is the second most popular treatment for schizophrenia and other related disorders. Its popularity and wide use is due to its unique pharmacological profile, working differently at dopamine and serotonin receptors compared to other antipsychotics. Schizophrenia is an infamous mental dysfunction involving cognitive impairment, positive symptoms, and negative symptoms. The current study investigated Abilify’s effect in a dose-dependent manner on memory, coordination and stereotypic movement. The sample consisted of 15 male and 15 female CD-1 mice. Memory was tested in a cognitive maze, the Rota-Rod series 8 model measured coordination, and the Coulbourn Tru-Scan Activity ...


Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children’s later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p < 0.0001). Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495–7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [–3.5490 to –0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting.


Towards A Continuous Assessment Of Cognitive Workload For Smartphone Multitasking Users, Angel Jimenez-Molina, Hernan Lira 2017 University of Chile

Towards A Continuous Assessment Of Cognitive Workload For Smartphone Multitasking Users, Angel Jimenez-Molina, Hernan Lira

2017

The intermeshing of Smartphone interactions and daily activities depletes the availability of cognitive resources. This excessive demand may lead to several undesirable cognitive states, which can be avoided by continuously assessing the user cognitive workload. Recently, many attempts have emerged to assess this workload by using psycho physiological signals. This paper provides evidence that it is possible to train models that accurately identify in short time windows such cognitive workload by processing heart rate and blood oxygen saturation signals. This assessment could be applied in Smartphone notification delivery, interface adaptations or cognitive capabilities evaluation.


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