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Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker 2017 Brandman University

Factors Affecting Mental Health Seeking Behaviors Of Law Enforcement Officers, Vincent M. Haecker

Dissertations

The intent of this study was to elicit perspectives from law enforcement counselors, clinicians, chaplains, and peer group leaders for factors affecting law enforcement officer’s (LEOs) seeking mental health assistance. The law enforcement and mental health communities have gone to great lengths to ensure assistance is available to LEOs in an effort to counter the stress and trauma associated with the policing profession. Past studies attempted to elicit LEOs attitudes on mental health services, generating mixed results and were unable to establish why available services were underutilized. This study employed a qualitative methodology to elicit perspectives on this phenomena ...


Varied Definitions Of Risk Related To Sensation Seeking Trait, Pål Ø.U. Dåstol, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg 2017 University of New Hampshire

Varied Definitions Of Risk Related To Sensation Seeking Trait, Pål Ø.U. Dåstol, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

[Excerpt] "Risk judgments seem related to which definitions of risk a person uses. Earlier studies suggest that people who use a "probability" definition of risk give different, and somewhat lower, subjective estimates of risk than those who instead prefer a "consequence" definition. In addition, an "optimistic bias" often can be found, and subjects usually evaluate personal risk systematically lower than risk for people in general."


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson 2017 Case Western Reserve University

Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: African Americans experience unique stressors that may inhibit smoking cessation and enhance relapse rates. Few studies, however, have focused on risk factors for perceived stress among treatment seekers. Because African Americans are less likely to quit compared to the larger community, understanding factors associated with perceived stress among smokers has the potential to improve intervention outcomes. This study examined psychosocial and cultural correlates of stress in a sample of African American participants in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: At baseline, participants reported demographic factors and completed assessments of smoking history, alcohol use, friend and household smoking, weight concerns, acculturation ...


Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Role Of Food Preoccupation And Current Dieting In The Associations Of Parental Feeding Practices To Emotional Eating In Young Adults: A Moderated Mediation Study, Natalie A. Williams, Dipti Dev, Maren Hankey, Kimberly A. Blitch

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children’s later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p < 0.0001). Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495–7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [–3.5490 to –0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting.


Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 Of The Test Of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without A “Gold Standard”, Douglas Mossman, Dustin B. Wygant, Roger O. Gervais, Kathleen J. Hart 2017 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 Of The Test Of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without A “Gold Standard”, Douglas Mossman, Dustin B. Wygant, Roger O. Gervais, Kathleen J. Hart

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations ...


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Object Relations In Children's Projective Testing: Applying The Mutuality Of Autonomy Scale To The Thematic Apperception Test, Lily A. Thom 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Object Relations In Children's Projective Testing: Applying The Mutuality Of Autonomy Scale To The Thematic Apperception Test, Lily A. Thom

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychodynamic assessment of object relations on projective tests has consistently been shown to contribute to a better understanding of children’s psychological functioning and to guide therapeutic interventions (Tuber, 1992). This research examines the enhanced utility of applying a psychodynamically-derived scale of children’s object relations to a commonly used projective assessment tool, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (Morgan & Murray, 1935; Murray, 1943). The current study investigates the adaptation and application of the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MOA) (Urist, 1977; Urist & Shill, 1982), commonly used as a Rorschach Inkblot Method object relations scale, to examine verbal narratives on the TAT. It was hypothesized that findings from the proposed study would demonstrate that the MOA is a readily employable scale for examining children’s object relational paradigms on TAT responses. A second aim of the study was to demonstrate concurrent validity between MOA scores and the Defense Mechanisms Manual (DMM), a well-validated tool for assessing developmental level of defenses on the TAT (Cramer, 1991). In addition, this work contributes to the need for empirically-validated, systematic approaches to interpreting TAT data (Rossini & Moretti, 1997; Cramer, 2004). The findings showed several expected, significant relationships between level of defense and object relations that confirmed the study’s ...


Muscle Dysmorphia And Athletic Identity, Taylor McGohan 2016 Western Kentucky University

Muscle Dysmorphia And Athletic Identity, Taylor Mcgohan

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Society is creating a stronger importance for men to have muscular physiques. Therefore, increasing the dissatisfaction men have with their bodies and perceptions of body image. The current study assesses the possible relationship between muscle dysmorphia and athletic identity. As well as a relationship between lifting time and athletic identity. Participants for the current study took three different self-reported surveys to measure demographics, exercise history, level of athletic identity, and possible symptoms of muscle dysmorphia. It was hypothesized that those with strong athletic identities also have a stronger desire to gain muscle mass, increasing likelihood of displaying muscle dysmorphia symptoms ...


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Suicidal Behaviors, And Body Investment In Heterosexual And Sexual Minority Young Adults, Emily Cox 2016 Western Kentucky University

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Suicidal Behaviors, And Body Investment In Heterosexual And Sexual Minority Young Adults, Emily Cox

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

College-aged individuals who identify with a sexual minority orientation are at high risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. Research is lacking on identification of factors contributing to increased risk for this population. This study examined two facets of body investment, body protection and body feelings, as they relate to NSSI, individual and total suicidal behaviors, and sexual orientation. It was hypothesized that NSSI and individual suicidal behaviors would be more frequent in the sexual minority sample compared to the heterosexual sample, body protection and body feelings would be poorer in sexual minorities compared to the heterosexual sample, and ...


Cultural Diversity And The Impact Of Acculturation And Personal Experience On Perceptions Of Suicide, Susan Breidenich 2016 Western Kentucky University

Cultural Diversity And The Impact Of Acculturation And Personal Experience On Perceptions Of Suicide, Susan Breidenich

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Many factors influence cross-cultural differences in suicide rates and behaviors. One potential explanation is that attitudes and values influence the way individuals perceive suicide. In addition, previous literature indicates that attitudes can change in response to individual experiences. Further research on cultural attitudes toward suicide and individual experiences that influence them could inform prevention and treatment efforts targeted toward multicultural populations. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of culture, acculturation, and personal experience (i.e., exposure to suicidal behavior through close relationship) on suicide attitudes. The hypotheses were (1) that significant differences in attitudes towards suicide ...


Full 3rd Edition, 2016 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Full 3rd Edition

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

No abstract provided.


Visual Sexualities: Exploring An Integration Of Art And Sex Therapies, Jillien Kahn 2016 Widener University - Main Campus

Visual Sexualities: Exploring An Integration Of Art And Sex Therapies, Jillien Kahn

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

This research explores the potential of integrating art and sex therapies. Three interviews were performed: two with certified art therapists one with a certified sex therapist, in order to understand how each of these professionals approaches issues of sexuality and creative expression within his or her practice. The resulting data was compared within and between each interviewee, resulting three overarching themes through which the challenges regarding this integration can be understood. It was found that there is great potential for an integration of the two therapies, provided clinicians have access to appropriate training, as well as a deeper understanding of ...


Found Object/Readymade Art In The Treatment Of Trauma And Loss, Michal Bat Or, Orna Megides 2016 University of Haifa

Found Object/Readymade Art In The Treatment Of Trauma And Loss, Michal Bat Or, Orna Megides

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

Found object/readymade art is a familiar expressive medium in art therapy that has been insufficiently explored. The present article theoretically and clinically examines Found object/readymade art as a progressive therapeutic intervention in the treatment of trauma and loss. It aims to show how creating found object/readymade art enables the client to encounter and contain damaged/disconnected memories and provides a space for integrating and meaning-making in the face of rupture and loss. This is discussed through a review of found object/readymade art medium in the history of art and in art therapy and by phenomenological observation ...


Exploring Ranges, Tensions, And Potential Integrations: Editorial Notes For Jcat’S 3rd Edition, Einat Metzl 2016 Loyola Marymount University

Exploring Ranges, Tensions, And Potential Integrations: Editorial Notes For Jcat’S 3rd Edition, Einat Metzl

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, 2016 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Front Matter

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

No abstract provided.


Etiology And Stability Of Problem Gambling, Robert Williams, Rachel A. Volberg 2016 University of Lethbridge

Etiology And Stability Of Problem Gambling, Robert Williams, Rachel A. Volberg

International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking

Prevention of problem gambling hinges on having research that clearly identifies the variables that are etiologically involved, their temporal sequence, and their causal connections. Longitudinal research is the best way of disentangling the chronology and causal relationships between variables. The present research describes the results of the two major longitudinal studies of gambling in Canada: the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS) (n = 4,121) and the Leisure, Lifestyle, Lifecycle Project (LLLP) (n = 1,808). The first part of the presentation describes the stability of gambling classifications over a 5 year period. This is followed by an identification of the univariate and ...


Reflection, Interrupted: Material Mirror Work In The Confessio Amantis, Jenny Boyar 2016 University of Rochester

Reflection, Interrupted: Material Mirror Work In The Confessio Amantis, Jenny Boyar

Accessus

The Confessio Amantis concludes with a revelatory scene in which Venus holds up a mirror to Amans, allowing him to recognize John Gower the poet— a moment that is often read as a mimetic and healing counterpoint to the Confessio’s sickness and self-questioning. My intention in this paper is to very slightly modify certain aspects of this narrative, to consider how the materiality of the mirror can inform its metaphoric deployments in the Confessio. I organize my discussion around two seemingly contrasting moments in the poem in which the self is seen and in different ways recognized through a ...


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