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Getting Change-Space: A Grounded Theory Study Of Automated Ehealth Therapy, Marianne T. S. Holter, Ottar Ness, Ayna Johansen, Håvar Brendryen 2019 The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo

Getting Change-Space: A Grounded Theory Study Of Automated Ehealth Therapy, Marianne T. S. Holter, Ottar Ness, Ayna Johansen, Håvar Brendryen

The Qualitative Report

A promising tool for bettering people’s health is eHealth (or “mHealth”) programs: fully automated, web-based health interventions. However, we know surprisingly little about eHealth’s working mechanisms. One possible working mechanism is that program users benefit from a collaborative “relationship”—a “working alliance”—with the program. Although evidence support the existence of a person-to-program alliance it is unclear if and how it influences change. Therefore, we conducted a grounded theory study of how relating to an eHealth program for quitting smoking influenced the participants’ change processes. The ensuing model focuses on how participants got change-space—feeling free from social ...


Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey 2019 Western University

Mouse Performance On A Novel Touchscreen Continuous Performance Task Is Dependent On Signaling In The Prelimbic Cortex, Tyler D. Dexter, Daniel Palmer, Amy C. Reichelt, Anita Taksokhan, Lisa M. Saksida, Tim J. Bussey

Western Research Forum

Attention is the cognitive processing that facilitates the ability to target and attend to relevant environmental stimuli, while filtering out irrelevant or distracting stimuli. Control over selective attention is theorized to be dependent on organized neural communication that stems from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To evaluate selective and sustained attention, mice were trained on the novel touchscreen rodent continuous performance task (rCPT), a task designed to emulate the human CPT. In the rodent version, images are continuously presented on a touchscreen, where mice have been trained to selectively respond to one image type while suppressing responses to all others ...


Pparg Signaling In The Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity, Tony Jung, Roger Hudson, Hanna Szkudlarek, Walter Rushlow, Steve Laviolette 2019 Western University

Pparg Signaling In The Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Mesolimbic Dopamine Activity, Tony Jung, Roger Hudson, Hanna Szkudlarek, Walter Rushlow, Steve Laviolette

Western Research Forum

Background: The mesolimbic dopamine system consists of dopamine neuron projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc regulates VTA dopamine release through inhibitory GABA projections to the VTA. Hyperactive mesolimbic dopamine signaling is implicated in anxiety. Cannabidiol, a compound found in cannabis, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential for anxiety through the regulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Previous studies have revealed that cannabidiol infusions into the NAc decreases mesolimbic dopamine activity - potentially through the inhibitory GABA signaling to the VTA. However, the receptor mechanism in the NAc through which CBD produces its effects is unknown ...


The Effects Of Rape Trauma And Ptsd On The Childbirth Process, Helena Kevorkian 2019 DePaul University

The Effects Of Rape Trauma And Ptsd On The Childbirth Process, Helena Kevorkian

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Background: Sexual trauma, including rape and childhood sexual abuse, takes a toll on the survivor emotionally and physically. With the invasive procedures, physical exposure and feelings of loss of control related to childbirth, the survivor may become triggered and become retraumatized. Through an integrative literature review, the effects of rape trauma and PTSD on the childbirth process were identified.

Objective: The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the effects of rape trauma and PTSD on the childbirth process. Through determining the effects, a greater understanding will be gained on how to best approach a situation with ...


An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger 2019 Université Paris Descartes

An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Integration-to-bound models are among the most widely used models of perceptual decision-making due to their simplicity and power in accounting for behavioral and neurophysiological data. They involve temporal integration over an input signal (“evidence”) plus Gaussian white noise. However, brain data shows that noise in the brain is long-term correlated, with a spectral density of the form 1/fα (with typically 1 < α < 2), also known as pink noise or ‘1/f’ noise. Surprisingly, the adequacy of the spectral properties of drift-diffusion models to electrophysiological data has received little attention in the literature. Here we propose a model of accumulation of evidence for decision-making that takes into consideration the spectral properties of brain signals. We develop a generalization of the leaky stochastic accumulator model using a Langevin equation whose non-linear noise term allows for varying levels of autocorrelation in the time course of the decision variable. We derive this equation directly from magnetoencephalographic data recorded while subjects performed a spontaneous movement initiation task. We then propose a nonlinear model of accumulation of evidence that accounts for the ‘1/f’ spectral properties of brain signals, and the observed variability in the power spectral properties of brain signals. Furthermore, our model outperforms the standard drift-diffusion model at approximating the empirical waiting time distribution.


Human Learning, Memory, And Student Development, Alan R. Erickson 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Human Learning, Memory, And Student Development, Alan R. Erickson

Contemporary Issues in Educational Leadership

My educational interests have largely been informed by my career in the sciences and medicine. My professional education has been both formative and transformative, opening doors to the joy of learning and a realization in the importance of memory. As an educator, clinician, and student, I have been greatly impacted by issues of curricular design, curricular development, learning and memory. My current responsibilities in student affairs also have exposed me to the delicate balance between student development, curricular design, learning and memory. Patton, Renn, Guido, and Quaye (2016) noted the importance of educators being able to use different literature sources ...


Cognitive And Microbiome Impacts Of Experimental Ancylostoma Ceylanicum Hookworm Infections In Hamsters, Samuel C. Pan, Doyle V. Ward, Yunqiang Yin, Yan Hu, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Robert E. Clark, Raffi V. Aroian 2019 University of California - San Diego

Cognitive And Microbiome Impacts Of Experimental Ancylostoma Ceylanicum Hookworm Infections In Hamsters, Samuel C. Pan, Doyle V. Ward, Yunqiang Yin, Yan Hu, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Robert E. Clark, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Articles

Hookworms are one of the most prevalent and important parasites, infecting ~500 million people worldwide. Hookworm disease is among the leading causes of iron-deficiency anemia in the developing world and is associated with significant growth stunting and malnutrition. In humans, hookworms appear to impair memory and other forms of cognition, although definitive data are hard to come by. Here we study the impact of a human hookworm parasite, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, on cognition in hamsters in a controlled laboratory setting. We developed tests that measure long-term memory in hamsters. We find that hookworm-infected hamsters were fully capable of detecting a novel ...


Dance/Movement Therapy As A Tool To Improve Social Skills In Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review, Holly Berlandy 2019 Lesley University

Dance/Movement Therapy As A Tool To Improve Social Skills In Children And Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review, Holly Berlandy

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by the presence of social communication and interaction deficits present in their day to day. The deficits present in this disorder appear within the first three years of life and lead to problems with connecting and interacting with other individuals including their own family members. As a result, children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder often experience negative self-image and lack the proper skills to interact with others. Autism spectrum disorder is becoming more commonly diagnosed and yet there remains a gap in interventions and treatment due to the individualized appearance ...


Breathing Life Into Life: A Literature Review Supporting Body-Based Interventions In The Treatment Of Trauma, Andrea Werbalowksy 2019 Lesley University

Breathing Life Into Life: A Literature Review Supporting Body-Based Interventions In The Treatment Of Trauma, Andrea Werbalowksy

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

In the recent turn toward a more trauma-informed practice of mental health counseling, a glaring gap remains between the research validating that trauma is a somatic experience and the continued privileging of cognitive and behaviorist interventions commonly used to treat trauma. In an effort to explore this gap, this paper presents a literature review inquiry into the neurophysiological and overall life effects trauma can have on the people who experience it. The review further explores how Stephen Porges’s Polyvagal Theory elucidates the benefits of using body-based therapeutic interventions in the treatment of trauma. The inquiry investigates the wide gap ...


Modeling Visual Enumeration Using Cumulative Link Regression., Anthony D. Cate Ph.D. 2019 Virginia Tech

Modeling Visual Enumeration Using Cumulative Link Regression., Anthony D. Cate Ph.D.

MODVIS Workshop

Based on three core assumptions about mental representations of number, this model of visual enumeration specifies analysis methods that can identify when observers rely on different processes to estimate the numerosity of a visual display. Specifically, the model provides a clear criterion for identifying domains of numerosity that correspond to different perceptual or cognitive processes that have been described in numeracy literature, e.g. subitizing. The model predicts how the requirement to give integer responses in enumeration tasks can produce spurious discontinuities in accuracy measures that can be misidentified as evidence for a subitizing process. It is proposed that cumulative ...


A Meta-Analytic Review Of Cognitive Functioning In Negative And Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Tiffany Forsythe 2019 Abilene Christian University

A Meta-Analytic Review Of Cognitive Functioning In Negative And Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Tiffany Forsythe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to conduct two meta-analytic reviews examining cognitive functioning and schizophrenia. The first review examined the literature comparing the cognitive functioning of schizophrenic patients to healthy controls. A second review examined the cognitive functioning within schizophrenic patients, examining the differences between individuals with primarily positive symptomatology and those with primarily negative symptomatology. The first meta-analysis included 19 studies which assessed 861 schizophrenic patients and 858 healthy volunteers overall. The second meta-analysis included 10 studies comparing the cognitive functioning of 1,263 schizophrenics across positive and negative symptoms. Results of the first review indicated that healthy ...


“I Do Have A Softer Side”: A Phenomenological Investigation Of The Prisoner-Dog Relationship In The Canine Partners For Life Training Program, Kathleen Kocherzat 2019 Duquesne University

“I Do Have A Softer Side”: A Phenomenological Investigation Of The Prisoner-Dog Relationship In The Canine Partners For Life Training Program, Kathleen Kocherzat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study investigated the relationship between incarcerated dog handlers and the service dogs they trained. Six men at a large northeastern prison were interviewed during the summer of 2017; all were current or former dog trainers in the Canine Partners for Life (CPL) training program. The men were serving prison sentences ranging anywhere from several years to life without parole. The interviews focused on their lived experience, rasing and training puppies for a period up to eighteen months. The qualitative data consisted of approximately thirteen hours of transcribed interviews, which were then interpreted using the phenomenological psychological method developed ...


The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog 2019 EPFL – École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

How can we explain consciousness? This question has become a vibrant topic of neuroscience research in recent decades. A large body of empirical results has been accumulated, and many theories have been proposed. Certain theories suggest that consciousness should be explained in terms of brain functions, such as accessing information in a global workspace, applying higher order to lower order representations, or predictive coding. These functions could be realized by a variety of patterns of brain connectivity. Other theories, such as Information Integration Theory (IIT) and Recurrent Processing Theory (RPT), identify causal structure with consciousness. For example, according to these ...


An Introduction To Transformative Inquiry: Understanding Compelling And Significant Relationships For Personal And Societal Transformation, Mark L. McCaslin, Kelly A. Kilrea 2019 University of Phoenix

An Introduction To Transformative Inquiry: Understanding Compelling And Significant Relationships For Personal And Societal Transformation, Mark L. Mccaslin, Kelly A. Kilrea

The Qualitative Report

Transformative inquiry is a theoretical model designed to facilitate the inquiry of important and meaningful relationships that transform and potentiate us. Creswell (2007) described the essential elements of a research agenda: the axiological, ontological, epistemological, methodological, and rhetorical. Each carries with it assumptions that hold implications for practice and research. Transformative inquiry addresses all of these elements through considerations given to deep ecology, transdisciplinarity, integral meta-theory, heuristic research, and eudaimonistic philosophy, respectively. Transformative inquiry is an approach to understanding and fostering the full range of deep and meaningful relationships from the personal to the political, and beyond. It is a ...


Development Of A School Boredom Proneness Scale For Children, Taylor Carrington 2019 James Madison University

Development Of A School Boredom Proneness Scale For Children, Taylor Carrington

Educational Specialist

One common phrase heard from students is, “I’m bored.” However, there is no real understanding of what this actually means. In this study, elementary-age students were asked to respond to a newly developed School Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) including questions relating to a five-factor model of boredom. Students were also asked to rate how often they become bored at school and how bored they seem compared to classmates. In addition to student responses, parents and teachers were asked to rate how bored they thought the student was, and teachers were additionally asked to rate students’ level of work completion ...


A Phenomenological Study Of The Lived Experiences Of Counseling Students In A Co-Facilitated Experiential Group, Alexandra Meyers 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Phenomenological Study Of The Lived Experiences Of Counseling Students In A Co-Facilitated Experiential Group, Alexandra Meyers

Theses and Dissertations

Research in the fields of experiential learning, group psychotherapy, and neuroscience has supported the inclusion of the experiential group in counseling training programs due to the potential for positive impact on students’ personal and professional development (Badenoch & Cox, 2010; Denninger, 2010). Investigations exploring counseling students’ experiences of the experiential group have been primarily limited to quantitative studies, while in-depth qualitative inquiry has been minimal. Additionally, an extensive review of the literature has found there have been no qualitative studies examining experiential groups co-facilitated by a course instructor and a doctoral student. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived ...


Does It Matter Whether You Or Your Brain Did It? An Empirical Investigation Of The Influence Of The Double Subject Fallacy On Moral Responsibility Judgments, Uri Maoz, Kellienne R. Sita, Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, Liad Mudrik 2019 Chapman University

Does It Matter Whether You Or Your Brain Did It? An Empirical Investigation Of The Influence Of The Double Subject Fallacy On Moral Responsibility Judgments, Uri Maoz, Kellienne R. Sita, Jeroen J. A. Van Boxtel, Liad Mudrik

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Despite progress in cognitive neuroscience, we are still far from understanding the relations between the brain and the conscious self. We previously suggested that some neuroscientific texts that attempt to clarify these relations may in fact make them more difficult to understand. Such texts—ranging from popular science to high-impact scientific publications—position the brain and the conscious self as two independent, interacting subjects, capable of possessing opposite psychological states. We termed such writing ‘Double Subject Fallacy’ (DSF). We further suggested that such DSF language, besides being conceptually confusing and reflecting dualistic intuitions, might affect people’s conceptions of moral ...


Vulnerability And Physical Well-Being Of Caregivers: What Relationship?, Salvatore Settineri, Fabio Frisone, Angela Alibrandi, Emanuele Maria Merlo 2019 Department of Biomedical and Dental sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy

Vulnerability And Physical Well-Being Of Caregivers: What Relationship?, Salvatore Settineri, Fabio Frisone, Angela Alibrandi, Emanuele Maria Merlo

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objectives. To assess relationships among burden, compassion, and well-being and health among an active group of caregivers.

Methods. 301 caregivers with female prevalence (F = 61.1%, M = 38.9%) and ages between 18 and 84 years old (average = 38.72; SD 13.36) participated. Evaluation was carried using standardized instruments to assess: Burdens (CBI), dimensions related to Compassion and Burnout (ProQOL-5), State of Well-being (Who-5) and particular health-related domains (Emotional state, Physical health, Depressive Polarity, Dysphoric Polarity-SF-36). Correlational analyses and multivariate linear regressions were performed.

Results. Positive correlations emerged between Burdens and Compassion Fatigue, Well-being and Satisfaction; inverse correlations emerged ...


The Protective Nature Of Religiosity Against Suicidal Ideation In African-Americans, Hannah Sylvester 2019 Carroll College

The Protective Nature Of Religiosity Against Suicidal Ideation In African-Americans, Hannah Sylvester

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This systematic review was conducted to examine if religiosity has a protective role against suicidal ideation (SI) in African-Americans. Articles from PUBMED involving religiosity, SI, and African-Americans were sorted and analyzed. These articles were screened on exclusion and inclusion criteria, yielding 11 articles. Higher religiosity was strongly correlated with lower instances of SI in the African-American population. In 10 of the 11 analyzed articles, religiosity was protective against SI. In seven of these, the effect was statistically significant. Intrinsic religiosity was shown to be more protective than extrinsic. In African-Americans, religiosity was strongly correlated with lower SI. The strength of ...


Slippage: An Interrogation Of Memory And Myth Through Movement, Laura Malpass 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

Slippage: An Interrogation Of Memory And Myth Through Movement, Laura Malpass

Theatre and Dance Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Memory and myths help us locate ourselves. They are the stories we tell ourselves to make sense of the world, to create reality, and to foster resilience. The myths passed down through generations create a sense of family, of tribe, and of belonging. Memory is the mythology we tell ourselves time and again to mine inner truths - the home we create to locate ourselves in the wider world. What happens when these memories morph and fade, when shifting neural pathways reshape the inner landscapes of our physicality? As we forget, what do we remember? How does losing your history create ...


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