Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,263 Full-Text Articles 2,352 Authors 466,930 Downloads 143 Institutions

All Articles in Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms

Faceted Search

1,263 full-text articles. Page 4 of 44.

Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

UMass Worcester PRC Presentations

Background: Among adolescents, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added dietary sugar and constitute 10-15% of their total caloric intake. A range of factors influence adolescent dietary behaviors and food choices. This study aimed to explore adolescents' attitudes and knowledge about SSBs, how they receive messages about SSBs, and motivations for SSB consumption.

Methods: We conducted 5 focus groups with youth aged 12-14 years that attend one of the eight Youth Connect programs in Worcester, MA in 2016-2017. Groups were sex-specific because of changes during adolescence and experiences with body image and health behaviors between the groups. A ...


The Role Of Stress In The Pathogenesis And Maintenance Of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Thomas G. Adams, Benjamin Kelmendi, C. Alex Brake, Patricia Gruner, Christal L. Badour, Christopher Pittenger 2018 Yale University

The Role Of Stress In The Pathogenesis And Maintenance Of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Thomas G. Adams, Benjamin Kelmendi, C. Alex Brake, Patricia Gruner, Christal L. Badour, Christopher Pittenger

Psychology Faculty Publications

Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate obsessive-compulsive disorder along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology. Nonetheless, preclinical research has demonstrated that stress has conspicuous effects on corticostriatal and limbic ...


Integrating Mindfulness Training In School Health Education To Promote Healthy Behaviors In Adolescents: Feasibility And Preliminary Effects On Exercise And Dietary Habits, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Susan Druker, Christine F. Frisard, Shira I. Dunsiger, Sybil L. Crawford, Florence Meleo-Meyer, Beth Bock, Lori Pbert 2018 Brown University

Integrating Mindfulness Training In School Health Education To Promote Healthy Behaviors In Adolescents: Feasibility And Preliminary Effects On Exercise And Dietary Habits, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Susan Druker, Christine F. Frisard, Shira I. Dunsiger, Sybil L. Crawford, Florence Meleo-Meyer, Beth Bock, Lori Pbert

Open Access Articles

Whether mindfulness training (MT) could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes) and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes). Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014-2015) were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT) (one session/week for 8weeks) or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC). Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and 6months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects ...


Cluster-Randomized Trial Of A Behavioral Intervention To Incorporate A Treat-To-Target Approach To Care Of Us Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Ani John, Christine J. Barr, Kevin Soe, Robert P. Magner, Katherine C. Saunders, Eric M. Ruderman, Tmirah Haselkorn, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, Allan Gibofsky, J. Timothy Harrington, Joel M. Kremer 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cluster-Randomized Trial Of A Behavioral Intervention To Incorporate A Treat-To-Target Approach To Care Of Us Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, George W. Reed, Ani John, Christine J. Barr, Kevin Soe, Robert P. Magner, Katherine C. Saunders, Eric M. Ruderman, Tmirah Haselkorn, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, Allan Gibofsky, J. Timothy Harrington, Joel M. Kremer

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing a treat-to-target approach versus usual care in a US-based cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

METHODS: In this behavioral intervention trial, rheumatology practices were cluster-randomized to provide treat-to-target care or usual care. Eligible patients with moderate/high disease activity (Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI] score > 10) were followed for 12 months. Both treat-to-target and usual care patients were seen every 3 months. Treat-to-target providers were to have monthly visits with treatment acceleration at a minimum of every 3 months in patients with CDAI score > 10; additional visits and treatment acceleration were at ...


Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This volume grew out of many years of clinical practice, research, and program projects. It is the culmination of more than 50 years of work with kids, brains, and schools. While there is research behind the Competencies and the underlying content, the intent was to create a user-friendly manual that cut across levels of responsibility and care. Concussion Competencies was not intended to be a textbook in the traditional manner; however, the Competencies have been shown to be a useful approach to teaching this material.

This volume is organized around a set of Competencies that have been shown to be ...


Similar Neural Responses Predict Friendship, Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

Similar Neural Responses Predict Friendship, Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Human social networks are overwhelmingly homophilous: individuals tend to befriend others who are similar to them in terms of a range of physical attributes (e.g., age, gender). Do similarities among friends reflect deeper similarities in how we perceive, interpret, and respond to the world? To test whether friendship, and more generally, social network proximity, is associated with increased similarity of real-time mental responding, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan subjects’ brains during free viewing of naturalistic movies. Here we show evidence for neural homophily: neural responses when viewing audiovisual movies are exceptionally similar among friends, and that ...


A Multi-Functional View Of Moral Disengagement: Exploring The Effects Of Learning The Consequences, C. Justice Tillman, Katerina Gonzalez, Marilyn V. Whitman, Wayne S. Crawford, Anthony C. Hood 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

A Multi-Functional View Of Moral Disengagement: Exploring The Effects Of Learning The Consequences, C. Justice Tillman, Katerina Gonzalez, Marilyn V. Whitman, Wayne S. Crawford, Anthony C. Hood

Publications and Research

This paper takes us beyond the unethical act and explores the use of moral disengagement as a multi-stage, multi-functional regulatory, and coping mechanism that not only allows individuals to engage in unethical behavior, but also manage the negative emotions (i.e., guilt and shame) from learning the consequences of such behavior. A resource-based lens is applied to the moral disengagement process, suggesting that individuals not only morally disengage prior to committing an unethical act in order to conserve their own resources, but also morally disengage as a coping mechanism to reduce emotional duress upon learning of the consequences of their ...


What Are The Physical And Psychological Health Effects Of Suicide Bereavement On Family Members? An Observational And Interview Mixed-Methods Study In Ireland, Ailbhe Spillane, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Celine Larkin, Paul Corcoran, Ella Arensman 2018 University College Cork

What Are The Physical And Psychological Health Effects Of Suicide Bereavement On Family Members? An Observational And Interview Mixed-Methods Study In Ireland, Ailbhe Spillane, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Celine Larkin, Paul Corcoran, Ella Arensman

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVES: Research focussing on the impact of suicide bereavement on family members' physical and psychological health is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine how family members have been physically and psychologically affected following suicide bereavement. A secondary objective of the study was to describe the needs of family members bereaved by suicide.

DESIGN: A mixed-methods study was conducted, using qualitative semistructured interviews and additional quantitative self-report measures of depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21).

SETTING: Consecutive suicide cases and next-of-kin were identified by examining coroner's records in Cork City and County, Ireland from October 2014 to May ...


The Unspoken Psychological Issues With Lesson Horses And How We Need To Address Them, Casey Clark 2018 Murray State University

The Unspoken Psychological Issues With Lesson Horses And How We Need To Address Them, Casey Clark

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Every day all over the world horses provide much needed therapy and treatment to people in need. They provide physical, emotional, and mental training and healing. Humans depend on them for so much and we have a moral and ethical obligation to be good stewards of our equine companions. This close proximity can take a toll on horses physically and psychologically even in the realm of experienced equine professionals. So many times though it is the small lesson facility that sees hundreds of people each year and makes a profound difference in people’s lives. This can be at a ...


Whose Preferences Matter? A Patient-Centered Approach For Eliciting Treatment Goals, Nananda F. Col, Andrew J. Solomon, Vicky Springmann, Calvin P. Garbin, Carolina Ionete, Lori Pbert, Enrique Alvarez, Brenda Tierman, Ashli Hopson, Christen Kutz, Idanis Berrios Morales, Carolyn Griffin, Glenn Phillips, Long H. Ngo 2018 Five Islands Consulting LLC

Whose Preferences Matter? A Patient-Centered Approach For Eliciting Treatment Goals, Nananda F. Col, Andrew J. Solomon, Vicky Springmann, Calvin P. Garbin, Carolina Ionete, Lori Pbert, Enrique Alvarez, Brenda Tierman, Ashli Hopson, Christen Kutz, Idanis Berrios Morales, Carolyn Griffin, Glenn Phillips, Long H. Ngo

UMass Worcester PRC Publications

BACKGROUND: Patients facing a high-stakes clinical decision are often confronted with an overwhelming array of options. High-quality decisions about treatment should reflect patients' preferences as well as their clinical characteristics. Preference-assessment instruments typically focus on pre-selected clinical outcomes and attributes chosen by the investigator.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a patient-centered approach to elicit and compare the treatment goals of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthcare providers (HCPs).

METHODS: We conducted five nominal group technique (NGT) meetings to elicit and prioritize treatment goals from patients and HCPs. Five to nine participants in each group responded silently to one question ...


Adolescent Depression Prevention Toolkit, Avesta M. Khursand 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Adolescent Depression Prevention Toolkit, Avesta M. Khursand

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of depression in the adolescent population is on the rise. Currently, treatment for depression is provided mostly in clinical settings, when patients are in the acute phase of the mental illness. This type of treatment does not have preventative value to address this pandemic of depression. Prevention methods in the school settings have proven to be effective if done using evidence based guidelines.

Methods: This educational intervention used the Adolescent Depression Prevention Toolkit, which included screening tools and preventative methods of therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A questionnaire of knowledge surrounding these methods was ...


An Examination Of The Relationships Between Attributional Style, Reappraisal, And Depression Risk In Arab Americans, Khadeja Najjar 2018 Cleveland State University

An Examination Of The Relationships Between Attributional Style, Reappraisal, And Depression Risk In Arab Americans, Khadeja Najjar

ETD Archive

While depression is a cross-cultural phenomenon, much of the literature that examines risk factors and mechanisms for its occurrence is examined from a Western perspective. As cultural background and level of acculturation to the host culture is known to shape the expression of depressive disorders, as well as their risk factors, this study examined whether cultural factors influence the relationship between two cognitive emotion regulation processes and depression symptoms. Specifically, this study examined whether the relationship between internal, stable, and global causal attributions for negative events (negative attributional style) and depression is mediated by one’s tendency to reframe the ...


A Conversation On Building Resilience And Protecting Children: An Evidence-Based Family Strengthening Approach, Mary M. McKay, Mary Acri 2018 Neidorff Family and Centene Corporation Dean, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis.

A Conversation On Building Resilience And Protecting Children: An Evidence-Based Family Strengthening Approach, Mary M. Mckay, Mary Acri

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This Article summarizes a presentation to child mental health scientists, child development experts, neuroscientists, and child health practitioners at a 2017 conference entitled “The Developing Brain: New Directions in Science, Policy, and Law.” We presented an evidence-based approach to strengthening families, referred to as the “4Rs and 2Ss Family Strengthening Program,” as an option for protecting children and enhancing their overall development. We presented data that found child and family outcomes, including child behavior regulation and functioning, and parent depression and stress, improved among families who participated in the intervention. We also found several intervention innovations that were developed as ...


Posttraumatic Growth And Residential Therapy: Cultivating Environments That Support And Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth And Positive Well-Being., Tracey Bachrach 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Posttraumatic Growth And Residential Therapy: Cultivating Environments That Support And Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth And Positive Well-Being., Tracey Bachrach

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Residential therapy is intended for those needing mental health crisis intervention. The well-being of these people cannot be overlooked and should take an active role in the treatment process, especially for those struggling with the symptomology of posttraumatic stress. By utilizing both positive psychology and posttraumatic growth theory and practice, participants in residential therapy may strengthen personal well-being thus encouraging the posttraumatic growth process. Focusing on positive affect, engagement, relationships, meaning, and achievement can stimulate and support posttraumatic growth in an intentional setting such as residential therapy. This will shift treatment goals and outcomes away from deficit diagnosis and recovery ...


Mental Disorder And Criminal Justice, Stephen J. Morse 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mental Disorder And Criminal Justice, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper is a chapter that will appear in REFORMING CRIMINAL JUSTICE: A REPORT OF THE ACADEMY FOR JUSTICE BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN SCHOLARSHIP AND REFORM (Erik Luna ed., Academy for Justice 2018). The criminal law treats some people with severe mental disorders doctrinally and practically differently at virtually every stage of the criminal justice process, beginning with potential incompetence to stand trial and ending with the question of competence to be executed, and such people have special needs when they are in the system. This chapter begins by exploring the fundamental mental health information necessary to make informed judgements ...


Investigating A Potential Relationship Between Sibling Gender Composition And Health Behavior Indicators In Young Adult And Adolescent Males, Taylor N. Goss 2018 University of Central Florida

Investigating A Potential Relationship Between Sibling Gender Composition And Health Behavior Indicators In Young Adult And Adolescent Males, Taylor N. Goss

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The presence of siblings during childhood and adolescence has a significant impact on the behaviors and perceptions of adults later in life. Effects of mixed-gendered sibling dyads on delinquent behavior, gender typing, and romantic and sexual relationships are of interest. These behaviors can lead to notable health disparities, making it imperative to gain insight into factors associated with such behaviors in young adult and adolescent males. This project explored possible correlations between gender composition of siblings and health behavior indicators for violence, competition and risk, and sexual and romantic relationships. Analysis of these variables was performed using data from the ...


Aerobic Exercise Exposure Targeting Anxiety Sensitivity: Effects On Associated Health Behaviors In Young Adults, Autumn Lanoye 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Aerobic Exercise Exposure Targeting Anxiety Sensitivity: Effects On Associated Health Behaviors In Young Adults, Autumn Lanoye

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with health behaviors such as low rates of physical activity, overeating, alcohol use, and poor sleep; however, interventions targeting AS via exercise-based interoceptive exposure have not assessed these as outcomes. In addition, previous studies are limited by brief follow-up periods. This study aimed to replicate previous aerobic exercise interoceptive exposures with an extended (6-week) follow-up and measurement of health behaviors.

Participants were 44 sedentary young adults with elevated AS randomized to intervention (6 20-minute sessions of moderate-intensity treadmill walking) or assessment-only control. Assessments took place at baseline, week 2 (post-treatment), week 4, and week 8 ...


An Investigation Of Personality Traits As Predictors For Mobile Phone Dependency, Elijah Phillips 2018 James Madison University

An Investigation Of Personality Traits As Predictors For Mobile Phone Dependency, Elijah Phillips

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This study sought to determine if certain personality traits are correlates of mobile phone dependency, motivations for purchasing a mobile phone, and reasons for commonly using a cell phone. The impact of mobile phones on human day-to-day living and the interplay between cellular devices and human behavior have been topics of ongoing research. Through these investigatory efforts, numerous potential harms of mobile phone overuse and abuse have recently become increasingly apparent, but very little research has generated conclusive results about the interaction between human persona and mobile dependency. This was a cross-sectional study of a quasi-randomized sample of undergraduate students ...


Studying Facial Expression Recognition And Imitation Ability Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Interaction With A Social Robot, Farzaneh Askari 2018 University of Denver

Studying Facial Expression Recognition And Imitation Ability Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder In Interaction With A Social Robot, Farzaneh Askari

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience limited abilities in recognizing non-verbal elements of social interactions such as facial expressions [1]. They also show deficiencies in imitating facial expressions in social situations. In this Master thesis, we focus on studying the ability of children with ASD in recognizing facial expressions and imitating the expressions using a rear-projected expressive humanoid robot, called Ryan. Recent studies show that social robots such as Ryan have great potential for autism therapy. We designed and developed three studies, first to evaluate the ability of children with ASD in recognizing facial expressions that are presented to ...


Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

NREM and REM sleep have shown an exceptional importance in controlling various cognitive functions (Brown et al, 2012), and disruption of such sleep states can cause mental and physical impairments (Christie et al, 2008). Disruptions in sleep stages (Wakefulness, REM, NREM) can be identified via EEG recordings in mice without much interference (Mckenna et al, 2008). Circadian Rhythm, hormonal markers, and stress all affect the duration, intensity and timing of these sleep stages (Brown et al, 2004; Veasey et al 2004; Christie et al, 2008). One cohort of mice (n=7) underwent a baseline condition (BL), a nicotine administration condition ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress