Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Toxicology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

715 Full-Text Articles 1,219 Authors 182,454 Downloads 107 Institutions

All Articles in Toxicology

Faceted Search

715 full-text articles. Page 4 of 23.

Protective Effect Of Beta-Sitosterol Against Ethanol Toxemia, Dakota Cooper, April Boucher-Zamzo 2017 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Protective Effect Of Beta-Sitosterol Against Ethanol Toxemia, Dakota Cooper, April Boucher-Zamzo

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Herbal medications have no indications of interactions with alcohol on their labels. There has been at least one clinical finding that saw palmetto with active ingredient beta-sitosterol used for enlarged male prostates caused pancreatic damage. This study with 20 male mice hypothesized that ethanol would increase the toxicity of beta-sitosterol. It was found that mice dosed by gavage with 0.1 ml of 95 proof ethanol died starting at the second dose and increased to 100% by the sixth dose (unexpected based on literature). 60-microgram injections of beta-sitosterol prevented deaths in 80% of the mice past the sixth dose opposite ...


Expression Profiling Of Non-Coding Rna By Environmental Interactions In Innate Immunity, Jacob R. Longfellow 2017 University of Maine

Expression Profiling Of Non-Coding Rna By Environmental Interactions In Innate Immunity, Jacob R. Longfellow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects 30,000 people in the United States and currently has no cure. Although CF affects all of the body’s systems, it is largely characterized as a lung disease. CF is caused by a mutation in both copies of the gene for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). A mutation in the CFTR gene leads to improper movement of chloride ions and water into the airways, which dysregulates the airway surface liquid volume and composition. Individuals with CF are prone to lung infections due to inefficient bacterial clearance and by the ...


The Comparative Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Of Hexavalent Chromium In Humans And Sea Turtles., Rachel M. Speer 2017 University of Louisville

The Comparative Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Of Hexavalent Chromium In Humans And Sea Turtles., Rachel M. Speer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Monitoring the health effects of environmental contaminants can be achieved using sentinel species as models. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood. In this study the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate and soluble Cr(VI) were assessed in leatherback lung cells and compared to those in human lung cells. Cr(VI) induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in leatherback lung cells ...


Novel Insight Into The Liver-Lung Axis In Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury., Lauren G. Poole 2017 University of Louisville

Novel Insight Into The Liver-Lung Axis In Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury., Lauren G. Poole

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background. Individuals who chronically abuse alcohol are almost 4 times more likely to develop Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of Acute Lung Injury (ALI), but the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse sensitizes the lung to injury are poorly understood. However, the lung appears to share many parallel mechanisms of injury with the liver- a primary target of alcohol abuse. The overarching goal of this dissertation was therefore to expand on established mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver injury to ask innovative questions about mechanisms of alcohol-enhanced acute lung injury, as well as to develop new tools that may ...


Cognitive Impairment And Neuronal Damage In Alzheimer's Disease Are Malleable: Occupational Chlorpyrifos Exposure Exacerbates Phenotypes, While The Neuroprotective Compound P7c3 Ameliorates Effects In A Transgenic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Jaymie Richelle Voorhees 2017 University of Iowa

Cognitive Impairment And Neuronal Damage In Alzheimer's Disease Are Malleable: Occupational Chlorpyrifos Exposure Exacerbates Phenotypes, While The Neuroprotective Compound P7c3 Ameliorates Effects In A Transgenic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Jaymie Richelle Voorhees

Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of peoples’ lives worldwide. While the consequences of AD are recognizable, the etiology is unclear. Gene-environment interactions have been implicated in the development of the disease, and exposure to organophosphorus (OPs) compounds is one of the environmental factors associated with AD. Evidence links exposure to levels of OPs encountered in agriculture, horticulture, and other work places with neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be established. Here, we set out to examine the long-term consequences of exposure to a ...


Enemy Exacerbation: Effects Of Predator Stress On Sulfate Lethality In Freshwater Amphipods (Gammarus Minus), Trevor Chapman 2017 East Tennessee State University

Enemy Exacerbation: Effects Of Predator Stress On Sulfate Lethality In Freshwater Amphipods (Gammarus Minus), Trevor Chapman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Predator cues can influence how aquatic organisms respond to anthropogenic contaminants. This study examined the effects of predator cues on behavior, metabolic rate, and sulfate (as Na2SO4) toxicity in amphipods (Gammarus minus). Predator cues included alarm cue (macerated conspecifics) and kairomone from mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Amphipods decreased activity and increased time in refuge when exposed to alarm cue, and increased time in refuge when exposed to kairomone. While median lethal concentrations (96-h LC50) were not influenced by predator cues, analysis of dose response curves indicated that kairomone exposure increased amphipod sensitivity to mid-range concentrations of sulfate ...


Machinery And Methods For Spraying, Herbert Osborn, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

Machinery And Methods For Spraying, Herbert Osborn, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin

The frequent requests for information as to methods of spraying, the apparatus to be used, and the formulae for preparation of insecticides and fungicides is sufficient reason why we present here a condensed statement of directions for this work.

There are now on the market a number of excellent outfits for spraying adapted to all grades of work, and it would be out of the question to specify any particular one to the exclusion of others as meeting all requirements. We are not under anv obligations to any firm for favors even to the extent ot apparatus for experimental work ...


Experiments With Arsenites, C. P. Gillette 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With Arsenites, C. P. Gillette

Bulletin

Paris green was brought into prominence as an insecticide for the first time in this country in 1869 and London purple in 1877. Arsenious acid (white arsenic) was successfully used for the destruction of the Canker-worm as early as 1875 and is still frequently recommended for the destruction of insects. During these years the arsenites have arisen to the first rank as insect destroyers. They have been largely experimented with by entomologists and widely used by farmers and fruit-growers, and yet there is much difference of opinion as to the proportions in which each may be safely applied to different ...


Preparation Of Insecticides: London Purple And Paris Green, 2017 Iowa State University

Preparation Of Insecticides: London Purple And Paris Green

Bulletin

I speak of these substances first because they are of all insecticides, the most important. There is 110 insect that can take either of these poisons into its system and live, hence their great value for the destruction of leaf-eating insects where the application does not endanger the lives of other beings. The poisonous principal in both of these substances is arsenic of which Paris green contains about fifty-seven per cent, and London purple about forty-seven per cent. This difference should be taken into account when these two poisons are being prepared. It should also be borne in mind that ...


Distribution Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Among Demographic Categories, Giorvanni Merilis 2017 University of South Florida

Distribution Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Among Demographic Categories, Giorvanni Merilis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used within the United States in various products such as plastics, electronics, textiles and furniture. With an increase in production and usage, PBDEs have recently emerged as a contaminant of concern. Due to their chemical structure, PBDEs have the propensity to bioaccumulate in mammals. In fact, elevated PBDE concentrations have been recorded in human breast milk. Due to the potential widespread exposure to PBDEs, this study investigates human blood concentrations of PBDEs generated through the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Through the use of statistical modeling, a comparison of mean ...


Development Of An Automated Method For Selected Aromas Of Red Wines From Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari 2017 Iowa State University and DuPont Crop Protection

Development Of An Automated Method For Selected Aromas Of Red Wines From Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The aroma profile of red wine is complex and research focusing on aroma compounds and their links to viticultural and enological practices is needed. Current research is limited to wines made from cold-hardy cultivars (interspecific hybrids of vinifera and native N. American grapes). The objective of this research was to develop a fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method, using tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-olfactometry for the simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis of volatile/semi-volatile compounds and aroma in cold-hardy red wines. Specifically, the effects of SPME coating selection, extraction time, extraction temperature, incubation time, sample volume, desorption time ...


The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub 2017 Florida International University

The Effect Of Target-Specific Biomolecules In Breast Cancer, Mohannad Garoub

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States and the World, therefore, early effective prevention, diagnosis, and therapy is needed. Estrogens play a major role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Elevated lifetime exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Estrogens through influencing mitochondria contribute to estrogen induced breast carcinogenesis; however, the exact mitochondrial mechanisms underlying the estrogen carcinogenic effect in breast tissue are not clearly understood. For this dissertation, the mitotoxic and cytotoxic effects of triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP) and Origanum majorana organic extract (OME) as well as ...


Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson 2017 Western Kentucky University

Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Amphibian populations have been experiencing rapid declines worldwide in the past few decades. There are many proposed causations, including the use of agricultural chemicals such as herbicides. Glyphosate based herbicides are one of the most widely used herbicides. This study looks at the effects of different brands of glyphosate-based herbicides, including those intended for aquatic use, on the survival and growth of axolotl salamander larvae. Out of four brands of glyphosate herbicide (Aquamaster, Aquaneat, Helosate plus, and Roundup Pro), the survival rates of Roundup Pro were the lowest. Most mortality occurred between the 3 mg/L and 6 mg/L ...


Mitigation Of Livestock Odors Using Black Light And A New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-Of-Concept, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer 2017 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Livestock Odors Using Black Light And A New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-Of-Concept, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Concentrated livestock feeding operations have become a source of odorous gas emissions that impact air quality. Comprehensive and practical technologies are needed for a sustainable mitigation of the emissions. In this study, we advance the concept of using a catalyst for barn walls and ceilings for odor mitigation. Two catalysts, a new TiO2-based catalyst, PureTi Clean, and a conventional Evonik (formerly Degussa, Evonik Industries, Essen, Germany) P25 (average particle size 25 nm) catalyst, were studied for use in reducing simulated odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on a laboratory scale. The UV source was black light. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl ...


A Systematic Investigation Of The Effects Of Chain Length And Ionic Head Group On Perfluoroalkyl Acid Binding To Human Serum Albumin, Jake Ulrich 2017 Union College - Schenectady, NY

A Systematic Investigation Of The Effects Of Chain Length And Ionic Head Group On Perfluoroalkyl Acid Binding To Human Serum Albumin, Jake Ulrich

Honors Theses

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are industrial chemicals used in everyday products ranging from non-stick coatings to fire-fighting foam. PFAAs are contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and are bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic. Unlike other CECs, PFAAs bioaccumulate in areas of high protein concentration, such as the kidneys, liver and blood; therefore, it is vital to study PFAA-protein interactions. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the model protein used for PFAA-protein studies because it is the most abundant protein in the human body and it binds and transports endogenous and exogenous ligands. Previously, researchers have investigated PFAA-HSA binding, but most of these studies have ...


A Validation Of The Detection Of Barbiturates In Hair By Elisa, Alisa M. Valentino 2017 CUNY John Jay College

A Validation Of The Detection Of Barbiturates In Hair By Elisa, Alisa M. Valentino

Student Theses

An original method to extract and detect barbiturates, specifically secobarbital, in hair by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has been developed. Drug-free hair specimens were fortified with an exaggerated amount of secobarbital to produce a homogeneous, true positive sample to be utilized to test the drug extraction efficiency from hair. Drug extraction using hair extraction buffer (HEB) from Immunalysis was compared to a base digestion using 1M NaOH. After LCMS/MS analysis, HEB extraction was deemed a successful method for extracting barbiturates from hair. Using this method, the Barbiturates Direct ELISA Kit from Immunalysis was evaluated for its potential use in ...


Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning 2017 Iowa State University

Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from swine production systems are relatively well researched with the exception of emissions from land application of manure. GHGs inventories are needed for process-based modeling and science-based regulations. Thus, the objective of this observational study was to measure GHG fluxes from land application of swine manure on a typical corn field. Assessment of GHG emissions from deep injected land-applied swine manure, fall and reapplication in the spring, on a typical US Midwestern corn-on-corn farm was completed. Static chambers were used for flux measurement along with gas analysis on a GC-FID-ECD. Measured gas concentrations were used to ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Opioids And Cannabinoids In Wastewater Samples, Alethea Jacox 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Quantitative Analysis Of Opioids And Cannabinoids In Wastewater Samples, Alethea Jacox

Student Theses

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach that uses the analysis of human excretion products in wastewater to obtain information about exposure to drugs in defined population groups. We developed and validated an analytical method for the detection and quantification of opioids (morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone), and cannabinoids (9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor 9-carboxy- tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide) in raw influent wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation included linearity (5–1 000 ng/L for opioids, 10–1 000 ng/L for cannabinoids), imprecision (<21.2%), accuracy (83%–131%), matrix effect (from –35.1% to –14.7%) and extraction efficiency (25%–84%), limit of detection (1–5 ng/L) and quantification (5–10 ng/L) and auto-sampler stability (no loss detected). River, sewage overflow and wastewater samples were collected in triplicate from different locations in New York City and stored at -20 C until analysis. River water samples were negative for all the compounds. Water from sewage overflow location tested positive for morphine (10.7 ng/L), oxycodone (4.2–23.5 ng/L), oxymorphone (4.8 ng/L) and hydromorphone (4.2 ng/L). Wastewater samples tested positive for morphine (133.0– 258.3 ng/L), oxycodone (31.1– 63.6 ng/L), oxymorphone (16.0–56.8 ng/L), hydromorphone (6.8–18.0 ng/L), hydrocodone (4.0– 12.8 ng/L) and THCCOOH (168.2– 772.0 ng/L). This method is sensitive and specific for opioids and marijuana determination in wastewater samples.


Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine von Stackelberg 2017 Western Washington University

Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine Von Stackelberg

Graduate Student Symposium

There are long-standing uncertainties about toxicity of chemical mixtures to populations. Laboratory toxicity tests have confirmed synergistic and antagonistic effects to individuals, but not to populations.We will conduct a regional scale ecological risk assessment by evaluating the effects chemical mixtures to populations with a new Bayesian Network- Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) incorporating an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP). We started applying this new BN-RRM framework in a case study with organophosphate pesticide mixtures (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and malathion). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChE) was chosen the molecular initiating event and the Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionary ...


Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Western snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) are philopatric shorebirds sporadically distributed during the breeding season at saline lake and alkali flat breeding environments of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. The major conservation threat to interior snowy plovers breeding on the SGP derives from anthropogenic modification of breeding environments. The SGP is one of the most intensively cultivated regions in the world, and excessive groundwater mining and resulting deterioration of artesian spring flows reduces site quantity and quality critical for regional successful nesting. Most saline lakes now primarily receive freshwater inputs via irregular precipitation events and ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress