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Examining The Roles Of Genetic And Environmental Factors In Drosophila Melanogaster Hematopoiesis And Innate Immune System, Minkyung Lee 2018 Baruch College

Examining The Roles Of Genetic And Environmental Factors In Drosophila Melanogaster Hematopoiesis And Innate Immune System, Minkyung Lee

Student Theses

Nearly 24 million people are affected by autoimmune diseases in the United States. Main causes of autoimmune diseases have been attributed to genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to chemicals such as hormones and pesticides. Due to the large population that are affected by autoimmune diseases, it is critical to understand the mechanisms behind them. In this study, we sought to explore both genetic and environmental factors that affect hematopoiesis, or the formation of specific blood cells, and immune system in Drosophila melanogaster. As Drosophila melanogaster have conserved pathways of hematopoiesis as humans, they were used as the model organism for ...


Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner 2018 University of Maine

Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollutants released by industrialized nations between 1960 and 2004 have been transported northward through atmospheric processes and deposited into glaciated alpine ecosystems. Many of these chemicals retain their original structure and are absorbed into the biota thousands of miles away from where they were originally utilized. With a warming climate increasing the melt of alpine glaciers, these glaciers may be introducing growing amounts of toxins into the watershed. While studies have demonstrated the existence of resident pollutants within glaciated ecosystems, no one has developed a risk assessment to identify sources and quantity of risk posed by these compounds when released ...


Lead, Copper, And Iron In University Tap Water, Alison McLendon 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Lead, Copper, And Iron In University Tap Water, Alison Mclendon

Honors Theses

This study observed concentrations of lead, copper, and iron in university tap water over an eight-week span during and between the summer and fall semesters. First draw and 30s flush samples were taken after overnight stagnation from the Honor House, College Hall, J. B. George Building, and International Center bathrooms and analyzed with an inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). There was no obvious correlation between time in the semester and metal concentrations. Relative iron levels rose and fell at the same time in all buildings, but there was little correlation between buildings for lead and copper concentrations. The Honor House ...


The Effects Of Heart Medication On The Heart Rates Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Felicia A. Baer 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effects Of Heart Medication On The Heart Rates Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Felicia A. Baer

Honors Program Projects

Background

Current animal models of human cardiac disease may be similar in anatomy and physiology but are often expensive and tedious to work with. The current need is for a model organism that is more efficient to work with in the lab but that still provides an accurate model of human cardiac disease. Drosophila melanogaster (D. mel) is such a candidate. While 74% of the genes coding for protein are conserved between D. mel and human hearts, it is unknown if cardiac medication used in humans, such as atropine and propranolol hydrochloride, similarly affect heart rate. I hypothesized that ...


Utilizing Urinary Biomarkers In Egyptian Adolescent Applicators And Non-Applicators To Characterize Pesticide Exposure To Λ-Cyhalothrin, Α-Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos And Profenofos Applied On Cotton Crops Over Time, Barbara C. Okeke 2018 University of Iowa

Utilizing Urinary Biomarkers In Egyptian Adolescent Applicators And Non-Applicators To Characterize Pesticide Exposure To Λ-Cyhalothrin, Α-Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos And Profenofos Applied On Cotton Crops Over Time, Barbara C. Okeke

Theses and Dissertations

Organophosphates (OPs) and Pyrethroids (PYRs) are widely used pesticides in both agricultural and non-agricultural environments. In agricultural work settings, typically more than one pesticide is used in combination, or sequentially, to kill pests. There is currently a gap in research that looks at how exposures to multiple pesticides can impact human health – particularly among adolescents who work in these environments. The goal of this dissertation research was to examine the use of OP (chlorpyrifos, and profenofos) and PYR (λ-Cyhalothrin, α-Cypermethrin) pesticides across an application season and how exposure is associated with symptoms and cholinesterase enzyme activity, and to examine the ...


A Model To Study The Effects Of Whole Life Chronic Exposure To Arsenic Or Cadmium On The Development Of Adult Metabolic Syndrome : Initial Characterization Of Hepatic Changes., Jamie L. Young 2018 University of Louisville

A Model To Study The Effects Of Whole Life Chronic Exposure To Arsenic Or Cadmium On The Development Of Adult Metabolic Syndrome : Initial Characterization Of Hepatic Changes., Jamie L. Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of diseases affecting < 30% of adults. Although obesity is a major risk for the development of MetS, it does not account for all cases, suggesting contribution of other risk factors. We hypothesized that early life exposure to arsenic (As) or cadmium (Cd) may represent such a risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize a model to discern the effects of early life exposures to Cd and As on high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. Adult C57BL/6J mice were exposed to control or metals containing drinking water. Pregnant dams and offspring were continuously exposed to the same toxicants as their parents. At weaning, offspring were fed LFD or HFD and sacrificed 10 or 24 weeks later. Metal exposure caused time- and sex-dependent alterations in HFD-induced variables of liver damage. The initial results suggest that these toxicants enhanced obesity-induced liver injury.


Vinyl Chloride Enhances Diet-Induced Liver Injury Via Metabolic Dyshomeostasis : Critical Role Of Mitochondria., Anna L. Lang 2018 University of Louisville

Vinyl Chloride Enhances Diet-Induced Liver Injury Via Metabolic Dyshomeostasis : Critical Role Of Mitochondria., Anna L. Lang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background. Vinyl chloride (VC) is an environmental toxicant and has been shown to be directly hepatotoxic at high exposures. However, recent studies suggest low-level toxicant exposure can cause subtle changes to the liver. Given the high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States, it is important to determine the impact of low-level toxicant exposure on the progression of underlying liver injury when combined with other factors. Therefore, the overarching goal of this dissertation was to develop a model of VC co-exposure with high-fat diet (HFD) and to determine the mechanisms by which VC contributes to the ...


The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi 2018 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are detectable in serum of 100% of adults in US, and has been associated with fatty liver disease in epidemiological studies. PCBs are classified as either dioxin-like (DL) or non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB based on their ability to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We used exposures that reflect human bioaccumulation patterns, which resembles Aroclor 1260 with a low level of the DL-PCB, PCB 126. Our aim was to determine if this exposure will activate the human and mouse AhR and examine if receptor activation influences these steatotic responses due to PCB exposures. DL-PCBs exposure-induced AhR activation in ...


Effects Of Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley 2018 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Effects Of Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely used compound found in everything from food packaging to sunscreens. When ingested, TiO2 is readily transported across membranes and efficiently stored within cells. Previous studies showed that exposure to TiO2 results in underdeveloped nervous systems. For our study, we attempted to answer the following question: Will exposing Drosophila melanogaster larvae to TiO2 affect expression of the Neur gene and development of the central nervous system? The Neur gene is crucial during the cell-determination stage of development as its encoded protein helps specify neuroblast development and aids in nervous system and sensory organ development. It ...


Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophilia Melanogaster, Brandon J. Adair, Tamra E. Jones 2018 Carroll College - Helena

Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophilia Melanogaster, Brandon J. Adair, Tamra E. Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Manganese is prevalent in Montana, and Manganese toxicity symptomatically resembles Parkinson’s disease. The goal of this project was to determine whether exposure to high levels of Manganese affects the Dopamine synthesis pathway. For our experiment, we chose to measure the expression of the ple gene in Drosophila melanogaster that were exposed to Manganese during development. The ple gene codes for Tyrosine Hydroxylase, an enzyme that functions in the first rate-limiting step of Dopamine synthesis. We hypothesized that an abundance of Manganese would result in decreased expression of ple in larvae and observable motor function deficits among adult flies. In ...


Evaluating The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor As A Target For Pharmacologic Activity Of Repurposed Drugs, Teofilo Borunda Duque 2018 University of New Mexico

Evaluating The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor As A Target For Pharmacologic Activity Of Repurposed Drugs, Teofilo Borunda Duque

Pharmaceutical Sciences ETDs

The discovery of new pharmacologic targets is important for the advancement of pharmacotherapy and identification of new indications for current drugs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a physiologic sensor of both chemical environmental pollutants and ligands of natural origin. Given the broad spectrum of ligands that activate the AHR and its relationship with toxicology, the AHR is not thought to be a traditional target for pharmacotherapy. However, multiple studies have shown potential for the AHR as a novel pharmacologic target Therefore, identifying less toxic agents that modulate the AHR may elucidate mechanisms for pharmacological targeting of the AHR. The ...


Development And Application Of Aquatic Toxicology Studies For The Assessment Of Impacts Due To Chemical Stressors Using Non-Standard Indigenous Organisms, Abraham Jeffrey Smith 2018 Florida International University

Development And Application Of Aquatic Toxicology Studies For The Assessment Of Impacts Due To Chemical Stressors Using Non-Standard Indigenous Organisms, Abraham Jeffrey Smith

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research in the multidisciplinary science of ecotoxicology is crucial to assess injuries to ecosystem resources from chemical spills or other stressors used to support environmental decision-making. Established guidelines recommend the use of non-standard native species in toxicity investigations. This work focused on the use of native species for aquatic toxicity assessment to make more relevant conclusions on the potential for adverse biological effects to occur as a result to single chemical exposures or exposures to a complex mixture like oil. We apply these studies to investigate petroleum product impacts from the Deepwater Horizon incident and concerns for metal toxicity in ...


Effects Of Radiation On Neurite Morphology And Cytoskeleton Structure, Melissa Sassman 2018 University of Southern Maine

Effects Of Radiation On Neurite Morphology And Cytoskeleton Structure, Melissa Sassman

Student Scholarship

Long-term manned space exploration to the moon, Mars, and other areas beyond Earth's protective magnetic field poses possible acute and late central nervous systems (CNS) risks. Of particular concern for astronauts is exposure to high atomic number, high energy particles known as HZE particles, a component of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Although NASA has radiation safety requirements, the possible effects of GCR and HZE particles on the central nervous systems of astronauts remains unknown. Understanding the risks and effects of galactic cosmic radiation and HZE particles on the central nervous system will allow for safer space exploration.

Additionally, and ...


The Effects Of Uv Radiation On Metarhizium Anisopliae, Victoria Hill 2018 Carroll College, Helena, MT

The Effects Of Uv Radiation On Metarhizium Anisopliae, Victoria Hill

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The development of fungal insecticides as biological control agents provides a safer, more natural approach to pest control than chemical insecticides. Metarhizium anisopliae, one of the most widely used mycoinsecticides, is one fungal species of high economic potential in current use. However, a rapid decrease in pathogen activity in the field due to ultraviolet radiation presents a problem for efficacy and further adoption by farmers. The present study seeks to determine if certain strains of M. anisopliae are more tolerant of UV radiation, thus providing the potential for higher effectiveness in the field. Utilizing a novel method for examining fungal ...


Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. McLeod, Eric S. Vanzant 2018 University of Kentucky

Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison. Norepinephrine normalized percent contractile response ...


Fate Of Methoprene In Temperate Salt Marsh Ditches Following Aerial Applications, David J. Tonjes, Anne E. McElroy, Robin K. Barnes, Dominick V. Ninivaggi, Walter Dawydiak, Gregory T. Greene, Bruce J. Brownawell 2018 Department of Technology and Society

Fate Of Methoprene In Temperate Salt Marsh Ditches Following Aerial Applications, David J. Tonjes, Anne E. Mcelroy, Robin K. Barnes, Dominick V. Ninivaggi, Walter Dawydiak, Gregory T. Greene, Bruce J. Brownawell

Technology & Society Faculty Publications

Aerial applications of liquid methoprene are used in salt marshes to control mosquitoes by preventing adult emergence. Despite concern about toxicity to non-target organisms, little is known about environmental concentrations after applications, nor methoprene's persistence in salt marsh environments. Aqueous and sediment samples were collected from two marshes receiving weekly applications. Aqueous samples were collected as early as 30 minutes after applications and as long as nine days afterwards; sediment samples were taken within hours of application and as long as 19 days post-application. Use of time-of-flight liquid chromatography – mass spectral analysis allowed for ultra low detection limits (0 ...


Regulation Of Radioactive Fracking Waste, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Nichole LeClair 2018 CUNY School of Public Health

Regulation Of Radioactive Fracking Waste, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Nichole Leclair

Publications and Research

Natural gas extracted form shale reached record production totals in 2015 in the United States and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts natural gas production will continue to increase. Wastes from shale gas extraction can contain the radioactive isotopes radium-226 (Ra-226) and radium-228 (Ra-228), which decay further into radon (Rn). Exposure to radon, a form of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), is the leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, after smoking. This article explores how states handle the disposal of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) and/or NORM waste from oil and gas operations ...


Sensitivity Of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) To Cyanobacteria At Multiple Life History Stages, Anna Boegehold 2018 Wayne State University

Sensitivity Of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena Rostriformis Bugensis) To Cyanobacteria At Multiple Life History Stages, Anna Boegehold

Wayne State University Dissertations

Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) originate from brackish waters of the Ponto-Caspian area and are nuisance invasive species in North American and European freshwaters. Their invasion has caused major economic and ecological damages in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Through selective filter feeding, quagga mussels have promoted the growth of cyanobacteria. Harmful cyanobacteria blooms have the potential to produce toxins, which can be toxic to humans and wildlife. Although quagga mussels can increase the prevalence of cyanobacteria blooms, it is unknown how they are physiologically affected by cyanobacteria and understanding these dynamics can be useful in the management of this invasive ...


Test Of Bpa's Estrogenic Effects On Brain Aromatase Expression, Neural Activity, And Locomotive Behavior In Zebrafish Larvae, Ryan J. McAuley 2018 Humboldt State University

Test Of Bpa's Estrogenic Effects On Brain Aromatase Expression, Neural Activity, And Locomotive Behavior In Zebrafish Larvae, Ryan J. Mcauley

Theses and projects

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical that mimics the effects of estrogens. Aromatase B (Cyp19a1b) is a brain-specific enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen and is highly upregulated in response to estrogen receptor activation localized to radial glial cells. During embryonic zebrafish development, there is a small window of time denoted by an increase in neurogenesis and estrogen receptor activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that a low dose BPA exposure (0.1µM) during this window causes hyperlocomotion in larval zebrafish, yet no further explanation for this behavior change has been described. The purpose of this study was ...


The Forensic Characterization Of Bacterial And Fungal Organisms In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Julia Grzymkowski, Christopher J. Ehrhardt, Justin L. Poklis, Michelle R. Peace 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Forensic Characterization Of Bacterial And Fungal Organisms In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Julia Grzymkowski, Christopher J. Ehrhardt, Justin L. Poklis, Michelle R. Peace

Undergraduate Research Posters

There has been an increase in use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the United States because they are less expensive and believed to be more effective with less adverse effects in comparison to traditional pharmaceutics. Therefore, sales have increased in the US, despite articles and case studies demonstrating the dangers, such as injury and death, related to TCM, stemming from improper labelling, toxic contaminants, and, in some cases, the presence of pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to perform a survival experiment to demonstrate the importance of proper herbal brewing technique and to conduct a molecular and ...


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