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Neurobehavioral Evaluation Of Mice Dosed With Water Hemlock Green Seeds And Tubers, Camila F. P. Orlando-Goulart, Kevin D. Welch, James A. Pfister, Daniel S. Goulart, Adilson D. Damasceno, Stephen T. Lee 2018 Federal University of Goiás

Neurobehavioral Evaluation Of Mice Dosed With Water Hemlock Green Seeds And Tubers, Camila F. P. Orlando-Goulart, Kevin D. Welch, James A. Pfister, Daniel S. Goulart, Adilson D. Damasceno, Stephen T. Lee

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Water hemlock are plants of the genus Cicuta and are toxic to animals and humans. The primary toxin is cicutoxin, which is abundant in the tubers, but less abundant in other parts of the plant. Other cicutoxin-like compounds, such as cicutols, which may also contribute to the toxicity of water hemlock, are more abundant in non-tuber plant parts. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of different parts of water hemlock and characterize their effects on motor function/coordination in mice. An aqueous extract of green seeds, dry seeds, tubers, flowers and stems of water hemlock was ...


Remobilization Of Heavy Metals By Mangrove Leaves, Hanan Almahasheer, Oscar Serrano, Carlos M. Duarte, Xabier Irigoien 2018 Edith Cowan University

Remobilization Of Heavy Metals By Mangrove Leaves, Hanan Almahasheer, Oscar Serrano, Carlos M. Duarte, Xabier Irigoien

ECU Publications Post 2013

Several studies have been carried out on heavy metal pollution in mangrove ecosystems. However, the role of mangroves in heavy metal remobilization is still relatively unknown. On one side, mangrove woody organs and soils sequester heavy metals for long time periods, but on the other hand, senescence of mangrove leaves may return these metals collected by roots to the upper layers of the soil. Here, we analyzed the concentration of chemical elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) as a function of age in mangrove leaves to understand heavy metals retention by ...


Optimization Of Vegetative Filter Strips For Mitigation Of Runoff From Golf Course Turf, Barbara DeFlorio 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Optimization Of Vegetative Filter Strips For Mitigation Of Runoff From Golf Course Turf, Barbara Deflorio

Masters Theses

ABSTRACT

OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS FOR MITIGATION OF RUNOFF FROM GOLF TURF

SEPTEMBER 2017

BARBARA A. DEFLORIO, B.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Professor John M. Clark

Many pesticides are listed as possible or probable human carcinogens, leading to a public concern over their environmental impact. Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have been developed to intercept runoff water and prevent pesticides from contaminating surface and ground water.

The first half of this project identified five plants (big blue stem, blue flag iris, eastern gama grass, prairie cord grass and wool grass) that best removed pesticides from contaminated soil ...


Modulation Of The Redox Environment During Sensitive Developmental Periods Impairs Pancreatic Organogenesis In The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Haydee Jacobs 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Modulation Of The Redox Environment During Sensitive Developmental Periods Impairs Pancreatic Organogenesis In The Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Haydee Jacobs

Masters Theses

The developing pancreas has been identified as a potentially sensitive target for oxidative damage caused by environmental toxicant exposure in the developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the effects of exposure to a common pro-oxidizing toxicant, Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), on pancreatic development, and 2) elucidate redox-sensitive temporal windows of pancreatic organogenesis in the zebrafish. We also investigated the involvement of Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), a transcription factor involved in the oxidative stress response, in toxicant-mediated pancreatic toxicity. In aim one, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0 or 200 µg/L MEHP beginning at 3 ...


The Combined Effects Of Atrazine And Tetracycline On Primary Producers And Zooplankton In Freshwater Microcosms, Madison R. Kelly 2018 Georgia Southern University

The Combined Effects Of Atrazine And Tetracycline On Primary Producers And Zooplankton In Freshwater Microcosms, Madison R. Kelly

University Honors Program Theses

Widespread use of agrochemicals such as herbicides and antibiotics increases their likelihood of entering aquatic systems in mixture. Despite different modes of action, atrazine (herbicide) and tetracycline (antibiotic) adversely affect non-target photosynthetic organisms, such algae and macrophytes, with the potential to reduce food availability to higher trophic levels. However, the effects of simultaneous exposure to both contaminants have yet to be determined. I hypothesized that a mixture of atrazine and tetracycline affects freshwater communities differently than each compound alone. A microcosm experiment was conducted to test effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine (1 μg L-1) and tetracycline (1 ...


Interplay Between Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Epigenetic Alterations In Environmental Linked Parkinson's Disease, Adhithiya Charli Manohar Charle 2018 Iowa State University

Interplay Between Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Epigenetic Alterations In Environmental Linked Parkinson's Disease, Adhithiya Charli Manohar Charle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic age progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects about 1% of people over the age of 60. The hallmark pathological features of PD is characterized by the loss of 60-70% dopaminergic neurons, formation of Lewy bodies and aggregation of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra of the midbrain region. There are multiple factors that contribute to the origin of the disease and also these factors further trigger an avalanche of pathways, thus prominently increasing the risk of incurring PD. Although the etiopathology of PD is not very well understood, growing evidences on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative ...


The Effects Of The Red Tide Producing Dinoflagellate, Karenia Brevis, And Associated Brevetoxins On Viability And Sublethal Stress Responses In Scleractinian Coral: A Potential Regional Stressor To Coral Reefs, David A. Reynolds 2018 University of North Florida

The Effects Of The Red Tide Producing Dinoflagellate, Karenia Brevis, And Associated Brevetoxins On Viability And Sublethal Stress Responses In Scleractinian Coral: A Potential Regional Stressor To Coral Reefs, David A. Reynolds

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Coral cover is in decline on a global scale, with increased mortality events being attributed to a number of global and regional stressors. While the impacts of global stressors (e.g. sea surface temperature rise, ocean acidification) are well documented, there is growing interest in identifying and understanding the impacts of regional stressors. The reason for this change in focus is that regional stressors can often work in combination, sometimes synergistically, with global stressors and that stressors on a regional scale tend to be more easily mitigated by management practices. One regional stressor that impacts a myriad of marine organisms ...


Forensic Markers Of Lampricide Toxicity In Oncorhynchsus Mykiss, Chris White 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Forensic Markers Of Lampricide Toxicity In Oncorhynchsus Mykiss, Chris White

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used for decades to control invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes, normally with little harm to other fish populations. However, due to the nature of lampricide treatments and the chemical properties of TFM, adverse effects to non-target fishes and non-target mortality occasionally occur. However, investigations of non-target mortality can be complex, particularly if fish deaths are not noticed immediately, due to decomposition of the carcasses. The objectives of this thesis were to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchsus mykiss) to TFM in order to: (i) identify forensic markers of lampricide toxicity and ...


Physiological And Molecular Changes Across The Lifespan Following Developmental Chemical Exposure, Frances Xin 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Physiological And Molecular Changes Across The Lifespan Following Developmental Chemical Exposure, Frances Xin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Early life environment can impact disease risk later in life, a concept known as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Furthermore, the effects may persist across several generations of offspring. The underlying molecular dysregulation driving these phenotypes, however, remain unknown. Using the ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) bisphenol A (BPA) as a model estrogen, we investigated the physiological and molecular consequences of chronic, low-dose developmental BPA exposure across the lifespan, using a mouse model system. To assess the transmission of phenotypes across generations, we examined physiological endpoints across two generations of offspring in each study. In Chapter 2 ...


Fumonisin B1 In Bt And Non-Bt Maize: A Meta-Analysis, Kayla Cappelle 2018 Iowa State University

Fumonisin B1 In Bt And Non-Bt Maize: A Meta-Analysis, Kayla Cappelle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fumonisins are a class of mycotoxins that are of interest due to their occurrence in feed and food grains at concentrations which may be adverse to the health of humans and animals. The presence and mitigation of fumonisin has been a topic of widespread study, but the meta-effect of Bt maize as a method of mitigation has not been fully established in terms of the probable incidence and magnitude of mitigation achieved regionally over time.

A systematic review of agronomic data and subsequent meta-analysis were used to develop a more complete understanding of fumonisin B1 (FB1) levels regionally over several ...


Comparison Of Trace Mineral Concentrations Between Liver Biopsies Of Different Sizes And Durations Of Storage By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Scott Louis Radke 2018 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Trace Mineral Concentrations Between Liver Biopsies Of Different Sizes And Durations Of Storage By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Scott Louis Radke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consequential adverse health effects in cattle may occur as a result of impaired physiological processes brought on by trace mineral (TM) deficiencies and toxicities. Small amounts of TM are necessary to facilitate these processes, but inadequate or excessive concentrations can result in reduced health and development. Ante mortem sampling of bovine hepatic tissue allows for the evaluation of TM status, specifically copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), permitting diagnosis of such deficiencies or toxicities. Variation in sample size as a result of differing biopsy instruments and techniques has led to conflict regarding the amount of liver considered ...


Testing The Underlying Chemical Principles Of The Biotic Ligand Model (Blm) To Marine Copper Systems: Measuring Copper Speciation Using Fluorescence Quenching, Tara N. Tait, James C. McGeer, Scott Smith 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

Testing The Underlying Chemical Principles Of The Biotic Ligand Model (Blm) To Marine Copper Systems: Measuring Copper Speciation Using Fluorescence Quenching, Tara N. Tait, James C. Mcgeer, Scott Smith

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Speciation of copper in marine systems strongly influences the ability of copper to cause toxicity. Natural organic matter (NOM) contains many binding sites which provides a protective effect on copper toxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize copper binding with NOM using fluorescence quenching techniques. Fluorescence quenching of NOM with copper was performed on nine sea water samples. The resulting stability con- stants and binding capacities were consistent with literature values of marine NOM, show- ing strong binding with log K values from 7.64 to 10.2 and binding capacities ranging from 15 to 3110 nmole mg ...


Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler 2017 Seton Hall University

Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), constituents of crude oil, are implicated as a potent source of adverse toxicological effects on living organisms. To model the effects of PAHs in response to environmental oil spill disasters a species of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was captured and exposed to crude oil in a laboratory-controlled setting. Over a period of 7 days, fish were dosed with crude oil by gavage, culled, and organs were harvested for analysis. Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) of gall bladder tissue homogenates was used to verify exposure. Effects of PAHs on the p53 gene were evaluated as an indicator of genotoxicity ...


Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali

Theses & Dissertations

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with hormone function and are increasingly detected in aquatic environments, where they elicit adverse effects from exposed organisms. The toxicological effects of EDCs can be described as either activational (reversible) or organizational (irreversible), where the latter are associated with adverse outcomes in reproductive performance of adult fish. However, few studies have investigated the organizational impacts of anti-estrogenic or “defeminizing” EDCs, e.g. agrichemicals or pharmacological agents, in an environmentally-relevant or “sentinel” species. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of early-life EDC-initiated changes in estrogenic gene expression on organizational ...


Identification And Quantification Of Cyanide And Its Metabolites In Lemur Urine, Jeremy Peralta 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Identification And Quantification Of Cyanide And Its Metabolites In Lemur Urine, Jeremy Peralta

Student Theses

Cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the monovalent groups of carbon and nitrogen. This substance is considered a rapidly acting deadly chemical. However, some animals such as lemurs consume food products that are known to contain elevated levels of cyanide without major consequences. The mechanism by which the lemur can handle this high exposure to cyanide is unknown. In this study, we developed and validated two analytical methods for the determination of cyanide and two metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in lemur urine. The method was applied to 47 authentic lemur urine samples collected from 4 different species ...


Age-Related Host Factors Regulate Lung Cancer Progression., John Caleb Greenwell 2017 University of Louisville

Age-Related Host Factors Regulate Lung Cancer Progression., John Caleb Greenwell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is largely a disease of the elderly. In the United States alone, 87% of all cancers in 2017 will be diagnosed in individuals aged 50 years or older. Among them, lung cancer is the deadliest, accounting for 1 in 4 cancer deaths. The 5-year survival rate is below 20%, a number which has not changed substantially over the past several decades. This underscores a desperate need for new strategies in prevention, early detection and treatment of this deadly disease. While tobacco use is unquestionably the number one risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the majority of diagnoses ...


A Historical Assessment Of Asbestos Exposure, Abatement Methods And Containment Efficacy During Asbestos Containing Material Removal Activities At A Large Federal Facility, Daniel A. Newfang 2017 University of South Florida

A Historical Assessment Of Asbestos Exposure, Abatement Methods And Containment Efficacy During Asbestos Containing Material Removal Activities At A Large Federal Facility, Daniel A. Newfang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Asbestos sampling and monitoring data, starting from 2003, located in a large federal facility’s Asbestos Air Database Management (AADM) repository will be queried and analyzed on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations generated from abatement activities of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) and asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM). Historically, concerns expressed by personnel outside of the containment areas, whether adjacent to or quite a distance from the asbestos abatement activities present operational challenges for the project manager, potential angst and uneasiness to personnel residing next to the abatement activity as well as programmatic concerns to the building/facility managers. The concerned individuals working outside ...


Multigeneration Effects Of Chronic Exposure To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Gulf Killifish (Fundulus Grandis), Andrea Yammine 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Multigeneration Effects Of Chronic Exposure To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Gulf Killifish (Fundulus Grandis), Andrea Yammine

LSU Master's Theses

The goal of this study was to examine potential adaptation within two generations of Gulf killifish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) while also investigating the use of mucus as an effective and non-lethal alternative to determine concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and vitellogenin (VTG) of F. grandis. Multiple biomarkers were used to assess adaptation within these fish, such as lysozyme (enzyme critical in innate immunity), and 11-ketotestosterone and vitellogenin (endocrine hormones often affected by PAHs).

Mucal concentrations of 11-KT and VTG were determined and evaluated for effectiveness through comparative assays with blood plasma. This method was then applied to evaluate ...


Method For Sampling And Analysis Of Volatile Biomarkers In Process Gas From Aerobic Digestion Of Poultry Carcasses Using Time-Weighted Average Spme And Gc–Ms, Jacek A. Koziel, Lam T. Nguyen, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) van Leeuwen 2017 Iowa State University

Method For Sampling And Analysis Of Volatile Biomarkers In Process Gas From Aerobic Digestion Of Poultry Carcasses Using Time-Weighted Average Spme And Gc–Ms, Jacek A. Koziel, Lam T. Nguyen, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) – gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick’s first law of diffusion were within 6.6–12.3% of experimentally controlled values after accounting for VOC adsorption to the SPME fiber housing. Method ...


Effects Of Carboxylated Nanodiamonds On Macrophages During And After Differentiation, Maisoun E. Bani Hani 2017 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Carboxylated Nanodiamonds On Macrophages During And After Differentiation, Maisoun E. Bani Hani

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Nanodiamonds (ND) are a carbon-based nanomaterial that are increasingly being proposed for developing novel imaging techniques, as carriers of biomolecules and therapeutic drugs, as coatings for implants, and for other biomedical applications. The exceptional chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of ND make this material suitable in a wide range of fields. The application of ND in the biomedical field is attractive but requires more in-depth investigation into the safety of ND and its interactions with different cells and systems. The effects of ND on the immune system are not fully understood or investigated and there are several controverting reports regarding ...


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