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Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell 2018 East Tennessee State University

Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As HIV is now primarily a chronic condition, treatment is given life-long with changes as necessitated by alterations in tolerability and efficacy. Thus, personalized medicine may be useful in the prevention of unnecessary drug exposure and avoidable side effects. Three of the four currently available HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir, are widely utilized antiretrovirals in the USA and exhibit variations in outcomes among subjects. To interrogate differences among subjects receiving these drugs, we investigated the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with drug exposure, clinical outcomes, and subject-reported adverse events. HIV+ adults (≥18 years ...


Anti-Tumor Activity Of Phenoxybenzamine And Its Inhibition Of Histone Deacetylases, Mario A. Inchiosa 2018 New York Medical College

Anti-Tumor Activity Of Phenoxybenzamine And Its Inhibition Of Histone Deacetylases, Mario A. Inchiosa

NYMC Faculty Publications

The principal finding from this study was the recognition that the α-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, possesses histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Phenoxybenzamine is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypertensive crises associated with tumors of the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas. It has several "off label" indications relative to its capacity to relax vascular smooth muscle and smooth muscle of the urogenital tract. The drug also has a long history of apparent efficacy in ameliorating, and perhaps reversing, the severe symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Our interest in this feature of the drug relates to the fact ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency., Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2018 George Washington University

Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency., Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in ...


Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria 2018 Duquesne University

Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess if a novel combination of melatonin and three other natural bone-aiding micronutrients: strontium citrate, vitamins D3 and K2 (MSDK) could improve bone health by modulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of balanced bone remodeling and by improving the overall health-related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women.

Methods: The Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS) is a translational research study that used both clinical and in vitro approaches to assess the efficacy of MSDK on bone health in women and to identify potential mechanisms for its effects ...


Disruption Of Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Physiology Following Exposure To Bisphenol-A., Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack 2018 George Washington University

Disruption Of Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Physiology Following Exposure To Bisphenol-A., Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Bisphenol chemicals are commonly used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics, polyvinyl chloride plastics, resins, and thermal printing applications. Humans are inadvertently exposed to bisphenols through contact with consumer products and/or medical devices. Recent reports have shown a link between bisphenol-a (BPA) exposure and adverse cardiovascular outcomes; although these studies have been limited to adult subjects and models. Since cardiac physiology differs significantly between the developing and adult heart, we aimed to assess the impact of BPA exposure on cardiac function, using a neonatal cardiomyocyte model. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were monitored to assess cell viability, spontaneous beating rate ...


Protocol Development In The Or: Lessons Learned, Megan Sims 2018 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Protocol Development In The Or: Lessons Learned, Megan Sims

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

The management of pain in those undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is complex and challenging. There have been advances in the understanding of the physiology of pain and a wide variety of treatment options are now available. Establishing a preventative multi-modal protocol with different types of pain medications that work on a variety of receptors along the pain pathway is imperative. Through an exhaustive literature review, a preventative multi-modal approach was established and introduced at a small hospital in Central Illinois available for all laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients undergoing surgery over a 10 week implementation period. There was only one completed case ...


Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann 2018 College of William and Mary

Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are a class of neuropeptides that are associated with homeostatic functions, such as food intake, sexual behavior, and the sleep/wake cycle. Orexins also play a pivotal role in cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In the present experiment, we employed a visual attention task to assess the effects of intranasal administration of orexin A in rats. This task required the rats to discriminate between trials when a visual light was illuminated from trials when the light was not illuminated. We tested the efficacy of this administration technique to see its viability as a therapeutic in attention disorders ...


The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi 2018 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are detectable in serum of 100% of adults in US, and has been associated with fatty liver disease in epidemiological studies. PCBs are classified as either dioxin-like (DL) or non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB based on their ability to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We used exposures that reflect human bioaccumulation patterns, which resembles Aroclor 1260 with a low level of the DL-PCB, PCB 126. Our aim was to determine if this exposure will activate the human and mouse AhR and examine if receptor activation influences these steatotic responses due to PCB exposures. DL-PCBs exposure-induced AhR activation in ...


Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Two Curcuminoids And Cisplatin On Cancer Cell Migration, Blaine Patty 2018 Western Kentucky University

Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Two Curcuminoids And Cisplatin On Cancer Cell Migration, Blaine Patty

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Cisplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used to treat various cancers; however, it is relatively ineffective against many cancers, including several types of lung cancer. One approach that could improve cisplatin’s effect is to combine it with another drug that produces a synergistic response greater than either drug alone. Curcumin, a naturally occurring plant compound, has been investigated for synergisms in conjunction with cisplatin chemotherapy, but curcumin use is hampered by its low bioavailability. This project investigated whether two synthetic curcumin analogs, EF-24 and CLEFMA (curcuminoids), which have greater solubility than curcumin, could, when combined with cisplatin, decrease the ...


Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Two Curcuminoids And Cisplatin On Cancer Cell Reactive Oxygen Species, Matthew Millay 2018 Western Kentucky University

Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Two Curcuminoids And Cisplatin On Cancer Cell Reactive Oxygen Species, Matthew Millay

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Cisplatin is an anticancer drug which can cause the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill cancer cells. Curcumin is a naturally occurring plant compound that can increase ROS levels in cancer cells and enhance the activity of cisplatin against cancer, but it exhibits poor bioavailability. We investigated whether two synthetic curcumin analogs (curcuminoids), EF-24 and CLEFMA, with anti-cancer activity and improved bioavailability, increased cisplatin’s effect against cancer. A spectrophotometric fluorescent ROS assay was used to determine if cisplatin, the curcuminoids or combinations of cisplatin with a curcuminoid affected the level of ROS in the A549 non-small cell ...


Evaluating The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor As A Target For Pharmacologic Activity Of Repurposed Drugs, Teofilo Borunda Duque 2018 University of New Mexico

Evaluating The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor As A Target For Pharmacologic Activity Of Repurposed Drugs, Teofilo Borunda Duque

Pharmaceutical Sciences ETDs

The discovery of new pharmacologic targets is important for the advancement of pharmacotherapy and identification of new indications for current drugs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a physiologic sensor of both chemical environmental pollutants and ligands of natural origin. Given the broad spectrum of ligands that activate the AHR and its relationship with toxicology, the AHR is not thought to be a traditional target for pharmacotherapy. However, multiple studies have shown potential for the AHR as a novel pharmacologic target Therefore, identifying less toxic agents that modulate the AHR may elucidate mechanisms for pharmacological targeting of the AHR. The ...


Refrigerated Stability Of Diluted Cisatracurium, Rocuronium, And Vecuronium For Skin Testing After Perioperative Anaphylaxis, Kristen Dinsmore, Bethany Campbell, Timothy Archibald, Greg Mosier, Stacy Brown PhD, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada MD 2018 East Tennessee State University

Refrigerated Stability Of Diluted Cisatracurium, Rocuronium, And Vecuronium For Skin Testing After Perioperative Anaphylaxis, Kristen Dinsmore, Bethany Campbell, Timothy Archibald, Greg Mosier, Stacy Brown Phd, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada Md

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Rationale: The purpose of this study is to investigate the stored stability of dilutions of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), namely cisatracurium, rocuronium, and vecuronium, for skin prick/intradermal testing.

Methods: Concentrations of NMBAs were monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for a period of 14 days. Dilutions of NMBAs were prepared in saline by factors of 10x, 100x, 1,000x, 10,000x, and 100,000x as sensitivity of the assay allowed. Diluted drug products were stored in a laboratory refrigerator until sampling. On sampling days, aliquots of each dilution were removed and compared to a freshly prepared set of ...


Ambiguities In The Efficacy Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors In The Treatment Of Depression, Stephanie Giblin 2018 Sacred Heart University

Ambiguities In The Efficacy Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors In The Treatment Of Depression, Stephanie Giblin

Writing Across the Curriculum

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most debilitating mental illness worldwide. Primary treatment of MDD is the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Deemed as the safest psychotropic drug thus far, SSRIs have been shown to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance the quality of life in youth, adult and geriatric populations. However, with rising numbers of individuals taking maintenance doses of SSRIs for five or more years, researchers are beginning to discover severe adverse side effects associated with prolonged treatment. The overall risks of long-term SSRI therapy include tachyphylaxis, tardive dysphoria, structural neurological abnormalities and suicide. SSRIs also have ...


Ajulemic Acid: Potential Treatment For Chronic Inflammation, Sumner Burstein 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ajulemic Acid: Potential Treatment For Chronic Inflammation, Sumner Burstein

Open Access Articles

Ajulemic acid (AJA, CT-3, IP-751, JBT-101, anabasum) is a first-in-class, synthetic, orally active, cannabinoid-derived drug that preferentially binds to the CB2 receptor and is nonpsychoactive. In preclinical studies, and in Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials, AJA showed a favorable safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile. It also demonstrated significant efficacy in preclinical models of inflammation and fibrosis. It suppresses tissue scarring and stimulates endogenous eicosanoids that resolve chronic inflammation and fibrosis without causing immunosuppression. AJA is currently being developed for use in 4 separate but related indications including systemic sclerosis (SSc), cystic fibrosis, dermatomyositis (DM), and systemic lupus erythematosus. Phase ...


Naltrexone And Bupropion Combination Treatment For Smoking Cessation And Weight Loss In Patients With Schizophrenia, Xuechan Lyu, Jiang Du, Guilai Zhan, Yujie Wu, Hang Su, Youwei Zhu, Fredrik Jarskog, Min Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan 2018 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Naltrexone And Bupropion Combination Treatment For Smoking Cessation And Weight Loss In Patients With Schizophrenia, Xuechan Lyu, Jiang Du, Guilai Zhan, Yujie Wu, Hang Su, Youwei Zhu, Fredrik Jarskog, Min Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan

Open Access Articles

Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group). Body weight, body mass index ...


Biology Of Platelet Purinergic Receptors And Implications For Platelet Heterogeneity, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Katya Ravid 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Biology Of Platelet Purinergic Receptors And Implications For Platelet Heterogeneity, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Katya Ravid

Open Access Articles

Platelets are small anucleated cells present only in mammals. Platelets mediate intravascular hemostatic balance, prevent interstitial bleeding, and have a major role in thrombosis. Activation of platelet purinergic receptors is instrumental in initiation of hemostasis and formation of the hemostatic plug, although this activation process becomes problematic in pathological settings of thrombosis. This review briefly outlines the roles and function of currently known platelet purinergic receptors (P1 and P2) in the setting of hemostasis and thrombosis. Additionally, we discuss recent novel studies on purinergic receptor distribution according to heterogeneous platelet size, and the possible implication of this distribution on hemostatic ...


The Forensic Characterization Of Bacterial And Fungal Organisms In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Julia Grzymkowski, Christopher J. Ehrhardt, Justin L. Poklis, Michelle R. Peace 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Forensic Characterization Of Bacterial And Fungal Organisms In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Julia Grzymkowski, Christopher J. Ehrhardt, Justin L. Poklis, Michelle R. Peace

Undergraduate Research Posters

There has been an increase in use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the United States because they are less expensive and believed to be more effective with less adverse effects in comparison to traditional pharmaceutics. Therefore, sales have increased in the US, despite articles and case studies demonstrating the dangers, such as injury and death, related to TCM, stemming from improper labelling, toxic contaminants, and, in some cases, the presence of pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to perform a survival experiment to demonstrate the importance of proper herbal brewing technique and to conduct a molecular and ...


Optimization Of Wavelength Selection For Multispectral Image Acquisition: A Case Study Of Atrial Ablation Lesions, Huda Asfour, S. Guan, Narine Muselimyan, Luther M. Swift, Murray Loew, Narine Sarvazyan 2018 George Washington University

Optimization Of Wavelength Selection For Multispectral Image Acquisition: A Case Study Of Atrial Ablation Lesions, Huda Asfour, S. Guan, Narine Muselimyan, Luther M. Swift, Murray Loew, Narine Sarvazyan

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

In vivo autofluorescence hyperspectral imaging of moving objects can be challenging due to motion artifacts and to the limited amount of acquired photons. To address both limitations, we selectively reduced the number of spectral bands while maintaining accurate target identification. Several downsampling approaches were applied to data obtained from the atrial tissue of adult pigs with sites of radiofrequency ablation lesions. Standard image qualifiers such as the mean square error, the peak signal-to-noise ratio, the structural similarity index map, and an accuracy index of lesion component images were used to quantify the effects of spectral binning, an increased spectral distance ...


Rhythm: An Open Source Imaging Toolkit For Cardiac Panoramic Optical Mapping, Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubnam Gupta, N. Rokhana Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Matthew W. Kay, Igor R Efimov, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Rhythm: An Open Source Imaging Toolkit For Cardiac Panoramic Optical Mapping, Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubnam Gupta, N. Rokhana Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Matthew W. Kay, Igor R Efimov, +Several Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Fluorescence optical imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of cardiac electrophysiology and advanced our understanding of complex electrical activities such as arrhythmias. However, traditional monocular optical mapping systems, despite having high spatial resolution, are restricted to a two-dimensional (2D) field of view. Consequently, tracking complex three-dimensional (3D) electrical waves such as during ventricular fibrillation is challenging as the waves rapidly move in and out of the field of view. This problem has been solved by panoramic imaging which uses multiple cameras to measure the electrical activity from the entire epicardial surface. However, the diverse engineering skill set and substantial resource ...


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