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Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors From Marine Brown Alga: A Literature Review, Eric Nunez Aguilar 2017 San Jose State University

Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors From Marine Brown Alga: A Literature Review, Eric Nunez Aguilar

McNair Research Journal SJSU

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes an infectious disease that if left untreated can progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and be fatal. Finding a cure and more treatments for HIV has become a top priority in medical research, and due to the cost of synthetic HIV medication, finding a low-cost alternative is essential. Marine pharmacology has provided a possible solution to costly HIV medication through compounds derived from marine brown algae that inhibit the HIV-1 protease (PR). The objective of this study is to emphasize the necessity for further research in HIV-1 protease inhibition using marine wildlife-derived ...


In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony 2017 University of Mississippi

In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony

John Williamson

Microbial transformation of natural products is a well established model for mammalian metabolism. Salvinorin A, a diterpenoid isolated from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M (Lamiaceae), is a potent non-nitrogenous κ-opioid receptor agonist. The metabolism of salvinorin A has still not yet been well established. Thirty fungal species were screened for the ability to metabolize salvinorin A. We observed that salvinorin A undergoes fast hydrolysis of the acetate group at carbon atom C2, resulting in formation of the pharmacologically inactive product, salvinorin B. Ex vivo experiments were also performed using organelle fractions isolated from rat liver and brain. Crude ...


Enzyme-Dependent Fluorescence Recovery Of Nadh After Photobleaching To Assess Dehydrogenase Activity Of Isolated Perfused Hearts., Angel Moreno, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Matthew W Kay 2017 George Washington University

Enzyme-Dependent Fluorescence Recovery Of Nadh After Photobleaching To Assess Dehydrogenase Activity Of Isolated Perfused Hearts., Angel Moreno, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Matthew W Kay

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Reduction of NAD(+) by dehydrogenase enzymes to form NADH is a key component of cellular metabolism. In cellular preparations and isolated mitochondria suspensions, enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP) of NADH has been shown to be an effective approach for measuring the rate of NADH production to assess dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Our objective was to demonstrate how dehydrogenase activity could be assessed within the myocardium of perfused hearts using NADH ED-FRAP. This was accomplished using a combination of high intensity UV pulses to photobleach epicardial NADH. Replenishment of epicardial NADH fluorescence was then imaged using low intensity UV illumination. NADH ...


Proteome Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Corpus Callosum Development., Alexander I Son, Xiaoqin Fu, Fumikazu Suto, Judy S Liu, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Masaaki Torii 2017 George Washington University

Proteome Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Corpus Callosum Development., Alexander I Son, Xiaoqin Fu, Fumikazu Suto, Judy S Liu, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Masaaki Torii

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Formation of cortical connections requires the precise coordination of numerous discrete phases. This is particularly significant with regard to the corpus callosum, whose development undergoes several dynamic stages including the crossing of axon projections, elimination of exuberant projections, and myelination of established tracts. To comprehensively characterize the molecular events in this dynamic process, we set to determine the distinct temporal expression of proteins regulating the formation of the corpus callosum and their respective developmental functions. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling was performed on early postnatal mouse corpus callosi, for which limited evidence has been obtained previously, using stable isotope of labeled ...


Discovery Of Thienoquinolone Derivatives As Selective And Atp Non-Competitive Cdk5/P25 Inhibitors By Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Arindam Chatterjee, Stephen J. Cutler, Robert J. Doerksen, Ikhlas A. Khan, John S. Williamson 2017 University of Mississippi

Discovery Of Thienoquinolone Derivatives As Selective And Atp Non-Competitive Cdk5/P25 Inhibitors By Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Arindam Chatterjee, Stephen J. Cutler, Robert J. Doerksen, Ikhlas A. Khan, John S. Williamson

John Williamson

Calpain mediated cleavage of CDK5 natural precursor p35 causes a stable complex formation of CDK5/p25, which leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau. Thus inhibition of this complex is a viable target for numerous acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases involving tau protein, including Alzheimer’s disease. Since CDK5 has the highest sequence homology with its mitotic counterpart CDK2, our primary goal was to design selective CDK5/p25 inhibitors targeting neurodegeneration. A novel structure-based virtual screening protocol comprised of e-pharmacophore models and virtual screening workflow was used to identify nine compounds from a commercial database containing 2.84 million compounds. An ATP ...


A Role Of Central Nell2 In The Regulation Of Feeding Behavior In Rats., Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee 2017 George Washington University

A Role Of Central Nell2 In The Regulation Of Feeding Behavior In Rats., Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

A brain-enriched secreting signal peptide, NELL2, has been suggested to play multiple roles in the development, survival, and activity of neurons in mammal. We investigated here a possible involvement of central NELL2 in regulating feeding behavior and metabolism. In situ hybridization and an immunohistochemical approach were used to determine expression of NELL2 as well as its colocalization with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of NELL2 on feeding behavior, 2 nmole of antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide was administered into the lateral ventricle of adult male rat brains for 6 consecutive days, and changes ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Chemogenetic Stimulation Of The Hypoglossal Neurons Improves Upper Airway Patency, Thomas Curado, Kenneth Fishbein, Huy Pho, Michael Brennick, Olga Dergacheva, David Mendelowitz, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Chemogenetic Stimulation Of The Hypoglossal Neurons Improves Upper Airway Patency, Thomas Curado, Kenneth Fishbein, Huy Pho, Michael Brennick, Olga Dergacheva, David Mendelowitz, +Several Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA leads to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of OSA has been linked to a defect in neuromuscular control of the pharynx. There is no effective pharmacotherapy for OSA. The objective of this study was to determine whether upper airway patency can be improved using chemogenetic approach by deploying designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) in the hypoglossal motorneurons. DREADD (rAAV5-hSyn-hM3(Gq)-mCherry) and control virus (rAAV5-hSyn-EGFP) were stereotactically administered to the hypoglossal nucleus of C57BL/6J mice. In 6–8 weeks genioglossus ...


Oxidative Stress-Driven Parvalbumin Interneuron Impairment As A Common Mechanism In Models Of Schizophrenia, P Steullet, J Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Oxidative Stress-Driven Parvalbumin Interneuron Impairment As A Common Mechanism In Models Of Schizophrenia, P Steullet, J Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, Anthony-Samuel Lamantia, +Several Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition. On the basis of published and new data, we propose oxidative stress as a common pathological mechanism leading to PVI impairment in schizophrenia and some forms of autism. A series of animal models carrying genetic and/or ...


Genetic Targeting In Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: An Update., Anna Sługocka, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Jaroslaw J Barski 2017 George Washington University

Genetic Targeting In Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: An Update., Anna Sługocka, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Jaroslaw J Barski

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Since the last review paper published in Cerebellum in 2002 [1], there has been a substantial increase in the number of experiments utilizing transgenic manipulations in murine cerebellar Purkinje cells. Most of these approaches were made possible with the use of the Cre/loxP methodology and pcp2/L7 based Cre recombinase expressing transgenic mouse strains. This review aims to summarize all studies which used Purkinje cell specific transgenesis since the first use of mouse strain with Purkinje cell specific Cre expression in 2002.


Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis

Undergraduate Research Posters

“Kratom” is the common name for the botanical mitragyna speciosa. It is a tree native to Southeast Asia in which leaves contain the psychoactive alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is often ingested as teas, chewed, or smoked. It acts as a stimulant in small doses and as an opioid in large doses. Overdoses can result in vomiting, seizures, and death. Recently the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) placed Kratom on Schedule 1, but, due to public outcry, it was almost immediately removed.

Eleven kratom based products were obtained from various tobacco shops, “headshops” and via the internet including: Choice brand capsule ...


Transdermal Testosterone For Menopause-Related Hyposexual Desire Disorder: Current Guidelines And Provider Perceptions, Knowledge, And Practice, Kelly Christine White 2017 University of Vermont

Transdermal Testosterone For Menopause-Related Hyposexual Desire Disorder: Current Guidelines And Provider Perceptions, Knowledge, And Practice, Kelly Christine White

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Hypoactive sexual desire or low libido in women are collectively referred to as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). HSDD is estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of adult women. HSDD is likely the most common female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in menopausal women. The hallmark of the diagnosis is personal distress and interpersonal difficulties resulting from low sex drive. Most women will not seek help for this problem. Studies have suggested that primary care providers and gynecologic healthcare providers report not feeling qualified to treat patients with sexual dysfunction, especially HSDD. Testosterone, specifically transdermal testosterone, has been suggested to play ...


Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class of 2017) 2017 Sacred Heart University

Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class Of 2017)

Writing Across the Curriculum

Current treatments for drug addiction involve classical pharmacological therapy, involving the use of competitive or noncompetitive agonists (full, partial, or inverse) and antagonists. Drugs of abuse enter the brain after crossing the blood-brain barrier rapidly and binding to the proper receptor(s). They are able to do so because they are small and lipid soluble, and produce reinforcing effects by increasing levels of dopamine in brain areas associated with reward. This occurs in specific systems associated with addiction. In the mesolimbic system, neuron cell bodies originate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala ...


Perampanel, Michael A. Rogawski 2016 University of California - Davis

Perampanel, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

No abstract provided.


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted 2016 East Tennessee State University

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Rapamycin Increases Length And Mechanosensory Function Of Primary Cilia In Renal Eptihelial And Vascular Endothelial Cells, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Viviana P. Ferreira, Surya M. Nauli 2016 Chapman University

Rapamycin Increases Length And Mechanosensory Function Of Primary Cilia In Renal Eptihelial And Vascular Endothelial Cells, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Viviana P. Ferreira, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia arebiophysically-sensitive organelles responsible for sensing fluid-flow and transducing this stimulus into intracellular responses. Previous studies have shown that the primary cilia mediate flow-induced calcium influx, and sensitivity of cilia function to flow is correlated to cilia length. Cells with abnormal cilia length or function can lead to a host of diseases that are collectively termed as ciliopathies. Rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), has been demonstrated to be a potential pharmacological agent against the aberrant mTOR signaling seen in ciliopathies such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Here we look ...


Seeing The Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach, Narine Muselimyan, Luther Swift, Huda Asfour, Tigran Chahbazian, Ramesh Mazhari, Marco Mercader, Narine Sarvazyan 2016 George Washington University

Seeing The Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach, Narine Muselimyan, Luther Swift, Huda Asfour, Tigran Chahbazian, Ramesh Mazhari, Marco Mercader, Narine Sarvazyan

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Background

Currently, there are limited means for high-resolution monitoring of tissue injury during radiofrequency ablation procedures.

Objective

To develop the next generation of visualization catheters that can reveal irreversible atrial muscle damage caused by ablation and identify viability gaps between the lesions.

Methods

Radiofrequency lesions were placed on the endocardial surfaces of excised human and bovine atria and left ventricles of blood perfused rat hearts. Tissue was illuminated with 365nm light and a series of images were acquired from individual spectral bands within 420-720nm range. By extracting spectral profiles of individual pixels and spectral unmixing, the relative contribution of ablated ...


The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Addiction is a complex process in which behavioral sensitization may be an important component. While the behavioral effects of sensitization are well established, the intricate neurobiology of the phenomenon is still largely unknown. Dopamine systems mediate the induction of behavioral sensitization in adult rats, but there is a large amount of evidence showing that other neurotransmitter systems also modulate the induction process. For example, the α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptor systems are known to modulate the sensitized responding of adult rats, but the roles that these receptor systems play in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization during the preweanling ...


Hypercapnic Hyperoxia Increases Free Radical Production And Cellular Excitability In Rat Caudal Solitary Complex Brain Slice Neurons, Geoffrey Edward Ciarlone 2016 University of South Florida

Hypercapnic Hyperoxia Increases Free Radical Production And Cellular Excitability In Rat Caudal Solitary Complex Brain Slice Neurons, Geoffrey Edward Ciarlone

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The caudal solitary complex (cSC) is a cardiorespiratory integrative center in the dorsal medulla oblongata that plays a vital role in the central CO2-chemoreceptive network. Neurons in this area respond to hypercapnic acidosis (HA) by a depolarization of the membrane potential and increase in firing rate, however a definitive mechanism for this response remains unknown. Likewise, CO2-chemoreceptive neurons in the cSC respond to hyperoxia in a similar fashion, but via a free radical mediated mechanism. It remains unknown if the response to increased pO2 is merely an increase in redox signaling, or if it’s the result of a pathological ...


Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey 2016 George Washington University

Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Oxytocin (OT) has become a focus in investigations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social deficits that characterize ASD may relate to reduced connectivity between brain sites on the mesolimbic reward pathway (nucleus accumbens; amygdala) that receive OT projections and contribute to social motivation, and cortical sites involved in social perception. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we show that OT administration in ASD increases activity in brain regions important for perceiving social-emotional information. Further, OT enhances connectivity between nodes of the brain's reward and socioemotional processing systems, and does so preferentially ...


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