Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

445 Full-Text Articles 739 Authors 114652 Downloads 54 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology

Faceted Search

445 full-text articles. Page 1 of 16.

The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Addiction is a complex process in which behavioral sensitization may be an important component. While the behavioral effects of sensitization are well established, the intricate neurobiology of the phenomenon is still largely unknown. Dopamine systems mediate the induction of behavioral sensitization in adult rats, but there is a large amount of evidence showing that other neurotransmitter systems also modulate the induction process. For example, the α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptor systems are known to modulate the sensitized responding of adult rats, but the roles that these receptor systems play in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization during the preweanling ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted 2016 East Tennessee State University

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey 2016 George Washington University

Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Oxytocin (OT) has become a focus in investigations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social deficits that characterize ASD may relate to reduced connectivity between brain sites on the mesolimbic reward pathway (nucleus accumbens; amygdala) that receive OT projections and contribute to social motivation, and cortical sites involved in social perception. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we show that OT administration in ASD increases activity in brain regions important for perceiving social-emotional information. Further, OT enhances connectivity between nodes of the brain's reward and socioemotional processing systems, and does so preferentially ...


Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stress increases the frequency by which epileptic seizures occur. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stress. This thesis sought to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CRF regulates the activity of neural circuits in the piriform cortex (PC) in normal and epileptic states. The PC is richly innervated by CRF and 5-HT containing axons arising from the central amygdala and raphe nucleus. CRFR1 and 5-HT2A/CRs have been shown to interact in a manner where CRFR activation subsequently potentiates the activity of 5-HT2A/CRs. The first purpose of this ...


An Excitatory Cortical Feedback Loop Gates Retinal Wave Transmission In Rodent Thalamus, Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T. Colonnese 2016 George Washington University

An Excitatory Cortical Feedback Loop Gates Retinal Wave Transmission In Rodent Thalamus, Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T. Colonnese

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Spontaneous retinal waves are critical for the development of receptive fields in visual thalamus (LGN) and cortex (VC). Despite a detailed understanding of the circuit specializations in retina that generate waves, whether central circuit specializations also exist to control their propagation through visual pathways of the brain is unknown. Here we identify a developmentally transient, corticothalamic amplification of retinal drive to thalamus as a mechanism for retinal wave transmission in the infant rat brain. During the period of retinal waves, corticothalamic connections excite LGN, rather than driving feedforward inhibition as observed in the adult. This creates an excitatory feedback loop ...


Development Of Cellular High Throughput Assays To Determine The Electrophysiological Profile Of Gaba(A) Receptor Modulators For Neurology And Immunology, Nina Yina Yuan 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Development Of Cellular High Throughput Assays To Determine The Electrophysiological Profile Of Gaba(A) Receptor Modulators For Neurology And Immunology, Nina Yina Yuan

Theses and Dissertations

Gamma (γ) -aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter found in

the mammalian central nervous system. Its effect stems from its ability to cause the opening of ion channels which causes an influx of negatively charged chloride ions or an efflux of positively charged potassium ions. This hyperpolarization of the neuron lowers the threshold for neuronal firing. This has an overall inhibitory effect on neurotransmission, decreasing the excitability of the neuron and diminishing the likelihood of a successful action potential occurring. There are two classes of GABA receptor: ligand-gated GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABABR). The GABAAR ...


Isolation Of Egfr-Containing Early Endosomes., Julie A. Gosney 2016 University of Louisville

Isolation Of Egfr-Containing Early Endosomes., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This spatial regulation of the receptor is an important regulator of receptor expression as it mediates its degradation. Endocytosis also has implications on EGFR downstream signaling, though the details are not fully understood. The goal of this thesis is to develop a method to isolate early endosomes in order to study downstream effectors associated with activated EGFR in this compartment. HeLa cells were used to test various ...


Mass Spectrometric Analysis Of Isotopic Abundance Ratio In Biofield Energy Treated Thymol, Mahendra Trivedi 2016 Trivedi Global Inc.

Mass Spectrometric Analysis Of Isotopic Abundance Ratio In Biofield Energy Treated Thymol, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was ...


Determination Of Isotopic Abundance Ratio Of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Gc-Ms), Mahendra Trivedi 2016 Trivedi Global Inc.

Determination Of Isotopic Abundance Ratio Of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Gc-Ms), Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P M+1/PM, PM+2/PM, PM+3/PMand PM+4/PM in p-DCB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The p-DCB was divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as the treated sample which was subjected to biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were referred the biofield treated p-DCB having analyzed at different time intervals. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and ...


Evaluation Of Isotopic Abundance Ratio In Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Mahendra Trivedi 2016 Trivedi Global Inc.

Evaluation Of Isotopic Abundance Ratio In Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different ...


Bioavailability Of The Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin Delivered Orally As Dried Leaves Of Artemisia Annua: The Role Of Solubility And Protein., Matthew Desrosiers, Pamela Weathers 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Bioavailability Of The Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin Delivered Orally As Dried Leaves Of Artemisia Annua: The Role Of Solubility And Protein., Matthew Desrosiers, Pamela Weathers

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Malaria treatment using orally consumed dried leaves of the artemisinin producing GRAS plant Artemisia annua has recently shown promise. Previously we showed, oral consumption of A. annua dried leaves (DLA) yielded >40 times more artemisinin in the blood of mice than treatment with pure artemisinin. Using the Caco-2 cell culture model of the human intestinal epithelium, we also showed that compared to pure artemisinin, digested DLA doubled the permeability (Papp). Here, using simulated human digestion, we show that artemisinin solubility is about seven times higher in digestates of DLA than in digestates of pure artemisinin, likely contributing to its enhanced ...


Towards Pharmacovigilance Using Machine Learning To Identify Unknown Adverse Reactions Triggered By Drug-Drug Interaction, Tabassum Kakar, Xiao Qin, Susmitha Wunnava, Elke A. Rundensteiner 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Towards Pharmacovigilance Using Machine Learning To Identify Unknown Adverse Reactions Triggered By Drug-Drug Interaction, Tabassum Kakar, Xiao Qin, Susmitha Wunnava, Elke A. Rundensteiner

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in world. There is thus a growing need of methods facilitating the automated detection of drugs-related ADR; especially ADRs that were not known from clinical trials but later arise due to drug-drug interactions. In this research our goal is to discover the severe unknown Adverse Drug Reactions caused by a combination of drugs, also known as Drug-Drug-Interaction. We propose to use Association Rule Mining to find the ADRs caused by using a combination of drugs yet not known to be caused if these drugs were taken individually. For ...


Evaluation Of The Isotopic Abundance Ratio In Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi 2016 Selected Works

Evaluation Of The Isotopic Abundance Ratio In Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and ...


Leukemia Inhibitory Factor As A Neuroprotective Agent Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia, Stephanie Davis 2016 University of South Florida

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor As A Neuroprotective Agent Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia, Stephanie Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous publications from this laboratory demonstrated that administration of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) (125 µg/kg) to young, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 6, 24, and 48 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reduced infract volume, improved sensimotor skills, and alleviated damage to white matter at 72 h after the injury. In vitro studies using cultured oligodendrocytes (OLs) showed that LIF (200 ng/ml) also protects against 24 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation through activation of Akt signaling and upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin IV and metallothionein III. Other groups have demonstrated that LIF reduces neurodegeneration in animal models of ...


Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo 2016 State University of New York Buffalo State

Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo

Forensic Science Theses

Currently the quantitation of opiates at the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office Toxicology Laboratory is conducted through whole blood analysis. The objective of this thesis project was to determine if the analysis of opiates could be conducted through liver analysis, and if the analysis of opiates would provide a more accurate quantitation compared to the blood analysis. The quantitation of opiates was conducted from the livers of sixty-four possible overdose cases that were brought into the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office between 2013 and 2015. Results showed that the opiate drugs could successfully be quantitated using the liver ...


Inhibition Of Peroxide Removal Systems And Ascorbate-Induced Cytotoxicity In Pancreatic Cancer, Hannah Van Beek 2016 University of Iowa

Inhibition Of Peroxide Removal Systems And Ascorbate-Induced Cytotoxicity In Pancreatic Cancer, Hannah Van Beek

Theses and Dissertations

Compared to normal cells, cancer cells tend to have higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) due to an accelerated cellular metabolism. The high ROS content leaves cancer cells increasingly susceptible to oxidative stress-induced cell death. This susceptibility can be manipulated in selective cancer therapy by further increasing production of ROS or inhibiting peroxide removal systems or a combination of the two.

Pharmacological ascorbate (high-dose intravenous ascorbate) has been shown to sensitize pancreatic cancer to ionizing radiation (IR) by increasing production of ROS such as H2O2. Glutathione reductase (GR ...


Cardiovascular Effects Evoked By Airway Nociceptive Reflexes In Healthy And Cardiovascular Diseased Rats, Justin Shane Hooper 2016 University of South Florida

Cardiovascular Effects Evoked By Airway Nociceptive Reflexes In Healthy And Cardiovascular Diseased Rats, Justin Shane Hooper

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Acute inhalation of airborne pollutants alters cardiovascular function and has been shown to have its greatest affects on individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that pollutant-induced activation of airway sensory nerves via the gating of ion channels is critical to these systemic responses. Here, we have investigated the cardiovascular responses evoked by inhalation of AITC (TRPA1 agonist) and capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) in healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and cardiovascular diseased Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats. Inhalation of the agonists by healthy SD and WKY rats caused significant bradycardia, atrio-ventricular (AV) block and prolonged PR-Intervals. Inhalation of ...


Anticonvulsant And Procognitive Properties Of Novel Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists In Male Adult Rats, Ali Kassem Saad 2016 United Arab Emirates University

Anticonvulsant And Procognitive Properties Of Novel Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists In Male Adult Rats, Ali Kassem Saad

Theses

To determine the potential of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands as new antiepileptic and procognitive drugs, aromatic ether derivatives (1-12) belonging to the nonimidazole class of ligands, with high in-vitro binding affinity at human H3R, were tested for their in-vivo anticonvulsive activity in maximal electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced seizure models in male adult rats having phenytoin (PHT) and valproic acid (VPA) as the reference antiepileptic drugs, pitolisant (PIT) as the standard H3R antagonist/inverse agonist, and donepezil (DOZ) as a reference procognitive drug. Among the H3R ligands (1-12) tested in the current project, H3R antagonist 4 ...


Assessment Of The Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase In Drug-Induced Cardiomyopathy, Alexis I. Brinkerhoff 2016 University of South Florida

Assessment Of The Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase In Drug-Induced Cardiomyopathy, Alexis I. Brinkerhoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Drug-induced cardiotoxicity has resulted in a thorough evaluation of patient doses, treatments, and rehabilitation. One of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents is cyclophosphamide. The active metabolite, acrolein, is one of the most potent inducers of cardiomyopathy. In this study, research was conducted on the H9c2 (2-1) cardiomyocyte cell line derived from the embryonic myocardium of rattus norvegicus to assess its competency for evaluation of the change in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. The application of this model to study the effects of acrolein on PARP activation was chosen as an ideal determinant of cell damage produced by nitrogen mustards ...


Thromboxane A2 And Tp Receptors: A Trail Of Research, Well Traveled, Perry V. Halushka PhD, MD 2016 Medical University of South Carolina

Thromboxane A2 And Tp Receptors: A Trail Of Research, Well Traveled, Perry V. Halushka Phd, Md

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

This article was written is response to a request from the editor-in-chief as a result of my receiving the Governor’s Award in Scientific Awareness. My goal is to provide a glimpse into a 40 plus year research career that was predominately focused on the role of thromboxane A2 and its receptor (TP) in physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in the cardiovascular system. It also enumerates the lessons learned along the way that may lead to a productive research career. Those lessons were; Perseverance, Think out of the box, Challenge the dogma, Take risks, Failure is not a bad thing ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress