Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

638 Full-Text Articles 1,312 Authors 144,053 Downloads 88 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology

Faceted Search

638 full-text articles. Page 1 of 23.

Expression Of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Enzymes In Diabetes And Diabetic Nephropathy, Cheng Jay Fang 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Expression Of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Enzymes In Diabetes And Diabetic Nephropathy, Cheng Jay Fang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The prevalence of diabetes worldwide is rapidly increasing. Polypharmacy, along with a high risk of adverse drug reactions, is common in diabetic patients. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 2C drug metabolizing enzymes are reduced in chronic kidney disease (CKD), altering drug pharmacokinetics and contributing to adverse drug reactions. A large fraction of commonly prescribed drugs are metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2C. Approximately 40% of all CKD cases are attributed to diabetic nephropathy (DN) and early DN presents as mild kidney disease. This study aims to evaluate the impact of diabetes and DN on levels and activity of hepatic CYP3A and ...


Targeted Delivery Of Bioactive Molecules For Vascular Intervention And Tissue Engineering, Hannah A. Strobel, Elisabet I. Qendro, Eben Alsberg, Marsha W. Rolle 2018 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Targeted Delivery Of Bioactive Molecules For Vascular Intervention And Tissue Engineering, Hannah A. Strobel, Elisabet I. Qendro, Eben Alsberg, Marsha W. Rolle

Open Access Articles

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. Treatment often requires surgical interventions to re-open occluded vessels, bypass severe occlusions, or stabilize aneurysms. Despite the short-term success of such interventions, many ultimately fail due to thrombosis or restenosis (following stent placement), or incomplete healing (such as after aneurysm coil placement). Bioactive molecules capable of modulating host tissue responses and preventing these complications have been identified, but systemic delivery is often harmful or ineffective. This review discusses the use of localized bioactive molecule delivery methods to enhance the long-term success of vascular interventions, such as drug-eluting stents ...


The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment to alleviate the appendicular motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Current steering during DBS allows the unequal fractionation of current between two electrodes on the lead, resulting in a non-spherical electrical field. It is hypothesized that the way the electrical field is shaped will affect a patient’s upper limb symptom alleviation. Seven PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were tested over four weeks post-operation. 16 current fractionation settings were tested each week at an amplitude that increased weekly. Optimal setting was defined as the setting that provided the ...


Profile Interview With Norman E. Fenn, Shannon L. Castek 2018 Purdue University

Profile Interview With Norman E. Fenn, Shannon L. Castek

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Shannon L. Castek is a fourth-generation Boilermaker and fourth-professional-year student in the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. Throughout her time in pharmacy school, Shannon has enjoyed supplementing her curricular work with service-learning activities, participating in health screenings and immunization events with the Purdue chapter of the American Pharmacists Association–Academy of Student Pharmacists. She plans to pursue a pharmacy residency following graduation to achieve her dream of becoming an ambulatory care pharmacist. In this article, Shannon highlights the service-learning endeavors of Dr. Norman Fenn in the College of Pharmacy.


The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Pharmacy Student's Guide, Christian Egly, Yaman Kaakeh 2018 Purdue University

The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Pharmacy Student's Guide, Christian Egly, Yaman Kaakeh

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Christian Egly is a fourth-year (P4) pharmacy student in the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. During his years at Purdue, he worked in labs performing bench research in clinical pharmacology and biochemistry. He plans to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. During his fourth year, he completed rotations in business development at Kashiv Pharma, LLC, and was hired there for an internship in 2017. In the article, Christian describes his personal experiences at Kashiv Pharma, LLC, and how industry can positively affect patient communities.


Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim 2018 Old Dominion University

Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

The question of whether the human brain is an anatomical site of persistent HIV-1 infection during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical, but remains unanswered. The presence of virus in the brains of HIV patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed would demonstrate not only the potential for CNS to act as an anatomical HIV reservoir, but also the urgent need to understand the factors contributing to persistent HIV behind the blood-brain barrier. Here, we investigated for the first time the presence of cells harboring HIV DNA and RNA in the brains from subjects with undetectable plasma viral load and ...


Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell 2018 East Tennessee State University

Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As HIV is now primarily a chronic condition, treatment is given life-long with changes as necessitated by alterations in tolerability and efficacy. Thus, personalized medicine may be useful in the prevention of unnecessary drug exposure and avoidable side effects. Three of the four currently available HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir, are widely utilized antiretrovirals in the USA and exhibit variations in outcomes among subjects. To interrogate differences among subjects receiving these drugs, we investigated the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with drug exposure, clinical outcomes, and subject-reported adverse events. HIV+ adults (≥18 years ...


Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller 2018 University of Louisville

Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inherent heterogeneity of tumor tissue presents a major challenge to nanoparticle-medicated drug delivery. This heterogeneity spans from the molecular to the cellular (cell types) and to the tissue (vasculature, extra-cellular matrix) scales. Here we employ computational modeling to evaluate therapeutic response as a function of vascular-induced tumor tissue heterogeneity. Using data with three-layered gold nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin, nanotherapy is simulated with different levels of tissue heterogeneity, and the treatment response is measured in terms of tumor regression. The results show that tumor vascular density non-trivially influences the nanoparticle uptake and washout, and the associated tissue response. The drug ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney 2018 University of Louisville

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


Wnt/Β-Catenin Mediated Cancer Stem Cell Activation In Hepatocellular Carcinoma., Harshulkumar M. Pandit 2018 University of Louisville

Wnt/Β-Catenin Mediated Cancer Stem Cell Activation In Hepatocellular Carcinoma., Harshulkumar M. Pandit

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers, with variable presentation, high chemotherapy resistance and early tumor recurrence. In this dissertation, we have systematically enriched, identified and characterized HCC cancer stem cells (CSCs) from 3 different HCC cell lines (Hepa1-6, HepG2, and Hep3B) using in vitro serum-free culture method. Enriched spheroids acquired CSC properties, primarily self-renewal capability, spheroid formation ability, and drug resistance. Heterogeneous CSCs enriched from Hepa1-6 cells demonstrated higher tumor initiation and proliferation capability in vivo, compared to control HCC cells in orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model. EpCAM+ CSCs were significantly enriched within heterogeneous Hepa1-6 CSC spheroids. Consequently ...


A Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Variant Reverses Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Type 2 Diabetes., Qian Lin 2018 University of Louisville

A Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Variant Reverses Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Type 2 Diabetes., Qian Lin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder and is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our recently engineered FGF1 partial agonist, carrying triple mutations (FGF1HBS) exhibits greatly reduced proliferative potential, while preserving the full metabolic activity of wild-type FGF1. This study tests the preventive and therapeutic effects of FGF1HBS on NAFLD in db/db T2D and explores potential mechanisms. The results showed that administration of FGF1HBS to 2-month-old db/db mice for 2 months constantly lowered blood glucose levels, improved insulin sensitivity, and lowered liver weight, lipid deposition, and inflammation, along ...


Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong 2018 Old Dominion University

Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Antimicrobial lock solutions are important for prevention of microbial colonization and infection of long-term central venous catheters. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel antibiotic-free lock solution formed from gas plasma-activated disinfectant (PAD). Using a luminal biofilm model, viable cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in mature biofilms were reduced by 6 to 8 orders of magnitude with a PAD lock for 60 min. Subsequent 24-h incubation of PAD-treated samples resulted in no detectable regrowth of viable bacteria or fungi. As a comparison, the use of a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol lock solution for 60 ...


Anti-Tumor Activity Of Phenoxybenzamine And Its Inhibition Of Histone Deacetylases, Mario A. Inchiosa 2018 New York Medical College

Anti-Tumor Activity Of Phenoxybenzamine And Its Inhibition Of Histone Deacetylases, Mario A. Inchiosa

NYMC Faculty Publications

The principal finding from this study was the recognition that the α-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, possesses histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Phenoxybenzamine is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypertensive crises associated with tumors of the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas. It has several "off label" indications relative to its capacity to relax vascular smooth muscle and smooth muscle of the urogenital tract. The drug also has a long history of apparent efficacy in ameliorating, and perhaps reversing, the severe symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Our interest in this feature of the drug relates to the fact ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency., Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2018 George Washington University

Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency., Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in ...


Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria 2018 Duquesne University

Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess if a novel combination of melatonin and three other natural bone-aiding micronutrients: strontium citrate, vitamins D3 and K2 (MSDK) could improve bone health by modulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of balanced bone remodeling and by improving the overall health-related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women.

Methods: The Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS) is a translational research study that used both clinical and in vitro approaches to assess the efficacy of MSDK on bone health in women and to identify potential mechanisms for its effects ...


Disruption Of Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Physiology Following Exposure To Bisphenol-A., Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack 2018 George Washington University

Disruption Of Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Physiology Following Exposure To Bisphenol-A., Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Bisphenol chemicals are commonly used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics, polyvinyl chloride plastics, resins, and thermal printing applications. Humans are inadvertently exposed to bisphenols through contact with consumer products and/or medical devices. Recent reports have shown a link between bisphenol-a (BPA) exposure and adverse cardiovascular outcomes; although these studies have been limited to adult subjects and models. Since cardiac physiology differs significantly between the developing and adult heart, we aimed to assess the impact of BPA exposure on cardiac function, using a neonatal cardiomyocyte model. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were monitored to assess cell viability, spontaneous beating rate ...


Protocol Development In The Or: Lessons Learned, Megan Sims 2018 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Protocol Development In The Or: Lessons Learned, Megan Sims

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

The management of pain in those undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is complex and challenging. There have been advances in the understanding of the physiology of pain and a wide variety of treatment options are now available. Establishing a preventative multi-modal protocol with different types of pain medications that work on a variety of receptors along the pain pathway is imperative. Through an exhaustive literature review, a preventative multi-modal approach was established and introduced at a small hospital in Central Illinois available for all laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients undergoing surgery over a 10 week implementation period. There was only one completed case ...


The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi 2018 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure On Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease : Role Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor., Hongxue Shi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are detectable in serum of 100% of adults in US, and has been associated with fatty liver disease in epidemiological studies. PCBs are classified as either dioxin-like (DL) or non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB based on their ability to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We used exposures that reflect human bioaccumulation patterns, which resembles Aroclor 1260 with a low level of the DL-PCB, PCB 126. Our aim was to determine if this exposure will activate the human and mouse AhR and examine if receptor activation influences these steatotic responses due to PCB exposures. DL-PCBs exposure-induced AhR activation in ...


Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann 2018 College of William and Mary

Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are a class of neuropeptides that are associated with homeostatic functions, such as food intake, sexual behavior, and the sleep/wake cycle. Orexins also play a pivotal role in cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In the present experiment, we employed a visual attention task to assess the effects of intranasal administration of orexin A in rats. This task required the rats to discriminate between trials when a visual light was illuminated from trials when the light was not illuminated. We tested the efficacy of this administration technique to see its viability as a therapeutic in attention disorders ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress