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Towards Pharmacovigilance Using Machine Learning To Identify Unknown Adverse Reactions Triggered By Drug-Drug Interaction, Tabassum Kakar, Xiao Qin, Susmitha Wunnava, Elke A. Rundensteiner 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Towards Pharmacovigilance Using Machine Learning To Identify Unknown Adverse Reactions Triggered By Drug-Drug Interaction, Tabassum Kakar, Xiao Qin, Susmitha Wunnava, Elke A. Rundensteiner

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in world. There is thus a growing need of methods facilitating the automated detection of drugs-related ADR; especially ADRs that were not known from clinical trials but later arise due to drug-drug interactions. In this research our goal is to discover the severe unknown Adverse Drug Reactions caused by a combination of drugs, also known as Drug-Drug-Interaction. We propose to use Association Rule Mining to find the ADRs caused by using a combination of drugs yet not known to be caused if these drugs were taken individually. For ...


Bioavailability Of The Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin Delivered Orally As Dried Leaves Of Artemisia Annua: The Role Of Solubility And Protein., Matthew Desrosiers, Pamela Weathers 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Bioavailability Of The Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin Delivered Orally As Dried Leaves Of Artemisia Annua: The Role Of Solubility And Protein., Matthew Desrosiers, Pamela Weathers

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Malaria treatment using orally consumed dried leaves of the artemisinin producing GRAS plant Artemisia annua has recently shown promise. Previously we showed, oral consumption of A. annua dried leaves (DLA) yielded >40 times more artemisinin in the blood of mice than treatment with pure artemisinin. Using the Caco-2 cell culture model of the human intestinal epithelium, we also showed that compared to pure artemisinin, digested DLA doubled the permeability (Papp). Here, using simulated human digestion, we show that artemisinin solubility is about seven times higher in digestates of DLA than in digestates of pure artemisinin, likely contributing to its enhanced ...


Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo 2016 State University of New York Buffalo State

Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo

Forensic Science Theses

Currently the quantitation of opiates at the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office Toxicology Laboratory is conducted through whole blood analysis. The objective of this thesis project was to determine if the analysis of opiates could be conducted through liver analysis, and if the analysis of opiates would provide a more accurate quantitation compared to the blood analysis. The quantitation of opiates was conducted from the livers of sixty-four possible overdose cases that were brought into the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office between 2013 and 2015. Results showed that the opiate drugs could successfully be quantitated using the liver ...


Assessment Of The Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase In Drug-Induced Cardiomyopathy, Alexis I. Brinkerhoff 2016 University of South Florida

Assessment Of The Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase In Drug-Induced Cardiomyopathy, Alexis I. Brinkerhoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Drug-induced cardiotoxicity has resulted in a thorough evaluation of patient doses, treatments, and rehabilitation. One of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents is cyclophosphamide. The active metabolite, acrolein, is one of the most potent inducers of cardiomyopathy. In this study, research was conducted on the H9c2 (2-1) cardiomyocyte cell line derived from the embryonic myocardium of rattus norvegicus to assess its competency for evaluation of the change in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. The application of this model to study the effects of acrolein on PARP activation was chosen as an ideal determinant of cell damage produced by nitrogen mustards ...


Thromboxane A2 And Tp Receptors: A Trail Of Research, Well Traveled, Perry V. Halushka PhD, MD 2016 Medical University of South Carolina

Thromboxane A2 And Tp Receptors: A Trail Of Research, Well Traveled, Perry V. Halushka Phd, Md

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

This article was written is response to a request from the editor-in-chief as a result of my receiving the Governor’s Award in Scientific Awareness. My goal is to provide a glimpse into a 40 plus year research career that was predominately focused on the role of thromboxane A2 and its receptor (TP) in physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in the cardiovascular system. It also enumerates the lessons learned along the way that may lead to a productive research career. Those lessons were; Perseverance, Think out of the box, Challenge the dogma, Take risks, Failure is not a bad thing ...


Acute And Chronic Effects Of Inhalants In Intracranial Self-Stimulation, Matthew Tracy 2016 Student

Acute And Chronic Effects Of Inhalants In Intracranial Self-Stimulation, Matthew Tracy

Theses and Dissertations

Inhalants are a loosely defined diverse group of volatile substances which people abuse. Despite widespread misuse of inhalants, there are limited preclinical methods available to study the reinforcement-like properties of inhalants. One procedure which has demonstrated substantial promise as a tool to investigate inhalant pharmacology is the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. ICSS utilizes pulses of electrical stimulation to the mesolimbic reward pathway to serve as a temporally defined and controlled operant reinforcer with a highly adjustable efficacy. The first aim of the project was to characterize the effects of commonly abused inhalants: including toluene, trichloroethane, nitrous oxide, isoflurane and R134a ...


Physical, Spectroscopic And Thermal Characterization Of Biofield Treated Fish Peptone, Mahendra Trivedi 2015 Trivedi Global Inc.

Physical, Spectroscopic And Thermal Characterization Of Biofield Treated Fish Peptone, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

The by-products of industrially processed fish are enzymatically converted into fish protein isolates and hydrolysates having a wide biological activity and nutritional properties. However, the heat processing may cause their thermal denaturation thereby causing the conformational changes in them. The present study utilized the strategy of biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on various properties of the fish peptone as compared to the untreated (control) sample. The fish peptone sample was divided into two parts; one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, coded as the treated sample and another part was coded as the control. The ...


Characterization Of Physicochemical And Spectroscopic Properties Of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone, Mahendra Trivedi 2015 Selected Works

Characterization Of Physicochemical And Spectroscopic Properties Of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

Bio peptone is a combination of enzymatic digest of animal tissues and casein; and generally used for the growth of several varieties of microbes. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of bio peptone. The present study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept without treatment, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were assessed using numerous analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed the halo patterns of ...


Characterization Of Physical, Thermal And Spectral Properties Of Biofield Treated 2-Aminopyridine, Mahendra Trivedi 2015 Selected Works

Characterization Of Physical, Thermal And Spectral Properties Of Biofield Treated 2-Aminopyridine, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

2-Aminopyridine is an important compound, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The present work was aimed to assess the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral characteristics of 2-AP. The work was accomplished by dividing the sample in two parts i.e. one part was remained untreated, and another part had received biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the samples were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, ultra violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed a decrease in ...


Compensatory Mechanisms And T Cell Migration In Mouse Models Of Dopaminergic Loss, Kristi M. Anderson 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Compensatory Mechanisms And T Cell Migration In Mouse Models Of Dopaminergic Loss, Kristi M. Anderson

Theses & Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and second most common neurodegenerative disorder. PD is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine neurotransmitter within the substantia nigra and termini in the striatum. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons occurs over many years in PD, and by the time movement disorder symptoms manifest, up to 50-70% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost. Several aspects of PD pathology have been described in detail, but a better understanding of PD progression is needed to develop more efficient treatments.

Motor symptoms associated with PD do not manifest until ...


Is Dexamethasone 4mg A More Effective Anti-Emetic Than Dexamethasone 8mg For The Prevention Of Early Post-Operative Nausea And Vomiting In Women Undergoing Laparoscopic Gynecological Surgery?, Steven B. Doyle 2015 the University of Southern Mississippi

Is Dexamethasone 4mg A More Effective Anti-Emetic Than Dexamethasone 8mg For The Prevention Of Early Post-Operative Nausea And Vomiting In Women Undergoing Laparoscopic Gynecological Surgery?, Steven B. Doyle

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common problem in the surgical setting. It affects as much as 20 to 80 percent of patients undergoing surgery (D'souza, Swami, & Bhagwat, 2011). PONV can lead to increased patient costs and recovery time by causing the patient to stay in the healthcare facility for a longer period of time. A retrospective cohort study was completed to examine whether or not there was a significant difference between patients who received 4mg and 8mg of dexamethasone in the incidence of PONV. All patients studied received ondansetron intraoperatively as their primary anti-emetic. English speaking patients ...


The Effectiveness Of A Preoperative Multimodal Antiemetic Regimen On Reducing Early Postoperative Nausea And Vomiting In Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients, Jerry Mosley 2015 The Univeristy of Southern Mississippi

The Effectiveness Of A Preoperative Multimodal Antiemetic Regimen On Reducing Early Postoperative Nausea And Vomiting In Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients, Jerry Mosley

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs frequently in all types of surgeries including after total joint orthopedic procedures. The resulting PONV can lead to many unwanted occurrences including immobilization, distress, and many serious adverse health complications. These unwanted occurrences may then lead to increased cost to the patient and healthcare facility. Administration of a preoperative multimodal regimen known to reduce PONV has the potential to reduce such unwanted anesthetic side effects influencing a reduction in overall healthcare cost. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the preoperative kit which includes the administration of metoclopramide, famotidine, ondansetron ...


Cardioprotective Role Of The Cholinergic System, Mouhamed Dakroub 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Cardioprotective Role Of The Cholinergic System, Mouhamed Dakroub

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The process of aging is an irreversible continuum experienced by all individuals. A large number of physiological transformations occur to the cardiovascular system as one ages. These changes result in increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, many of which are frequently seen in geriatric populations. While the exact mechanisms of age-related cardiac dysfunction have not been established, abnormal cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated in the pathology of other age related diseases; therefore, we have hypothesized that age induced cholinergic dysfunction is detrimental to cardiac function and health. This study seeks to identify whether increased cholinergic signaling, either by transgenic overexpression ...


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean PhD 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and is ...


Mechanisms And Intervention Strategies For Alcohol And Hiv-Antiretroviral Therapy-Induced Liver Injury., Hridgandh Donde 2015 University of Louisville

Mechanisms And Intervention Strategies For Alcohol And Hiv-Antiretroviral Therapy-Induced Liver Injury., Hridgandh Donde

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic alcohol consumption is a leading cause of liver disease and liver-related death worldwide. Alcoholic liver disease includes, hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis and ultimately fibrosis and cirrhosis. Emerging evidence has established the important role of the “gut-liver” axis in the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our recent work indicated that chronic alcohol induced perturbations in the gut microbiome and consequent changes in fatty acids have a major impact on the development of intestinal barrier dysfunction and ALD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with tributyrin - a butyrate prodrug results in protection against ALD in terms of ...


A Plant-Made Cholera Toxin B Subunit Enhances Mucosal Wound Healing And Protects Against Ulcerative Colitis And Colon Cancer., Keegan J Baldauf 2015 University of Louisville

A Plant-Made Cholera Toxin B Subunit Enhances Mucosal Wound Healing And Protects Against Ulcerative Colitis And Colon Cancer., Keegan J Baldauf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the previously unidentified effects of a plant-produced recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTBp) on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its ability to protect against inflammation in a mouse model of colonic injury and ulcerative colitis (UC). To comprehensively analyze CTBp’s impacts on the GI tract, we employed global analysis methodologies based on multi-color flow cytometry to analyze immune cell populations in GI and systemic lymphatic compartments, gene expression microarray to decipher transcript-level changes in the colon and small intestine, and 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize fecal microbiota. Based on a drastic shift observed in the immune ...


Study Of Gaba In Healthy Volunteers: Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics, Junfeng Li, Zhaoyun Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu, Yi Wang, Fei Mao, Junjun Mao, Xiaolan Lu, Dongdong Jiang, Yun Wan, Jia-Ying Lv, Guoying Cao, Jing Zhang, Naiqing Zhao, Mark Atkinson, Dale L. Greiner, Gerald J. Prud'homme, Zheng Jiao, Yiming Li, Qinghua Wang 2015 Fudan University

Study Of Gaba In Healthy Volunteers: Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics, Junfeng Li, Zhaoyun Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu, Yi Wang, Fei Mao, Junjun Mao, Xiaolan Lu, Dongdong Jiang, Yun Wan, Jia-Ying Lv, Guoying Cao, Jing Zhang, Naiqing Zhao, Mark Atkinson, Dale L. Greiner, Gerald J. Prud'homme, Zheng Jiao, Yiming Li, Qinghua Wang

Open Access Articles

Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for ...


Effect Of Biofield Treatment On Physical, Thermal, And Spectral Properties Of Sfre 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium, Mahendra Trivedi 2015 Trivedi Global Inc.

Effect Of Biofield Treatment On Physical, Thermal, And Spectral Properties Of Sfre 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87, and 5.89% decrease in ...


Effect Of Biofield Treatment On Physical, Thermal, And Spectral Properties Of Sfre 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium, Mahendra Trivedi 2015 Trivedi Global Inc.

Effect Of Biofield Treatment On Physical, Thermal, And Spectral Properties Of Sfre 199-1 Mammalian Cell Culture Medium, Mahendra Trivedi

Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

SFRE 199-1 medium (SFRE-M) is important mammalian cell culture medium, used for the culture of primary cells of mammals such as baboon kidney cells. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of SFRE-M. The study was accomplished in two groups; one was set as control while another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and coded as treated group. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were analyzed using various analytical techniques. The CHNO analysis showed about 2.16, 4.87, and 5.89% decrease in ...


Macrophage Uptake And Cytotoxicity Of Paclitaxel Nanocrystals, Deborah Lee, Emeri Zhang, Wei Gao, Tonglei Li 2015 Purdue University

Macrophage Uptake And Cytotoxicity Of Paclitaxel Nanocrystals, Deborah Lee, Emeri Zhang, Wei Gao, Tonglei Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Effective drug delivery remains one of the most challenging tasks in combatting cancer cells. Anti-cancer drugs such as Paclitaxel (PTX) often struggle in having a high drug effect because they are often phagocytized by macrophages in Reticuloendothelial System (RES) before reaching the cancer cells. To combat this problem, PTX was inserted in a nanocrystal, coated with non-ionic surfactant F68; it is speculated that this formulation will minimize the particle aggregation and decrease the cellular uptake in the RES, which will increase the overall efficacy of the drug in the target areas. The aim of this project was to compare the ...


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