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Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neurotransmitter systems are important in regulating the stress response. If a behavioral response is disproportional to a stressor it is characterized as anxiety-like behavior. Many anxiolytic compounds, such as ethanol, increase stressor engagement, but how these compounds interact with an organism on a neurogenetic level is less understood. In this study, I assessed the impact of chronic ethanol treatment on behavior and gene expression of GABAAreceptors subunits on two strains of zebrafish. Each strain was selectively bred to display the proactive or reactive stress coping style where proactive individuals will actively engage a stressor more than reactive individuals ...


Residual Next-Day Effects Of Alprazolam On Psychomotor Performance And Simulated Driving In Healthy Normal Volunteers, Marion A. Coe 2019 University of Kentucky

Residual Next-Day Effects Of Alprazolam On Psychomotor Performance And Simulated Driving In Healthy Normal Volunteers, Marion A. Coe

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

The prevalence of drugged driving has increased in the United States, and some prescription medications (e.g., zolpidem) cause impairment after the predicted duration of therapeutic action has elapsed. The aim of this study is to determine if bedtime administration of alprazolam similarly impacts driving performance the following day.

Volunteers were 14 healthy adults (6 males) who completed a double-blind, double-dummy within-subjects design study examining the effects of alprazolam (0.5, 1, & 2mg), zolpidem (10mg), and placebo administered at bedtime on driving performance the following day. The positive control condition was alprazolam (1mg) administered on the test morning. Driving simulator ...


A Revisit To The Pretargeting Concept - A Target Conversion, Guozheng Liu 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Revisit To The Pretargeting Concept - A Target Conversion, Guozheng Liu

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Pretargeting is often used as a tumor targeting strategy that provides much higher tumor to non-tumor ratios than direct-targeting using radiolabeled antibody. Due to the multiple injections, pretargeting is investigated less than direct targeting, but the high T/NT ratios have rendered it more useful for therapy. While the progress in using this strategy for tumor therapy has been regularly reviewed in the literature, this review focuses on the nature and quantitative understanding of the pretargeting concept. By doing so, it is the goal of this review to accelerate pretargeting development and translation to the clinic and to prepare the ...


Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Ligands Regulate Dimer Selection., Jamie S. Rush 2018 University of Louisville

Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Ligands Regulate Dimer Selection., Jamie S. Rush

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are thirteen known endogenous EGF-like ligands. We previously reported that Betacellulin (BTC) increases ligand-mediated corneal wound healing more than Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) [Peterson et al. (2014) IOVS 55(5):2870-80], although the molecular reason for this is unknown. Despite being better at promoting wound healing via enhanced cell migration, BTC has reduced receptor affinity and weaker induction of EGFR phosphorylation. These data indicate that BTC’s response is not due to enhanced affinity or EGFR-kinase activity. Receptor phosphorylation and proximity ligation assays indicate that BTC treatment significantly increases ErbB3 phosphorylation and EGFR:ErbB3 heterodimers. BTC traffics EGFR at ...


Expression Of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Enzymes In Diabetes And Diabetic Nephropathy, Cheng Jay Fang 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Expression Of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Enzymes In Diabetes And Diabetic Nephropathy, Cheng Jay Fang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The prevalence of diabetes worldwide is rapidly increasing. Polypharmacy, along with a high risk of adverse drug reactions, is common in diabetic patients. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 2C drug metabolizing enzymes are reduced in chronic kidney disease (CKD), altering drug pharmacokinetics and contributing to adverse drug reactions. A large fraction of commonly prescribed drugs are metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2C. Approximately 40% of all CKD cases are attributed to diabetic nephropathy (DN) and early DN presents as mild kidney disease. This study aims to evaluate the impact of diabetes and DN on levels and activity of hepatic CYP3A and ...


Targeted Delivery Of Bioactive Molecules For Vascular Intervention And Tissue Engineering, Hannah A. Strobel, Elisabet I. Qendro, Eben Alsberg, Marsha W. Rolle 2018 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Targeted Delivery Of Bioactive Molecules For Vascular Intervention And Tissue Engineering, Hannah A. Strobel, Elisabet I. Qendro, Eben Alsberg, Marsha W. Rolle

Open Access Articles

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. Treatment often requires surgical interventions to re-open occluded vessels, bypass severe occlusions, or stabilize aneurysms. Despite the short-term success of such interventions, many ultimately fail due to thrombosis or restenosis (following stent placement), or incomplete healing (such as after aneurysm coil placement). Bioactive molecules capable of modulating host tissue responses and preventing these complications have been identified, but systemic delivery is often harmful or ineffective. This review discusses the use of localized bioactive molecule delivery methods to enhance the long-term success of vascular interventions, such as drug-eluting stents ...


The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment to alleviate the appendicular motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Current steering during DBS allows the unequal fractionation of current between two electrodes on the lead, resulting in a non-spherical electrical field. It is hypothesized that the way the electrical field is shaped will affect a patient’s upper limb symptom alleviation. Seven PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were tested over four weeks post-operation. 16 current fractionation settings were tested each week at an amplitude that increased weekly. Optimal setting was defined as the setting that provided the ...


Profile Interview With Norman E. Fenn, Shannon L. Castek 2018 Purdue University

Profile Interview With Norman E. Fenn, Shannon L. Castek

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Shannon L. Castek is a fourth-generation Boilermaker and fourth-professional-year student in the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. Throughout her time in pharmacy school, Shannon has enjoyed supplementing her curricular work with service-learning activities, participating in health screenings and immunization events with the Purdue chapter of the American Pharmacists Association–Academy of Student Pharmacists. She plans to pursue a pharmacy residency following graduation to achieve her dream of becoming an ambulatory care pharmacist. In this article, Shannon highlights the service-learning endeavors of Dr. Norman Fenn in the College of Pharmacy.


The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Pharmacy Student's Guide, Christian Egly, Yaman Kaakeh 2018 Purdue University

The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Pharmacy Student's Guide, Christian Egly, Yaman Kaakeh

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Christian Egly is a fourth-year (P4) pharmacy student in the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. During his years at Purdue, he worked in labs performing bench research in clinical pharmacology and biochemistry. He plans to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. During his fourth year, he completed rotations in business development at Kashiv Pharma, LLC, and was hired there for an internship in 2017. In the article, Christian describes his personal experiences at Kashiv Pharma, LLC, and how industry can positively affect patient communities.


Enriched Physical Environment Attenuates Spatial And Social Memory Impairments Of Aged Socially Isolated Mice, Linmei Wang, Min Cao, Tinglin Pu, Huang Huang, Charles Marshall, Ming Xiao 2018 Nanjing Medical University, China

Enriched Physical Environment Attenuates Spatial And Social Memory Impairments Of Aged Socially Isolated Mice, Linmei Wang, Min Cao, Tinglin Pu, Huang Huang, Charles Marshall, Ming Xiao

Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Social isolation in the elderly is one of the principal health risks in an aging society. Physical environmental enrichment is shown to improve sensory, cognitive, and motor functions, but it is unknown whether environmental enrichment can protect against brain impairments caused by social isolation.

Methods: Eighteen-month-old mice were housed, either grouped or isolated, in a standard or enriched environment for 2 months, respectively. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate cognitive functional and social interaction ability. Synaptic protein levels, myelination, neuroinflammation, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and NOD-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome signaling pathways were examined in the medial prefrontal cortex ...


Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim 2018 Old Dominion University

Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

The question of whether the human brain is an anatomical site of persistent HIV-1 infection during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical, but remains unanswered. The presence of virus in the brains of HIV patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed would demonstrate not only the potential for CNS to act as an anatomical HIV reservoir, but also the urgent need to understand the factors contributing to persistent HIV behind the blood-brain barrier. Here, we investigated for the first time the presence of cells harboring HIV DNA and RNA in the brains from subjects with undetectable plasma viral load and ...


Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong 2018 Old Dominion University

Antimicrobial Efficacy And Safety Of A Novel Gas Plasma-Activated Catheter Lock Solution, Sudhir Bhatt, Poonam Mehta, Chen Chen, Dayle A. Daines, Leonard A. Mermel, Hai-Lan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Antimicrobial lock solutions are important for prevention of microbial colonization and infection of long-term central venous catheters. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel antibiotic-free lock solution formed from gas plasma-activated disinfectant (PAD). Using a luminal biofilm model, viable cells of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in mature biofilms were reduced by 6 to 8 orders of magnitude with a PAD lock for 60 min. Subsequent 24-h incubation of PAD-treated samples resulted in no detectable regrowth of viable bacteria or fungi. As a comparison, the use of a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol lock solution for 60 ...


Wnt/Β-Catenin Mediated Cancer Stem Cell Activation In Hepatocellular Carcinoma., Harshulkumar M. Pandit 2018 University of Louisville

Wnt/Β-Catenin Mediated Cancer Stem Cell Activation In Hepatocellular Carcinoma., Harshulkumar M. Pandit

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers, with variable presentation, high chemotherapy resistance and early tumor recurrence. In this dissertation, we have systematically enriched, identified and characterized HCC cancer stem cells (CSCs) from 3 different HCC cell lines (Hepa1-6, HepG2, and Hep3B) using in vitro serum-free culture method. Enriched spheroids acquired CSC properties, primarily self-renewal capability, spheroid formation ability, and drug resistance. Heterogeneous CSCs enriched from Hepa1-6 cells demonstrated higher tumor initiation and proliferation capability in vivo, compared to control HCC cells in orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model. EpCAM+ CSCs were significantly enriched within heterogeneous Hepa1-6 CSC spheroids. Consequently ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney 2018 University of Louisville

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


A Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Variant Reverses Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Type 2 Diabetes., Qian Lin 2018 University of Louisville

A Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Variant Reverses Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Type 2 Diabetes., Qian Lin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder and is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our recently engineered FGF1 partial agonist, carrying triple mutations (FGF1HBS) exhibits greatly reduced proliferative potential, while preserving the full metabolic activity of wild-type FGF1. This study tests the preventive and therapeutic effects of FGF1HBS on NAFLD in db/db T2D and explores potential mechanisms. The results showed that administration of FGF1HBS to 2-month-old db/db mice for 2 months constantly lowered blood glucose levels, improved insulin sensitivity, and lowered liver weight, lipid deposition, and inflammation, along ...


Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller 2018 University of Louisville

Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inherent heterogeneity of tumor tissue presents a major challenge to nanoparticle-medicated drug delivery. This heterogeneity spans from the molecular to the cellular (cell types) and to the tissue (vasculature, extra-cellular matrix) scales. Here we employ computational modeling to evaluate therapeutic response as a function of vascular-induced tumor tissue heterogeneity. Using data with three-layered gold nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin, nanotherapy is simulated with different levels of tissue heterogeneity, and the treatment response is measured in terms of tumor regression. The results show that tumor vascular density non-trivially influences the nanoparticle uptake and washout, and the associated tissue response. The drug ...


Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell 2018 East Tennessee State University

Hiv Integrase Inhibitor Pharmacogenetics And Clinical Outcomes: An Exploratory Association Study, Derek E. Murrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As HIV is now primarily a chronic condition, treatment is given life-long with changes as necessitated by alterations in tolerability and efficacy. Thus, personalized medicine may be useful in the prevention of unnecessary drug exposure and avoidable side effects. Three of the four currently available HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir, are widely utilized antiretrovirals in the USA and exhibit variations in outcomes among subjects. To interrogate differences among subjects receiving these drugs, we investigated the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with drug exposure, clinical outcomes, and subject-reported adverse events. HIV+ adults (≥18 years ...


Anti-Tumor Activity Of Phenoxybenzamine And Its Inhibition Of Histone Deacetylases, Mario A. Inchiosa 2018 New York Medical College

Anti-Tumor Activity Of Phenoxybenzamine And Its Inhibition Of Histone Deacetylases, Mario A. Inchiosa

NYMC Faculty Publications

The principal finding from this study was the recognition that the α-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, possesses histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Phenoxybenzamine is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypertensive crises associated with tumors of the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas. It has several "off label" indications relative to its capacity to relax vascular smooth muscle and smooth muscle of the urogenital tract. The drug also has a long history of apparent efficacy in ameliorating, and perhaps reversing, the severe symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Our interest in this feature of the drug relates to the fact ...


Ovine Maternal And Fetal Cardiovascular Effects Of The Serotonergic Agonist R(-)-2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Methyl-Amphetamine And Characterization Of Serotonergic Receptors In The Ovine Uterine And Umbilical Vessels , Lubo Zhang 2018 Iowa State University

Ovine Maternal And Fetal Cardiovascular Effects Of The Serotonergic Agonist R(-)-2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Methyl-Amphetamine And Characterization Of Serotonergic Receptors In The Ovine Uterine And Umbilical Vessels , Lubo Zhang

Lubo Zhang, PhD

Maternal administration of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (DOM) produced a dose-dependent increase in maternal and fetal arterial blood pressure and a fall in the heart rate. Maternal uterine artery blood flow was dramatically decreased following DOM administration, and the uterine vascular resistance increased. These responses were accompanied by fetal hypoxemia, combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis, hypertension and bradycardia. The changes in the blood flow and the vascular resistance produced by DOM were always smaller in fetal umbilical arteries than in the maternal uterine artery. Maternal administration of ketanserin (1 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to the administration of DOM inhibited maternal and ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


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