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Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Solvents Propylene Glycol And Vegetable Glycerin On User Nicotine Delivery, Heart Rate, Subjective Effects, And Puff Topography, Tory Spindle 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Solvents Propylene Glycol And Vegetable Glycerin On User Nicotine Delivery, Heart Rate, Subjective Effects, And Puff Topography, Tory Spindle

Theses and Dissertations

Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that use a heating element to aerosolize a liquid, typically containing nicotine, allowing for user inhalation. Despite their rapid growth in popularity, little is known about ECIGs including how certain device and liquid factors influence nicotine delivery, user physiological and subjective responses, and puffing behavior (puff topography). Limited pre-clinical research has demonstrated that the ratio of two solvents commonly found in ECIG liquids, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), may have an influence on the nicotine content of ECIG aerosols. However, the extent to which PG:VG ratio in ECIG ...


Type 1 Diabetes Alters Lipid Handling And Metabolism In Human Fibroblasts And Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Albert R. Jones IV, Emily L. Coleman, Nicholas R. Husni, Jude T. Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Barbara E. Corkey 2017 Boston University

Type 1 Diabetes Alters Lipid Handling And Metabolism In Human Fibroblasts And Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Albert R. Jones Iv, Emily L. Coleman, Nicholas R. Husni, Jude T. Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Barbara E. Corkey

Center for Clinical and Translational Science Faculty Publications

Triggers of the autoimmune response that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain poorly understood. A possibility is that parallel changes in both T cells and target cells provoke autoimmune attack. We previously documented greater Ca2+ transients in fibroblasts from T1D subjects than non-T1D after exposure to fatty acids (FA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). These data indicate that metabolic and signal transduction defects present in T1D can be elicited ex vivo in isolated cells. Changes that precede T1D, including inflammation, may activate atypical responses in people that are genetically predisposed to T1D. To identify such cellular differences ...


Translating Genetic And Preclinical Findings Into Autism Therapies, Maria Chahrour, Robin Kleiman, M Chiara Manzini 2017 George Washington University

Translating Genetic And Preclinical Findings Into Autism Therapies, Maria Chahrour, Robin Kleiman, M Chiara Manzini

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive/restrictive interests. ASD is associated with multiple comorbidities, including intellectual disability, anxiety, and epilepsy. Evidence that ASD is highly heritable has spurred major efforts to unravel its genetics, revealing possible contributions from hundreds of genes through rare and common variation and through copy-number changes. In this perspective, we provide an overview of the current state of ASD genetics and of how genetic research has spurred the development of in vivo and in vitro models using animals and patient cells to evaluate the impact of genetic ...


Age-Related Host Factors Regulate Lung Cancer Progression., John Caleb Greenwell 2017 University of Louisville

Age-Related Host Factors Regulate Lung Cancer Progression., John Caleb Greenwell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is largely a disease of the elderly. In the United States alone, 87% of all cancers in 2017 will be diagnosed in individuals aged 50 years or older. Among them, lung cancer is the deadliest, accounting for 1 in 4 cancer deaths. The 5-year survival rate is below 20%, a number which has not changed substantially over the past several decades. This underscores a desperate need for new strategies in prevention, early detection and treatment of this deadly disease. While tobacco use is unquestionably the number one risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the majority of diagnoses ...


The Pharmacogene Variation (Pharmvar) Consortium: Incorporation Of The Human Cytochrome P450 (Cyp) Allele Nomenclature Database, Andrea Gaedigk, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Neil A. Miller, J Steven Leeder, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, Teri E. Klein 2017 Children's Mercy Kansas City

The Pharmacogene Variation (Pharmvar) Consortium: Incorporation Of The Human Cytochrome P450 (Cyp) Allele Nomenclature Database, Andrea Gaedigk, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Neil A. Miller, J Steven Leeder, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, Teri E. Klein

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Database, a critical resource to the pharmacogenetics and genomics communities, will be transitioning to the Pharmacogene Variation (PharmVar) Consortium. In this report we provide a summary of the current database, provide an overview of the PharmVar consortium and highlight the PharmVar database which will serve as the new home for pharmacogene nomenclature.


Intrathecal Administration Of Ayx2 Dna Decoy Produces A Long-Term Pain Treatment In Rat Models Of Chronic Pain By Inhibiting The Klf6, Klf9, And Klf15 Transcription Factors, Julien Mamet, Michael Klukinov, Scott Harris, Donald C. Manning, Simon Xie, Conrado Pascual, Bradley K. Taylor, Renee R. Donahue, David C. Yeomans 2017 Adynxx, Inc.

Intrathecal Administration Of Ayx2 Dna Decoy Produces A Long-Term Pain Treatment In Rat Models Of Chronic Pain By Inhibiting The Klf6, Klf9, And Klf15 Transcription Factors, Julien Mamet, Michael Klukinov, Scott Harris, Donald C. Manning, Simon Xie, Conrado Pascual, Bradley K. Taylor, Renee R. Donahue, David C. Yeomans

Physiology Faculty Publications

Background: Nociception is maintained by genome-wide regulation of transcription in the dorsal root ganglia—spinal cord network. Hence, transcription factors constitute a promising class of targets for breakthrough pharmacological interventions to treat chronic pain. DNA decoys are oligonucleotides and specific inhibitors of transcription factor activities. A methodological series of in vivo–in vitro screening cycles was performed with decoy/transcription factor couples to identify targets capable of producing a robust and long-lasting inhibition of established chronic pain. Decoys were injected intrathecally and their efficacy was tested in the spared nerve injury and chronic constriction injury models of chronic pain in ...


Protective Effect Of Beta-Sitosterol Against Ethanol Toxemia, Dakota Cooper, April Boucher-Zamzo 2017 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Protective Effect Of Beta-Sitosterol Against Ethanol Toxemia, Dakota Cooper, April Boucher-Zamzo

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Herbal medications have no indications of interactions with alcohol on their labels. There has been at least one clinical finding that saw palmetto with active ingredient beta-sitosterol used for enlarged male prostates caused pancreatic damage. This study with 20 male mice hypothesized that ethanol would increase the toxicity of beta-sitosterol. It was found that mice dosed by gavage with 0.1 ml of 95 proof ethanol died starting at the second dose and increased to 100% by the sixth dose (unexpected based on literature). 60-microgram injections of beta-sitosterol prevented deaths in 80% of the mice past the sixth dose opposite ...


Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman 2017 George Washington University

Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group) underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ...


Overexpressed Somatic Alleles Are Enriched In Functional Elements In Breast Cancer., Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Christian Miller, Muzi Li, Chris Trenkov, Yulian Manchev, Sonali Bahl, Stephanie Warnken, Liam Spurr, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2017 George Washington University

Overexpressed Somatic Alleles Are Enriched In Functional Elements In Breast Cancer., Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Christian Miller, Muzi Li, Chris Trenkov, Yulian Manchev, Sonali Bahl, Stephanie Warnken, Liam Spurr, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Asymmetric allele content in the transcriptome can be indicative of functional and selective features of the underlying genetic variants. Yet, imbalanced alleles, especially from diploid genome regions, are poorly explored in cancer. Here we systematically quantify and integrate the variant allele fraction from corresponding RNA and DNA sequence data from patients with breast cancer acquired through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We test for correlation between allele prevalence and functionality in known cancer-implicated genes from the Cancer Gene Census (CGC). We document significant allele-preferential expression of functional variants in CGC genes and across the entire dataset. Notably, we find frequent ...


Novel Insight Into The Liver-Lung Axis In Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury., Lauren G. Poole 2017 University of Louisville

Novel Insight Into The Liver-Lung Axis In Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury., Lauren G. Poole

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background. Individuals who chronically abuse alcohol are almost 4 times more likely to develop Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of Acute Lung Injury (ALI), but the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse sensitizes the lung to injury are poorly understood. However, the lung appears to share many parallel mechanisms of injury with the liver- a primary target of alcohol abuse. The overarching goal of this dissertation was therefore to expand on established mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver injury to ask innovative questions about mechanisms of alcohol-enhanced acute lung injury, as well as to develop new tools that may ...


Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, SuJin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee 2017 George Washington University

Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, Sujin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

linical challenges exist in reducing prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. The RNA splicing landscape of PCa across racial populations has not been fully explored as a potential molecular mechanism contributing to race-related tumour aggressiveness. Here, we identify novel genome-wide, race-specific RNA splicing events as critical drivers of PCa aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance in African American (AA) men. AA-enriched splice variants of PIK3CD, FGFR3, TSC2 and RASGRP2 contribute to greater oncogenic potential compared with corresponding European American (EA)-expressing variants. Ectopic overexpression of the newly cloned AA-enriched variant, PIK3CD-S, in EA PCa cell lines enhances AKT/mTOR signalling and increases proliferative and ...


A Novel Micro Cold Atmospheric Plasma Device For Glioblastoma Both In Vitro And In Vivo., Zhitong Chen, Hayk Simonyan, Xiaoqian Cheng, Eda Gjika, Li Lin, Jerome Canady, Jonathan H Sherman, Colin Young, Michael Keidar 2017 George Washington University

A Novel Micro Cold Atmospheric Plasma Device For Glioblastoma Both In Vitro And In Vivo., Zhitong Chen, Hayk Simonyan, Xiaoqian Cheng, Eda Gjika, Li Lin, Jerome Canady, Jonathan H Sherman, Colin Young, Michael Keidar

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is a rapidly expanding and emerging technology for cancer treatment. Direct CAP jet irradiation is limited to the skin and it can also be invoked as a supplement therapy during surgery as it only causes cell death in the upper three to five cell layers. However, the current cannulas from which the plasma emanates are too large for intracranial applications. To enhance efficiency and expand the applicability of the CAP method for brain tumors and reduce the gas flow rate and size of the plasma jet, a novel micro-sized CAP device (µCAP) was developed and ...


An Objective Assessment Of The Variability In Number Of Drops Per Bottle Of Glaucoma Medication, Daniel B. Moore, Judy Beck, Richard J. Kryscio 2017 University of Kentucky

An Objective Assessment Of The Variability In Number Of Drops Per Bottle Of Glaucoma Medication, Daniel B. Moore, Judy Beck, Richard J. Kryscio

Ophthalmology and Visual Science Faculty Publications

Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the number of eyedrops available per bottle of a variety of commonly prescribed glaucoma medications.

Methods: Six bottles of each glaucoma medication were tested: three each in the vertical and horizontal orientations. Bottles were housed in a customized force gauge apparatus designed to mimic ballpoint fingertip contact with a bottle. At a standard rate, all drops were expressed from each bottle and counted with an automated drop counter. Simultaneously, bottle volume was measured and drop size and number were also estimated. The main outcome measures were: total number of drops, volume ...


Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing 2017 Texas A & M University - College Station

Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing

Andrews Research Conference

Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is a strain of bacteria which produces a lantibiotic product, named mutacin 1140. Mutacin 1140 has been shown to be effective at inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutacin 1140 is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic that undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications (PTM). We have found that Mutacin 1140 and an aminoglycoside, Kanamycin, when combined together, act synergistically against Staphylococcus aureus. This was determined by performing serial kill curve dilution overlays on solid media, followed up with kill curve by microdilution plate, and most recently confirmed with kill curve CFU count plates on ...


Effects Of Anandamide Administration On Components Of Reward Processing, Howard C. Cromwell 2017 Bowling Green State University

Effects Of Anandamide Administration On Components Of Reward Processing, Howard C. Cromwell

Howard Casey Cromwell

Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter,on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios. The research presented here tested the hypothesis that anandamide wouldaugment motivation and reward processing via appetitive and ...


A Variant Pfcrt Isoform Can Contribute To Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To The First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine, Satish K. Dhingra, Devasha Redhi, Jill M. Combrinck, Tomas Yeo, John Okombo, Philipp P. Henrich, Annie N. Cowell, Purva Gupta, Matthew L. Stegman, Jonathan M. Hoke, Roland A. Cooper, Elizabeth Winzeler, Sachel Mok, Timothy J. Egan, David A. Fidock 2017 Old Dominion University

A Variant Pfcrt Isoform Can Contribute To Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To The First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine, Satish K. Dhingra, Devasha Redhi, Jill M. Combrinck, Tomas Yeo, John Okombo, Philipp P. Henrich, Annie N. Cowell, Purva Gupta, Matthew L. Stegman, Jonathan M. Hoke, Roland A. Cooper, Elizabeth Winzeler, Sachel Mok, Timothy J. Egan, David A. Fidock

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Current efforts to reduce the global burden of malaria are threatened by the rapid spread throughout Asia of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies, which includes increasing rates of clinical failure with dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine (PPQ) in Cambodia. Using zinc finger nuclease-based gene editing, we report that addition of the C101F mutation to the chloroquine (CQ) resistance-conferring PfCRT Dd2 isoform common to Asia can confer PPQ resistance to cultured parasites. Resistance was demonstrated as significantly higher PPQ concentrations causing 90% inhibition of parasite growth (IC90) or 50% parasite killing (50% lethal dose [LD50]). This mutation also reversed ...


Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson 2017 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) has been used in products as surfactants[AS1] . These products include fluoropolymers and as protective and water-resistant coatings to different materials such as carpets, paper, and textiles. Also, evidence of PFHxS exposure has been reported in firefighters who use certain film forming foams. Current investigations have shown widespread exposure to PFHxS in the environment, specifically in drinking water. There has also been evidence of PFHxS accumulation in humans, with a half-life lasting several years.

PFHxS is one of several perfluoronated alkyl substances (PFAS). Other PFASs are considered to be hepatotoxic in rodents and potentially in humans. Studies ...


The Role Of Complement Component C5a In Nociceptive Sensitization, Charles A. Warwick 2017 University of Iowa

The Role Of Complement Component C5a In Nociceptive Sensitization, Charles A. Warwick

Theses and Dissertations

The complement system is a principal component of innate immunity. Recent studies have underscored the importance of C5a and other complement components in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear how the complement system communicates with nociceptors and which ion channels and receptors are involved. Here we demonstrate that inflammatory thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant were accompanied by C5a upregulation and were markedly reduced by C5a receptor (C5aR1) knockout (KO) or treatment with the C5aR1 antagonist PMX53. Direct administration of C5a into the mouse hindpaw produced ...


Pharmacological And Antihyperalgesic Properties Of The Novel Α2/3 Preferring Gabaa Receptor Ligand Mp-Iii-024., Bradford D. Fischer, Raymond J. Schlitt, Bryan Z. Hamade, Sabah Rehman, Margot Ernst, Michael M. Poe, Guanguan Li, Revathi Kodali, Leggy A. Arnold, James M. Cook 2017 Rowan University

Pharmacological And Antihyperalgesic Properties Of The Novel Α2/3 Preferring Gabaa Receptor Ligand Mp-Iii-024., Bradford D. Fischer, Raymond J. Schlitt, Bryan Z. Hamade, Sabah Rehman, Margot Ernst, Michael M. Poe, Guanguan Li, Revathi Kodali, Leggy A. Arnold, James M. Cook

Bradford Fischer

γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are located in spinal nociceptive circuits where they modulate the transmission of pain sensory signals from the periphery to higher centers. Benzodiazepine-type drugs bind to GABAA receptors containing α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunits (α1GABAA, α2GABAA, α3GABAA and α5GABAA receptors, respectively) through which they inhibit the transmission of these signals. In the present study we describe the novel benzodiazepine site positive allosteric modulator modulator methyl 8-ethynyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]diazepine-3-carboxylate (MP-III-024). MP-III-024 displayed preference for α2GABAA and α3GABAA receptors relative to α1GABAA and α5GABAA receptors as well ...


Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors From Marine Brown Alga: A Literature Review, Eric Nunez Aguilar 2017 San Jose State University

Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors From Marine Brown Alga: A Literature Review, Eric Nunez Aguilar

McNair Research Journal SJSU

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes an infectious disease that if left untreated can progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and be fatal. Finding a cure and more treatments for HIV has become a top priority in medical research, and due to the cost of synthetic HIV medication, finding a low-cost alternative is essential. Marine pharmacology has provided a possible solution to costly HIV medication through compounds derived from marine brown algae that inhibit the HIV-1 protease (PR). The objective of this study is to emphasize the necessity for further research in HIV-1 protease inhibition using marine wildlife-derived ...


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