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Investigating The Effect Of Particulate Hexavalent Chromium On Homologous Recombination Repair, Cynthia L. Browning 2016 University of Maine at Orono

Investigating The Effect Of Particulate Hexavalent Chromium On Homologous Recombination Repair, Cynthia L. Browning

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Homologous recombination (HR) repair protects against genomic instability by maintaining high genomic fidelity during DNA double strand break repair. RAD51 nucleofilament formation is the defining step of HR repair, facilitating the search for a homologous sequence. Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a human lung carcinogen, induces DNA double strand breaks and chromosome instability. Since HR repair has been shown to protect against Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability, this study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on HR repair. We showed acute (24 h) Cr(VI) exposure induced a normal HR repair response. In contrast, prolonged (120 h) exposure to ...


Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang 2016 George Washington University

Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established. We contracted with a certified GreenScreen profiler to conduct three GreenScreen hazard assessments, for conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver. The contractor summarized publicly ...


Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler 2016 Iowa State University

Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler

James Hollis

Background: Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods: Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge ...


School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson 2016 George Washington University

School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the April 17, 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades K-12, a nursing care facility and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous ...


Book Reviews, Risk Editorial Board 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Reviews, Risk Editorial Board

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Reviews of the following books prepared by the editors of Risk on the topic of toxic tort litigation and/or public regulation of toxic substances:

Frank B. Cross, Environmentally Induced Cancer and the Law: Risks, Regulation and Victim Compensation, (1989).

Chemical Contamination and Its Victims: Medical Remedies, Legal Redress, and Public Policy (David W. Schnare & Martin T. Katzman, eds., 1989.

The Role of Science in Toxic Tort Litigation: Evaluating Causation and Risk: Drawn from Papers Presented at the TIPS Annual Meeting, August 1988, Toronto, Canada. Chicago, Ill: Tort and Insurance Practice Section, American Bar Association.


Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch 2016 University of Louisville

Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this project was to examine the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a mediator in the pathway between air pollution exposure and the development of vascular injury. A human cohort and male mice (C57BL/6 and ecSOD-Tg) were used to evaluate changes in the ET-1 system in response to exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Human ET-1 levels were significantly associated with environmental factors and markers of vascular change, but were decreased with increased PM2.5. No association was seen between ET-1 and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) except for EPC-4, possibly indicating a regulatory relationship with this ...


Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens 2016 Humane Society International

Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2016 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The Expert Meeting on alternative methods for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) potency testing was held at the BfR as the result of a decree from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), after it was informed by German state authorities about an increase in animal numbers being used in the LD50 potency test in mice for the purposes of BoNT potency testing. Ethical concerns have been raised in both Europe and the United States about the animal suffering involved in this type of testing, especially in the context of BoNT’s aesthetic applications. There had been increased ...


Protection Against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity, Susan Hall, Santosh Rudrawar, Matthew Zunk, Nijole Bernaitis, Devinder Arora, Catherine M. McDermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie 2016 Griffith University

Protection Against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity, Susan Hall, Santosh Rudrawar, Matthew Zunk, Nijole Bernaitis, Devinder Arora, Catherine M. Mcdermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The ...


From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

This project aimed to implement the use of metal silos to improve quality and safety of maize consumed by inhabitants of the highlands of Guatemala. This manuscript includes a literature review of the maize production chain in Guatemala, a survey about agricultural practices used in the region of study, as well as a characterization of the analyzed maize regarding its mycoflora, nutritional composition, and insect infestation. To better understand the current situation regarding agricultural practices and maize consumption, a survey was carried out. Sample consisted of 280 families representing 14 rural communities distributed in the townships of Todos Santos and ...


Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp

Biology Theses

Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...


Investigations Of The Effects Of Different Ventilation Structures On Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling (Pbpk) Simulations, Karen A. Yokley 2016 Elon University

Investigations Of The Effects Of Different Ventilation Structures On Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling (Pbpk) Simulations, Karen A. Yokley

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel

All College Thesis Program

This paper examines the effects of the chemical preservative bisphenol-A on the developing nervous systems of Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, larvae. This study examines the effects of bisphenol-A using both behavioral as well as morphological paradigms. It was determined that bisphenol-A significantly increased the amount of time larvae spent in seeking behavior, the number of peristaltic contractions, and the distance traveled in a linear fashion. In the morphological analysis, indications of increased dendritic area in experimental larvae existed, but there was not enough data to determine significance. For future research, it is recommended that more data be gathered to ...


Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo 2016 State University of New York Buffalo State

Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo

Forensic Science Theses

Currently the quantitation of opiates at the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office Toxicology Laboratory is conducted through whole blood analysis. The objective of this thesis project was to determine if the analysis of opiates could be conducted through liver analysis, and if the analysis of opiates would provide a more accurate quantitation compared to the blood analysis. The quantitation of opiates was conducted from the livers of sixty-four possible overdose cases that were brought into the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office between 2013 and 2015. Results showed that the opiate drugs could successfully be quantitated using the liver ...


The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts ...


Assessment Of Hepatic Micronutrient Disruption And The Hepatotoxicity Of 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (Pcb126), William Delbert Klaren 2016 University of Iowa

Assessment Of Hepatic Micronutrient Disruption And The Hepatotoxicity Of 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (Pcb126), William Delbert Klaren

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalent and ongoing exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) demands an understanding of the threat they pose and also a means in which to mitigate their potential toxicity. This thesis set out to investigate a phenomenon associated with a specific PCB congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), for the underpinnings of its mechanism, and also its usefulness as a toxin against which to establish a mitigative strategy. The phenomenon in particular is the disruption of hepatic trace elements, specifically an increase in copper and decreases in zinc, selenium, iron, and manganese in the liver. Four questions were posed to ...


Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are widely used in different industries including pharmaceutical and cosmetic production due to their adept physical and biological properties. Because CNCs are becoming a more prevalent material and have a high potential of being redistributed in the environment, it is important to understand their toxic potentials in biological systems, including organisms of various trophic levels. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of CNCs in the lower eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells using autobioluminescent yeast and human cell reporters, respectively. The S. cerevisiae and HEK293 reporter cells were engineered to express a synthetic ...


Evaluation Of Pulmonary Function Among Workers Engaged In The Manufacture Of Hydraulic Fracking Proppant, Humairat H. Rahman 2016 University of South Florida

Evaluation Of Pulmonary Function Among Workers Engaged In The Manufacture Of Hydraulic Fracking Proppant, Humairat H. Rahman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Workers involved in hydraulic fracking processes are exposed to various types of chemicals and dusts in their workplaces, such as proppants, which hold open the fissures created in the fracking process. Recently, ceramic proppants have been developed that may be less hazardous to workers than traditional proppants. Pulmonary function testing of workers producing ceramic proppant was used to assess the potential inhalation hazards of ceramic proppant. Male workers (n = 100) from a producer of ceramic proppant were evaluated with pulmonary function test data collected and evaluated using The American Thoracic Society (ATS) acceptability criteria. A comparison group was selected from ...


Human Health Risk Characterization Of Petroleum Coke Calcining Facility Emissions, Davinderjit Singh 2016 University of South Florida

Human Health Risk Characterization Of Petroleum Coke Calcining Facility Emissions, Davinderjit Singh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Calcined coke is a high quality carbon material produced by calcining green petroleum coke. Calcining is the process of heating green petroleum coke in a kiln to remove excess moisture, extract all remaining hydrocarbons, and modify the crystalline structure of the coke into a denser, electrically conductive product. The final product, calcined coke, is primarily used to make carbon anodes for the aluminum industry and recarburizing agent for industries such as the steel industry. If not appropriately controlled, the calcining process could lead to excess production of particulate emissions from either handling or storing of raw coke, or from the ...


Anticonvulsant And Procognitive Properties Of Novel Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists In Male Adult Rats, Ali Kassem Saad 2016 United Arab Emirates University

Anticonvulsant And Procognitive Properties Of Novel Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists In Male Adult Rats, Ali Kassem Saad

Theses

To determine the potential of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) ligands as new antiepileptic and procognitive drugs, aromatic ether derivatives (1-12) belonging to the nonimidazole class of ligands, with high in-vitro binding affinity at human H3R, were tested for their in-vivo anticonvulsive activity in maximal electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced seizure models in male adult rats having phenytoin (PHT) and valproic acid (VPA) as the reference antiepileptic drugs, pitolisant (PIT) as the standard H3R antagonist/inverse agonist, and donepezil (DOZ) as a reference procognitive drug. Among the H3R ligands (1-12) tested in the current project, H3R antagonist 4 ...


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