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Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens 2016 Humane Society International

Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2016 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The Expert Meeting on alternative methods for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) potency testing was held at the BfR as the result of a decree from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), after it was informed by German state authorities about an increase in animal numbers being used in the LD50 potency test in mice for the purposes of BoNT potency testing. Ethical concerns have been raised in both Europe and the United States about the animal suffering involved in this type of testing, especially in the context of BoNT’s aesthetic applications. There had been increased ...


Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp

Biology Theses

Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...


Investigations Of The Effects Of Different Ventilation Structures On Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling (Pbpk) Simulations, Karen A. Yokley 2016 Elon University

Investigations Of The Effects Of Different Ventilation Structures On Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling (Pbpk) Simulations, Karen A. Yokley

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel

All College Thesis Program

This paper examines the effects of the chemical preservative bisphenol-A on the developing nervous systems of Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, larvae. This study examines the effects of bisphenol-A using both behavioral as well as morphological paradigms. It was determined that bisphenol-A significantly increased the amount of time larvae spent in seeking behavior, the number of peristaltic contractions, and the distance traveled in a linear fashion. In the morphological analysis, indications of increased dendritic area in experimental larvae existed, but there was not enough data to determine significance. For future research, it is recommended that more data be gathered to ...


Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo 2016 State University of New York Buffalo State

Comparing The Quantitation Of Opiates From Possible Drug Overdose Cases Using Results Of Blood Analysis And Liver Analysis, Lee Ann Garozzo

Forensic Science Theses

Currently the quantitation of opiates at the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office Toxicology Laboratory is conducted through whole blood analysis. The objective of this thesis project was to determine if the analysis of opiates could be conducted through liver analysis, and if the analysis of opiates would provide a more accurate quantitation compared to the blood analysis. The quantitation of opiates was conducted from the livers of sixty-four possible overdose cases that were brought into the Erie County Medical Examiner’s Office between 2013 and 2015. Results showed that the opiate drugs could successfully be quantitated using the liver ...


The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts ...


Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are widely used in different industries including pharmaceutical and cosmetic production due to their adept physical and biological properties. Because CNCs are becoming a more prevalent material and have a high potential of being redistributed in the environment, it is important to understand their toxic potentials in biological systems, including organisms of various trophic levels. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of CNCs in the lower eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells using autobioluminescent yeast and human cell reporters, respectively. The S. cerevisiae and HEK293 reporter cells were engineered to express a synthetic ...


Examining Mechanism Of Toxicity Of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles To Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Caenorhabditis Elegans, Michael Joseph Mashock 2016 Marquette University

Examining Mechanism Of Toxicity Of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles To Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Caenorhabditis Elegans, Michael Joseph Mashock

Dissertations (2009 -)

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are an up and coming technology increasingly being used in industrial and consumer applications and thus may pose risk to humans and the environment. In the present study, the toxic effects of CuO NPs were studied with two model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. The role of released Cu ions during dissolution of CuO NPs in growth media were studied with freshly suspended, aged NPs, and the released Cu2+ fraction. Exposures to the different Cu treatments showed significant inhibition of S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. Inhibition from the NPs was inversely proportional to size ...


Expansion Of The Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map For Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) In The United States Using Quantitative Sequencing, K J. Gellatly, S Krim, D J. Palenchar, K Shepherd, Kyong-Sup Yoon, C J. Rhodes, S H. Lee, J M. Clark 2016 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Expansion Of The Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map For Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) In The United States Using Quantitative Sequencing, K J. Gellatly, S Krim, D J. Palenchar, K Shepherd, Kyong-Sup Yoon, C J. Rhodes, S H. Lee, J M. Clark

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

Pediculosis is a prevalent parasitic infestation of humans, which is increasing due, in part, to the selection of lice resistant to either the pyrethrins or pyrethroid insecticides by the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. To determine the extent and magnitude of the kdr-type mutations responsible for this resistance, lice were collected from 138 collection sites in 48 U.S. states from 22 July 2013 to 11 May 2015 and analyzed by quantitative sequencing. Previously published data were used for comparisons of the changes in the frequency of the kdr-type mutations over time. Mean percent resistance allele frequency (mean % RAF) values across ...


Assessment Of The Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase In Drug-Induced Cardiomyopathy, Alexis I. Brinkerhoff 2016 University of South Florida

Assessment Of The Role Of Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase In Drug-Induced Cardiomyopathy, Alexis I. Brinkerhoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Drug-induced cardiotoxicity has resulted in a thorough evaluation of patient doses, treatments, and rehabilitation. One of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents is cyclophosphamide. The active metabolite, acrolein, is one of the most potent inducers of cardiomyopathy. In this study, research was conducted on the H9c2 (2-1) cardiomyocyte cell line derived from the embryonic myocardium of rattus norvegicus to assess its competency for evaluation of the change in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. The application of this model to study the effects of acrolein on PARP activation was chosen as an ideal determinant of cell damage produced by nitrogen mustards ...


Assessment Of Acrolein-Induced Toxicity Using In-Vitro Modeling To Evaluate The Role Of Parp Inhibitors In Reducing Cytotoxicity, Kristina Marie Harand 2016 University of South Florida

Assessment Of Acrolein-Induced Toxicity Using In-Vitro Modeling To Evaluate The Role Of Parp Inhibitors In Reducing Cytotoxicity, Kristina Marie Harand

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Acrolein is an electrophilic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde. Additionally, acrolein is a metabolite of the antineoplastic alkylating agent cyclophosphamide and is implicated in off-target effects, including to bladder hemorrhagic cystitis and cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity, both of which have led to serious secondary iatrogenic injury during and following chemotherapy. At low concentrations acrolein inhibits cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis, while at high concentrations may result in secondary apoptosis promotion. This investigation assessed the role of the enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in acrolein induced toxicity using the established toxicological H9c2 (2-1) cardiomyoblast in vitro model. H9c2 (2-1) cells were plated in 24-well plates ...


The Effects Of Manufactured Nanomaterial Transformations On Bioavailability, Toxicity And Transcriptomic Responses Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Daniel L. Starnes 2016 Univeristy of Kentucky

The Effects Of Manufactured Nanomaterial Transformations On Bioavailability, Toxicity And Transcriptomic Responses Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Daniel L. Starnes

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

In recent decades, there has been a rapid expansion in the use of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs). Experimental evidence and material flow models predict that MNPs enter wastewater treatment plants and partition to sewage sludge and majority of that sludge is land applied as biosolids. During wastewater treatment and after land application, MNPs undergo biogeochemical transformations (aging). The primary transformation process for silver MNPs (Ag-MNPs) is sulfidation, while zinc oxide MNPs (ZnO-MNPs) most likely undergo phosphatation and sulfidation. Our overall goal was to assess bioavailability and toxicogenomic impacts of both pristine, defined as-synthesized, and aged Ag- and ZnO-MNPs, as well as ...


An Analysis Of Virtual Place Learning/Navigation In Children And Young Adults Prenatally Exposed To Alcohol, Neil Christopher Dodge 2016 Wayne State University

An Analysis Of Virtual Place Learning/Navigation In Children And Young Adults Prenatally Exposed To Alcohol, Neil Christopher Dodge

Wayne State University Dissertations

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder refers to the spectrum of disorders resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure and is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation. Rodent studies have found that prenatal alcohol exposure impairs performance on the Morris water maze. This task requires the rodent to use distal room cues to locate a hidden platform in a pool of opaque water. Successful performance on this task is dependent upon hippocampal function. Rodents prenatally exposed to alcohol are impaired on the Morris water maze and show damage to hippocampal neurons. A human analogue of the Morris water maze, the virtual water maze ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr. 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Toxic build-ups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). The mechanisms of ammonia-induced brain swelling and tolerance remain elusive, but several studies have suggested a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of astrocytes in the brain. As a result, osmotic gradients across cell membranes may be altered leading to water uptake by astrocytes and swelling. While a role for ROS has been proposed in mammals, no studies have addressed this question in teleosts, in ...


Nickel And Copper Mixture Toxicity To Daphnia In Soft Water, Prachi Deshpande 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Nickel And Copper Mixture Toxicity To Daphnia In Soft Water, Prachi Deshpande

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Industrially important metals, such as Cu and Ni, sometimes are present at elevated concentrations in lakes, including those in the Sudbury, ON region. Although they are essential metals, their divalent-cation state (Cu2+ and Ni2+) can be toxic at high concentrations in the water. The free-ion toxicity of each of these metals has been studied in isolation, but rarely as a mixture. The economic importance of Cu2+ and Ni2+ makes them essential to study in the context of mixture toxicity. The objectives were to: (1) determine Cu and Ni mixture toxicity to Daphnia through acute LC50 tests ...


The Sublethal Physiological Effects Of Exposure To Copper And Silver Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Wesley Truong 2016 truo7840

The Sublethal Physiological Effects Of Exposure To Copper And Silver Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Wesley Truong

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The mechanisms behind metal-metal interactions in freshwater environments are currently not well understood. Freshwater environments consist of many different types of metals, from those naturally present such as copper (Cu) and those that originate from anthropogenic sources like silver (Ag). Both Cu and Ag use apical sodium (Na+) channels for uptake into the gills of freshwater fish. In the gills, the mechanisms of Cu2+ and Ag+ toxicity appear to be similar to one another, which is by inhibiting Na+ /potassium (K+)- adenosine triphosphatase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Inhibition of NKA and CA results in ionoregulatory disturbances where branchial ...


Characterizing The Smell Of Marijuana By Odor Impact Of Volatile Compounds: An Application Of Simultaneous Chemical And Sensory Analysis, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel 2015 Iowa State University

Characterizing The Smell Of Marijuana By Odor Impact Of Volatile Compounds: An Application Of Simultaneous Chemical And Sensory Analysis, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Recent US legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in ...


Odor Impact Of Volatiles Emitted From Marijuana, Cocaine, Heroin And Their Surrogate Scents, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel 2015 Iowa State University

Odor Impact Of Volatiles Emitted From Marijuana, Cocaine, Heroin And Their Surrogate Scents, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Volatile compounds emitted into headspace from illicit street drugs have been identified, but until now odor impact of these compounds have not been reported. Data in support of identification of these compounds and their odor impact to human nose are presented. In addition, data is reported on odor detection thresholds for canines highlighting differences with human ODTs and needs to address gaps in knowledge. New data presented here include: (1) compound identification, (2) gas chromatography (GC) column retention times, (3) mass spectral data, (4) odor descriptors from 2 databases, (5) human odor detection thresholds from 2 databases, (6) calculated odor ...


Lead Exposure In Children Through Water And Soil, Sravya Maru 2015 Western Kentucky University

Lead Exposure In Children Through Water And Soil, Sravya Maru

Environmental Management & Risk Assessment (PH 560)

Lead is a metal which has the ability to spread in the earth’s crust and has corrosive property. It is a naturally occurring metal which is soft in nature. Lead exposure in children is through various pathways and the major concentrated sources are the soil and drinking water. Children are most susceptible to lead exposure is due to their growing/developing bodies which are very sensitive to lead. Lead poisoning in children is a preventable environmental disease affecting many children around the world. This paper discusses how soil and water plays a major role in lead exposure to children ...


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