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Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson 2017 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) has been used in products as surfactants[AS1] . These products include fluoropolymers and as protective and water-resistant coatings to different materials such as carpets, paper, and textiles. Also, evidence of PFHxS exposure has been reported in firefighters who use certain film forming foams. Current investigations have shown widespread exposure to PFHxS in the environment, specifically in drinking water. There has also been evidence of PFHxS accumulation in humans, with a half-life lasting several years.

PFHxS is one of several perfluoronated alkyl substances (PFAS). Other PFASs are considered to be hepatotoxic in rodents and potentially in humans. Studies ...


Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Western snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) are philopatric shorebirds sporadically distributed during the breeding season at saline lake and alkali flat breeding environments of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. The major conservation threat to interior snowy plovers breeding on the SGP derives from anthropogenic modification of breeding environments. The SGP is one of the most intensively cultivated regions in the world, and excessive groundwater mining and resulting deterioration of artesian spring flows reduces site quantity and quality critical for regional successful nesting. Most saline lakes now primarily receive freshwater inputs via irregular precipitation events and ...


Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar 2017 University of Kentucky

Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings ...


Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis

Undergraduate Research Posters

“Kratom” is the common name for the botanical mitragyna speciosa. It is a tree native to Southeast Asia in which leaves contain the psychoactive alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is often ingested as teas, chewed, or smoked. It acts as a stimulant in small doses and as an opioid in large doses. Overdoses can result in vomiting, seizures, and death. Recently the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) placed Kratom on Schedule 1, but, due to public outcry, it was almost immediately removed.

Eleven kratom based products were obtained from various tobacco shops, “headshops” and via the internet including: Choice brand capsule ...


Total Organic Iodine Quantification And Occurrence In Drinking Water, And Toxicity Assessment Of Iodinated Disinfection By-Products, Rassil El Sayess 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Total Organic Iodine Quantification And Occurrence In Drinking Water, And Toxicity Assessment Of Iodinated Disinfection By-Products, Rassil El Sayess

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

The focus of this work has been placed is on iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs), measured using total organic iodine (TOI), a surrogate measure of iodinated organics. This is due to the growing toxicity literature that places I-DBPs among the most toxic of all DBPs. To measure TOI in water, a new method was developed. This method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. Three factors were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method. The chosen method used a sample pH of less than 1 ...


Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class of 2017) 2017 Sacred Heart University

Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class Of 2017)

Writing Across the Curriculum

Current treatments for drug addiction involve classical pharmacological therapy, involving the use of competitive or noncompetitive agonists (full, partial, or inverse) and antagonists. Drugs of abuse enter the brain after crossing the blood-brain barrier rapidly and binding to the proper receptor(s). They are able to do so because they are small and lipid soluble, and produce reinforcing effects by increasing levels of dopamine in brain areas associated with reward. This occurs in specific systems associated with addiction. In the mesolimbic system, neuron cell bodies originate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala ...


Mercury Accumulation And Effects In The Brain Of Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhiszoprionodon Terranovae), Samantha L. Ehnert 2017 University of North Florida

Mercury Accumulation And Effects In The Brain Of Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhiszoprionodon Terranovae), Samantha L. Ehnert

UNF Theses and Dissertations

Sharks often bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) concentrations in their muscle to levels that threaten the health of human consumers. However, few published studies have examined if the high Hg levels seen in shark muscle also occur in the shark brain, or if Hg accumulation affects shark neurophysiology. Therefore, this study examined if shark brains accumulate significant levels of Hg, if Hg accumulation occurs in certain subcomponents of the brain, and if Hg accumulation is associated with oxidative stress effects on the shark central nervous system, with special focus on the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae). Sharks were collected along the U ...


A Multibiomarker Analysis Of Pollutant Effects On Atlantic Stingray Populations In Florida’S St. Johns River, John Whalen 2017 University of North Florida

A Multibiomarker Analysis Of Pollutant Effects On Atlantic Stingray Populations In Florida’S St. Johns River, John Whalen

UNF Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine the potential health effects of organochlorine (OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure on Atlantic stingray populations in Florida’s St. Johns River (SJR). Special emphasis was placed on identifying OC- and/or PAH-related effects in stingrays from areas of the lower (LSJR) and middle (MSJR) basins shown to possess elevated levels of these compounds, as well as characterizing baseline levels of pollutant exposure in the SJR shipping channel, which may be subjected to dredging in the near future, potentially resuspending and redistributing contaminated sediments and increasing pollutant-associated effects. To accomplish this ...


Bursian Et Al 2017 Overview Of Avian Toxicity Dwh Nrda Ees.Pdf, Steven Bursian, C R. Alexander, Dave Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, Karen M. Dean, Brian S. Dorr, Chris K. Ellis, Celine A. Goddard-Codding, Chris G. Guglielamo, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kendal E. Harr, Katherine A. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L V. Kennedy, Jane E. Link, Ivan Maggini, J K. Moye, C R. Perez, Chris A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K A. Trust, Pete L. Tuttle 2016 Michigan State University

Bursian Et Al 2017 Overview Of Avian Toxicity Dwh Nrda Ees.Pdf, Steven Bursian, C R. Alexander, Dave Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, Karen M. Dean, Brian S. Dorr, Chris K. Ellis, Celine A. Goddard-Codding, Chris G. Guglielamo, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kendal E. Harr, Katherine A. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L V. Kennedy, Jane E. Link, Ivan Maggini, J K. Moye, C R. Perez, Chris A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K A. Trust, Pete L. Tuttle

Brian S Dorr

The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA)process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20,2010. During the spill, more than 8500 dead and impaired birds representing at least 93 avian ...


Novel Tools For Targeting Pcbs And Pcb Metabolites Using Ssdna Aptamers, Marisa Genevive Salomon Beltran 2016 University of Iowa

Novel Tools For Targeting Pcbs And Pcb Metabolites Using Ssdna Aptamers, Marisa Genevive Salomon Beltran

Theses and Dissertations

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental chemicals. Mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are PCB metabolites found commonly in human blood, environmental water and sediment samples. Detection of small amounts of PCBs and their OH-PCB metabolites in biological matrices from epidemiological and laboratory studies remains a challenge.

The application of aptamers is studied as a means to identify and quantify PCBs and OH-PCBs. Aptamers are single stranded short oligonucleotides that arrange into unique shape of three-dimensional structures when binding to their target. Like antibodies they have high affinity and specificity for their specific target. The hypothesis is that aptamers can identify PCBs ...


Molecular Measurement Of Toxicity In Fish; Case Examples And Policy Implications, Jessica A. Freedman 2016 University of Rhode Island

Molecular Measurement Of Toxicity In Fish; Case Examples And Policy Implications, Jessica A. Freedman

Senior Honors Projects

Stormwater and oil are common urban contaminants that can be harmful to fish species. One way of recognizing exposed and impaired fish is by monitoring gene expression and gene induction. This study focused on the identification and validation of reference genes for measuring contaminant-induced changes in gene expression due to urban influence. In this study, reference genes (which are genes used to normalize data and remain consistent in varying exposures regardless of organism and tissue type) were established. Six genes were identified as reference genes (ef1a, wdtc1, mtm1, spop, rxrba and tuba1) from a longer list of potential reference genes ...


Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang 2016 George Washington University

Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established. We contracted with a certified GreenScreen profiler to conduct three GreenScreen hazard assessments, for conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver. The contractor summarized publicly ...


The Influence Of Oxygen Tension And Glycolytic And Citric Acid Cycle Substrates In Acrolein-Induced Cellular Injury In The Differentiated H9c2 Cardiac Cell Model, Jayme Coyle 2016 University of South Florida

The Influence Of Oxygen Tension And Glycolytic And Citric Acid Cycle Substrates In Acrolein-Induced Cellular Injury In The Differentiated H9c2 Cardiac Cell Model, Jayme Coyle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Most in vitro systems employ the standard cell culture maintenance conditions of 95 % air with 5 % CO2 to balance medium pH, which translates to culture oxygen tensions of approximately 20 % - above the typical ≤ 6 % found in most tissues. The current investigation, therefore, aims to characterize the effect of maintenance and toxicant exposure with a particular focus on the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein, in the presence of physiologically relevant oxygen tension using a differentiated H9c2 cardiomyoblast subclone. H9c2 cells were maintained separately in 20.1 and 5 % oxygen, after which cells were differentiated for five days, and then exposed to acrolein ...


Aneuploidy: A Common And Early Evidence-Based Biomarker For Carcinogens And Reproductive Toxicants., Daniele Mandrioli, Fiorella Belpoggi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Melissa J. Perry 2016 George Washington University

Aneuploidy: A Common And Early Evidence-Based Biomarker For Carcinogens And Reproductive Toxicants., Daniele Mandrioli, Fiorella Belpoggi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Melissa J. Perry

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. It has been well documented that aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Aneuploidies in oocytes and spermatozoa contribute to infertility, pregnancy loss and a number of congenital abnormalities, and sperm aneuploidy is associated with testicular cancer. It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells. In this paper we review 1) the contributions of aneuploidy to cancer, infertility, and developmental abnormalities; 2) techniques for ...


School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson 2016 George Washington University

School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the April 17, 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades K-12, a nursing care facility and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous ...


Quantifying The Toxicity Of 1-Methylnaphthalene To The Shallow-Water Coral, Porites Divaricata, For Use In The Target Lipid Model, Nicholas Turner 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Quantifying The Toxicity Of 1-Methylnaphthalene To The Shallow-Water Coral, Porites Divaricata, For Use In The Target Lipid Model, Nicholas Turner

Theses and Dissertations

The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodologies, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities among studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. This research evaluated the 48-hour toxicity of 1-methylnaphthalene to Porites divaricata using a continuous-flow passive dosing system. The range-finding exposure evaluated the dosing ...


Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

(+)-Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, is reported to be biologically active at various Central Nervous System(CNS) receptors. However, only a few Structure Activity Relationship(SAR) studies have been conducted using boldine’s aporphine scaffold. A library of novel analogs was synthesized from boldine to understand the effect of bisbenzylation at C2 and C9 positions on the affinity and selectivity at the serotonin receptors.


Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch 2016 University of Louisville

Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this project was to examine the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a mediator in the pathway between air pollution exposure and the development of vascular injury. A human cohort and male mice (C57BL/6 and ecSOD-Tg) were used to evaluate changes in the ET-1 system in response to exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Human ET-1 levels were significantly associated with environmental factors and markers of vascular change, but were decreased with increased PM2.5. No association was seen between ET-1 and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) except for EPC-4, possibly indicating a regulatory relationship with this ...


Evaluation Of Alterations In Dopamine And Neuro-Toxicity Caused By Co-Exposure To Lead (Pb) And Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs), Sabah Hassain Enayah 2016 University of Iowa

Evaluation Of Alterations In Dopamine And Neuro-Toxicity Caused By Co-Exposure To Lead (Pb) And Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs), Sabah Hassain Enayah

Theses and Dissertations

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic compounds that resist natural breakdown in the environment. Various toxic metals are found naturally in the earth and may become concentrated as a result a human activity. PCBs and toxic metals are a major public health concern due to human exposure from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Humans may be exposed to these chemicals from occupational sources, ingestion through food, drinking water and some medications. The main risk arising from environmental pollution by toxic metals and PCBS is damage to the nervous system. This thesis set out to answer two questions 1) does co-exposure ...


The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird 2016 Sapporo Medical University

The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird

Open Access Articles

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride ...


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