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The Influence Of Acidification And Copper Exposure On Copper Accumulation And Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Responses In The Pond Snail, Lymnaea Stagnalis, Gretchen K. Bielmyer-Fraser, Francis Alip, Ruth Adeyemi, Nolan Carney, Fasinia Santiago, Kyla Siemen, Kiley Donaghy 2020 Jacksonville University

The Influence Of Acidification And Copper Exposure On Copper Accumulation And Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Responses In The Pond Snail, Lymnaea Stagnalis, Gretchen K. Bielmyer-Fraser, Francis Alip, Ruth Adeyemi, Nolan Carney, Fasinia Santiago, Kyla Siemen, Kiley Donaghy

Georgia Journal of Science

Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising at an accelerated rated due to increased anthropogenic activities. Metals have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed combined exposure of both pollutants to sensitive, calcifying organisms in freshwater habitats. This study examined copper accumulation (over 7 d) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (over 2 d), in the freshwater common pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after exposure to ambient and increased (2000 µatm) CO2 and copper (control, 5, and 20 µg/L). Results demonstrated increased copper accumulation in soft tissue of snails exposed to copper; however, exposure ...


Multi-Label Model For Toxicity Prediction, Xiu Huan Yap, Michael L. Raymer 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Multi-Label Model For Toxicity Prediction, Xiu Huan Yap, Michael L. Raymer

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Most computational predictive models are specifically trained for a single toxicity endpoint. Since more than 1300 toxicity assays have been reported in the TOXCAST dashboard, achieving high coverage over this growing number of toxicity endpoints remains challenging. Furthermore, single-endpoint models lack the ability to learn dependencies between endpoints, such as those targeting similar biological pathways, which may be used to boost model performance. In this study, we characterize the performance of 3 multi-label classification (MLC) models, namely Classifier Chains (CC), Label Powersets (LP) and Stacking (SBR), on Tox21 challenge data. These MLC models employ the Problem Transformation approach, which is ...


The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek

UCARE Research Products

Cigarette butts are the most littered item in the world and contain over 4,000 chemicals, including the organic compound nicotine (Slaughter et al. 2011). Billions of cigarette butts are littered each year which may wash into bodies of water, impacting the local wildlife. To determine how introduced chemicals impact the environment, it is important to study its effects on indicator species. Amphibians, such as Lithobates catebeianus, act as indicator species due to their extreme sensitivity to chemical changes in its environment. The purpose of this research project was to obtain data to help determine the impact nicotine accumulation has ...


The Effects Of Trichloroethylene On The Germination And Early Development Of Radish, Butternut Squash, Corn, And Soybean, Sarah Jaksich 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effects Of Trichloroethylene On The Germination And Early Development Of Radish, Butternut Squash, Corn, And Soybean, Sarah Jaksich

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a small molecule used as a metal degreaser and as an extraction solvent for lipids. Historically, TCE has been used to clean missiles and rockets after testing at military sites. However, TCE has decreased in use due to its potential health hazards. TCE is particularly dangerous because it is soluble in water and easily seeps into ground water. As a result, TCE has contaminated groundwater in Mead, Nebraska. The town is near the formal Nebraska Ordnance Plant, a military factory specializing in bomb assembly, ammonium nitrate production, and explosives burning. Soil sampling in Mead indicated TCE levels ...


Natural Sources And Bioactivities Of 2,4-Di-Tert-Butylphenol And Its Analogs, Fuqiang Zhao, Ping Wang, Rima D. Lucardi, Zushang Su, Shiyou Li 2020 Shenyang University

Natural Sources And Bioactivities Of 2,4-Di-Tert-Butylphenol And Its Analogs, Fuqiang Zhao, Ping Wang, Rima D. Lucardi, Zushang Su, Shiyou Li

NCPC Publications and Patents

2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol or 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol (2,4-DTBP) is a common toxic secondary metabolite produced by various groups of organisms. The biosources and bioactivities of 2,4-DTBP have been well investigated, but the phenol has not been systematically reviewed. This article provides a comprehensive review of 2,4-DTBP and its analogs with emphasis on natural sources and bioactivities. 2,4-DTBP has been found in at least 169 species of bacteria (16 species, 10 families), fungi (11 species, eight families), diatom (one species, one family), liverwort (one species, one family), pteridiphyta (two species, two families), gymnosperms (four species, one ...


Development Of A Method For The Detection And Quantification Of Various Benzodiazepines And Z-Drugs In Human Blood And Qualitative Identification In Urine Samples Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Haley Michel 2020 The University of Akron

Development Of A Method For The Detection And Quantification Of Various Benzodiazepines And Z-Drugs In Human Blood And Qualitative Identification In Urine Samples Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Haley Michel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This method developed in the toxicology department at the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner’s Office (CCMEO) detects 40 benzodiazepines and metabolites along with several z-drugs in blood and urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A sample amount of 0.5 mL was used to detect analytes in postmortem drug facilitated sexual assault and impaired driving cases. Twenty-nine analytes met criteria for quantification while the remaining 14 were used as qualitative indicators. Bias and precision results for quality controls met criteria, staying within ±15% except for clonazolam and etizolam which were within ±20%. Quantitative reporting criteria which included dilution integrity ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


The Combined Effects Of Chemicals Used In Textile Processing On Plankton Communities., Diana Wilson 2020 Georgia Southern University

The Combined Effects Of Chemicals Used In Textile Processing On Plankton Communities., Diana Wilson

University Honors Program Theses

Industrial discharge, such as textile effluent, is a major source of chemical mixtures to surface waters. The effects of these mixtures on interacting aquatic organisms can be difficult to predict. We hypothesized that individual chemical effects on phytoplankton and a zooplankton grazer are altered by the presence of other chemicals in mixtures. Microcosms containing a phytoplankton food source (Chlorella sp.) and a zooplankton grazer (Daphnia magna) were exposed to THPC, ammonium, and hydrogen peroxide in a fully crossed design in a greenhouse for one week. Phytoplankton abundance was quantified and zooplankton response was measured as mortality and stress. THPC increased ...


An Evaluation Of The Susceptibility Of Goats To Larkspur Toxicosis, Kevin D. Welch, Clint A. Stonecipher, Dale R. Gardner, Benidict T. Green, Daniel Cook 2020 USDA-ARS

An Evaluation Of The Susceptibility Of Goats To Larkspur Toxicosis, Kevin D. Welch, Clint A. Stonecipher, Dale R. Gardner, Benidict T. Green, Daniel Cook

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses in western North America, whereas sheep have been shown to be resistant to larkspur toxicosis. Goats are often used as a small ruminant model to study poisonous plants, even though they can be more resistant to some poisonous plants. It is not known how susceptible goats are to the adverse effects of larkspurs. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of goats to larkspur toxicosis by performing a dose-response study. We dosed goats with D. barbeyi collected near Cedar City, Utah at 3.3, 4.4, 6.6, 8.8 ...


Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia

VIMS Articles

Workers in several industries are occupationally exposed to flame retardants. This study characterizes flame retardant exposure for nine industries through air and hand wipe measures for 105 workers. Specifically, we analyzed 24 analytes from three chemical classes: organophosphate flame retardants (OFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NPBFRs). The industries were: carpet installation, chemical manufacturing, foam manufacturing, electronic scrap, gymnastics, rigid board installation, nail salons, roofing, and spray polyurethane foam. Workers wore personal air samplers for two entire workdays and provided hand wipe samples before and after the second work day. Bulk products were also analyzed. The ...


Assessment Of The Toxicological Effects Of Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia 14 Days Post Treatment., Andrew C. Mixson 2020 Georgia Southern University

Assessment Of The Toxicological Effects Of Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia 14 Days Post Treatment., Andrew C. Mixson

University Honors Program Theses

Serious side effects and treatment resistance are the main impediments to successful cancer therapy. A variety of nanoparticles have been used for localized, site-specific treatment that prevent or circumvent these impediments. Microwaves alone have been previously used for thermal ablation of various tumors, setting precedence for their successful use in live organisms. In cell culture studies, it has been observed that multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) instantly and efficiently absorb microwaves, causing hyperthermia of cells in direct contact with them with unnoticed harm to other cells. It is hypothesized that a treatment can be developed based on a safe microwave heating ...


Investigating The Toxicology Of Intramuscular Injected Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia., Conner Clark 2020 Georgia Southern University

Investigating The Toxicology Of Intramuscular Injected Cnt-Ab In Mice Followed By Microwave Hyperthermia., Conner Clark

University Honors Program Theses

The advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has led to a wide range of research in various fields including cancer therapy for targeting specific localized and site-specific treatment. Carbon nanotubes bound to tumor specific antibodies (Ab) offers specific treatment for cancer cells without affecting surrounding tissue. This treatment makes use of infrared absorptive properties of nanotubes to incinerate both the nanotube and its associated tumor in vivo. We seek to affirm the initial results of CNT in cancer therapy by investigating the toxicological effect in mice injected with CNT-Ab followed by microwave hypothermia. After 1-week post-injection, mice were sacrificed followed by ...


The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans PhD 2020 West Virginia University

The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanotechnology takes advantage of cellular biology’s natural nanoscale operations by interacting with biomolecules differently than soluble or bulk materials, often altering normal cellular processes such as metabolism or growth. To gain a better understanding of how copper nanoparticles hybridized on cellulose fibers called carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) affected growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mechanisms of toxicity were explored. Multiple methodologies covering genetics, proteomics, metallomics, and metabolomics were used during this investigation. The work that lead to this dissertation discovered that these cellulosic copper nanoparticles had a unique toxicity compared to copper. Further investigation suggested a possible ionic or molecular mimicry ...


County-Level Analysis Reveals A Rapidly Shifting Landscape Of Insecticide Hazard To Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) On Us Farmland, Margaret R. Douglas, Douglas B. Sponsler, Eric V. Lonsdorf, Christina M. Grozinger 2020 Dickinson College

County-Level Analysis Reveals A Rapidly Shifting Landscape Of Insecticide Hazard To Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) On Us Farmland, Margaret R. Douglas, Douglas B. Sponsler, Eric V. Lonsdorf, Christina M. Grozinger

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Each year, millions of kilograms of insecticides are applied to crops in the US. While insecticide use supports food, fuel, and fiber production, it can also threaten non-target organisms, a concern underscored by mounting evidence of widespread decline of pollinator populations. Here, we integrate several public datasets to generate county-level annual estimates of total ‘bee toxic load’ (honey bee lethal doses) for insecticides applied in the US between 1997–2012, calculated separately for oral and contact toxicity. To explore the underlying components of the observed changes, we divide bee toxic load into extent (area treated) and intensity (application rate x ...


Acute Exposure To Tcdd Increases Liver Disease Progression In Mice With Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury, Giovan N. Cholico 2019 Boise State University

Acute Exposure To Tcdd Increases Liver Disease Progression In Mice With Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury, Giovan N. Cholico

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Liver disease is a worldwide problem and the 9th leading cause of death in the United States. Common causes of liver disease include alcohol abuse, virus infection, and nonalcoholic fatty liver. Regardless of etiology, liver damage elicits inflammation and drives the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which deposit collagen throughout the liver. During chronic injury, excessive collagen deposition, referred to as fibrosis or “scarring”, can progress to cirrhosis, cancer, and organ failure. Emerging evidence indicates a strong association between liver disease and exposure to environmental chemicals. This research investigated mechanisms by which exposure to the environmental contaminant 2 ...


Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui

Student Theses

Environmental factors, such as heavy metal exposures, have been suggested to have an impact not only on neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson’s disease, but also on psychostimulants abuse and their toxicity. In this study, two questions were addressed: 1) effects of mercuric chloride on parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced cytotoxicity and 2) effects of mercuric chloride on cell surface dopamine transporter. Pheochromocytorma cells (PC12) were treated with various concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.02~2.0 ppm) for 4 hours with and without 0.1 mM MPP+. Significant potentiation of toxicity was observed when there was co-treatment with 0 ...


Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom Ecology And Cyanotoxins In The Eutrophic Lake Winnebago-Green Bay Water System, Sarah L. Bartlett 2019 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom Ecology And Cyanotoxins In The Eutrophic Lake Winnebago-Green Bay Water System, Sarah L. Bartlett

Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) are frequently observed in water bodies used for recreation and drinking water production and can be detrimental to humans, animals, and general water quality. CyanoHABs are natural occurrences, but human activities such as agriculture, land use change, and runoff from urban and rural landscapes can promote and accelerate their expansion. The blooms are aesthetically unpleasing scums and can be laden with toxins (cyanotoxins) and toxic or otherwise bioactive peptides (TBPs) that can be harmful to humans and animals. Despite the vast research on cyanoHABs, cyanotoxin and TBP diversity and dynamics within a water column are ...


The Role Of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids In Blood Pressure Regulation And Secondhand Smoke-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Emily Anna Wheeler 2019 University of New Mexico

The Role Of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids In Blood Pressure Regulation And Secondhand Smoke-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Emily Anna Wheeler

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may lower cardiovascular disease risk by reducing blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that fat-1 transgenic mice, which convert n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs, would have improved vascular function in BP regulation and following secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, compared to wild type (WT) mice.

BP was recorded in mice fed an n-6 PUFA, or standard chow diet. On the n-6 PUFA diet fat-1 mice had a lower mean arterial pressure and a greater decrease in diastolic BP when treated with an ACE inhibitor, compared to WT mice. No differences were observed on the chow diet ...


Sustainable Solutions, Fall/Winter 2020, Issue 41, 2019 University of Louisville

Sustainable Solutions, Fall/Winter 2020, Issue 41

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Qualitative Approach To Comparative Exposure In Alternatives Assessment, William Greggs, Thomas Burns, Peter Egeghy, Michelle R. Embry, Peter Fantke, Bonnie Gaborek, Lauren Heine, Olivier Jolliet, Carolyn Lee, Derek Muir, Kathy Plotzke, Joseph Rinkevich, Neha Sunger, Jennifer Y. Tanir, Margaret Whittaker 2019 Soleil Consulting, Sanibel, FL

Qualitative Approach To Comparative Exposure In Alternatives Assessment, William Greggs, Thomas Burns, Peter Egeghy, Michelle R. Embry, Peter Fantke, Bonnie Gaborek, Lauren Heine, Olivier Jolliet, Carolyn Lee, Derek Muir, Kathy Plotzke, Joseph Rinkevich, Neha Sunger, Jennifer Y. Tanir, Margaret Whittaker

Health Faculty Publications

Most alternatives assessments (AAs) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, thereby ignoring potential differences in human and/or ecosystem exposures; as such, they may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. Building on the 2014 US National Academy of Sciences recommendations to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment into AAs, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which comprises scientists from academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations, developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected ...


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