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Machinery And Methods For Spraying, Herbert Osborn, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

Machinery And Methods For Spraying, Herbert Osborn, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The frequent requests for information as to methods of spraying, the apparatus to be used, and the formulae for preparation of insecticides and fungicides is sufficient reason why we present here a condensed statement of directions for this work.

There are now on the market a number of excellent outfits for spraying adapted to all grades of work, and it would be out of the question to specify any particular one to the exclusion of others as meeting all requirements. We are not under anv obligations to any firm for favors even to the extent ot apparatus for experimental work ...


Experiments With Arsenites, C. P. Gillette 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With Arsenites, C. P. Gillette

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Paris green was brought into prominence as an insecticide for the first time in this country in 1869 and London purple in 1877. Arsenious acid (white arsenic) was successfully used for the destruction of the Canker-worm as early as 1875 and is still frequently recommended for the destruction of insects. During these years the arsenites have arisen to the first rank as insect destroyers. They have been largely experimented with by entomologists and widely used by farmers and fruit-growers, and yet there is much difference of opinion as to the proportions in which each may be safely applied to different ...


Preparation Of Insecticides: London Purple And Paris Green, 2017 Iowa State University

Preparation Of Insecticides: London Purple And Paris Green

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

I speak of these substances first because they are of all insecticides, the most important. There is 110 insect that can take either of these poisons into its system and live, hence their great value for the destruction of leaf-eating insects where the application does not endanger the lives of other beings. The poisonous principal in both of these substances is arsenic of which Paris green contains about fifty-seven per cent, and London purple about forty-seven per cent. This difference should be taken into account when these two poisons are being prepared. It should also be borne in mind that ...


Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson 2017 Western Kentucky University

Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Amphibian populations have been experiencing rapid declines worldwide in the past few decades. There are many proposed causations, including the use of agricultural chemicals such as herbicides. Glyphosate based herbicides are one of the most widely used herbicides. This study looks at the effects of different brands of glyphosate-based herbicides, including those intended for aquatic use, on the survival and growth of axolotl salamander larvae. Out of four brands of glyphosate herbicide (Aquamaster, Aquaneat, Helosate plus, and Roundup Pro), the survival rates of Roundup Pro were the lowest. Most mortality occurred between the 3 mg/L and 6 mg/L ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Opioids And Cannabinoids In Wastewater Samples, Alethea Jacox 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Quantitative Analysis Of Opioids And Cannabinoids In Wastewater Samples, Alethea Jacox

Student Theses

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach that uses the analysis of human excretion products in wastewater to obtain information about exposure to drugs in defined population groups. We developed and validated an analytical method for the detection and quantification of opioids (morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone), and cannabinoids (9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor 9-carboxy- tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide) in raw influent wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation included linearity (5–1 000 ng/L for opioids, 10–1 000 ng/L for cannabinoids), imprecision (<21.2%), accuracy (83%–131%), matrix effect (from –35.1% to –14.7%) and extraction efficiency (25%–84%), limit of detection (1–5 ng/L) and quantification (5–10 ng/L) and auto-sampler stability (no loss detected). River, sewage overflow and wastewater samples were collected in triplicate from different locations in New York City and stored at -20 C until analysis. River water samples were negative for all the compounds. Water from sewage overflow location tested positive for morphine (10.7 ng/L), oxycodone (4.2–23.5 ng/L), oxymorphone (4.8 ng/L) and hydromorphone (4.2 ng/L). Wastewater samples tested positive for morphine (133.0– 258.3 ng/L), oxycodone (31.1– 63.6 ng/L), oxymorphone (16.0–56.8 ng/L), hydromorphone (6.8–18.0 ng/L), hydrocodone (4.0– 12.8 ng/L) and THCCOOH (168.2– 772.0 ng/L). This method is sensitive and specific for opioids and marijuana determination in wastewater samples.


Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine von Stackelberg 2017 Western Washington University

Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine Von Stackelberg

Graduate Student Conference

There are long-standing uncertainties about toxicity of chemical mixtures to populations. Laboratory toxicity tests have confirmed synergistic and antagonistic effects to individuals, but not to populations.We will conduct a regional scale ecological risk assessment by evaluating the effects chemical mixtures to populations with a new Bayesian Network- Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) incorporating an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP). We started applying this new BN-RRM framework in a case study with organophosphate pesticide mixtures (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and malathion). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChE) was chosen the molecular initiating event and the Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionary ...


Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Western snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) are philopatric shorebirds sporadically distributed during the breeding season at saline lake and alkali flat breeding environments of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. The major conservation threat to interior snowy plovers breeding on the SGP derives from anthropogenic modification of breeding environments. The SGP is one of the most intensively cultivated regions in the world, and excessive groundwater mining and resulting deterioration of artesian spring flows reduces site quantity and quality critical for regional successful nesting. Most saline lakes now primarily receive freshwater inputs via irregular precipitation events and ...


Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson 2017 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) has been used in products as surfactants[AS1] . These products include fluoropolymers and as protective and water-resistant coatings to different materials such as carpets, paper, and textiles. Also, evidence of PFHxS exposure has been reported in firefighters who use certain film forming foams. Current investigations have shown widespread exposure to PFHxS in the environment, specifically in drinking water. There has also been evidence of PFHxS accumulation in humans, with a half-life lasting several years.

PFHxS is one of several perfluoronated alkyl substances (PFAS). Other PFASs are considered to be hepatotoxic in rodents and potentially in humans. Studies ...


Climate Change Impacts On Mycotoxin Risks In Us Maize, F. Wu, D. Bhatnagar, T. Bui-Klimke, I. Carbone, Richard L. Hellmich, Gary P. Munkvold, P. Paul, G. Payne, Eugene S. Takle 2017 University of Pittsburgh - Main Campus

Climate Change Impacts On Mycotoxin Risks In Us Maize, F. Wu, D. Bhatnagar, T. Bui-Klimke, I. Carbone, Richard L. Hellmich, Gary P. Munkvold, P. Paul, G. Payne, Eugene S. Takle

Eugene Takle

To ensure future food security, it is crucial to understand how potential climate change scenarios will affect agriculture. One key area of interest is how climatic factors, both in the near- and the long-term future, could affect fungal infection of crops and mycotoxin production by these fungi. The objective of this paper is to review the potential impact of climate change on three important mycotoxins that contaminate maize in the United States, and to highlight key research questions and approaches for understanding this impact. Recent climate change analyses that pertain to agriculture and in particular to mycotoxigenic fungi are discussed ...


The Optimization Of The Nuclear Protein In Testis (Nut) Antibody And Its Importance And Impact In The Pathology Lab, Lindsey Martinez 2017 University of South Florida

The Optimization Of The Nuclear Protein In Testis (Nut) Antibody And Its Importance And Impact In The Pathology Lab, Lindsey Martinez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Optimization in immunohistochemistry is often a time consuming and complex process. There are a varying array of moving parts to consider all while preserving the sensitivity and specificity of the test. When optimizing an antibody it is important to consider the fixation of the tissue and the type of epitope retrieval that would be best suited for the test. The dilution of the primary antibody is a key marker for the efficiency and effectiveness of the laboratory protocol. The purpose of this study was to produce an optimized antibody for the nuclear protein in testis to detect NUT midline carcinoma ...


Kepone In The James River Estuary: Past, Current And Future Trends, Michael A. Unger, George G. Vadas 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Kepone In The James River Estuary: Past, Current And Future Trends, Michael A. Unger, George G. Vadas

Reports

In late 1975, a manufacturing facility in Hopewell, VA had not only exposed workers to the chlorinated pesticide, Kepone, but had also severely contaminated the James River estuary. To assess the potential risk to the public, Virginia initiated a finfish-monitoring program in late 1975. Over the next 40 years over 13,000 samples were collected from the James River and Chesapeake Bay and analyzed for Kepone. Kepone production was eventually banned worldwide. The average Kepone concentrations found in most species began falling when the production of Kepone ended, but the averages remained over the action limit of 0.3 mgkg ...


Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar 2017 University of Kentucky

Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings ...


Total Organic Iodine Quantification And Occurrence In Drinking Water, And Toxicity Assessment Of Iodinated Disinfection By-Products, Rassil El Sayess 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Total Organic Iodine Quantification And Occurrence In Drinking Water, And Toxicity Assessment Of Iodinated Disinfection By-Products, Rassil El Sayess

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

The focus of this work has been placed is on iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs), measured using total organic iodine (TOI), a surrogate measure of iodinated organics. This is due to the growing toxicity literature that places I-DBPs among the most toxic of all DBPs. To measure TOI in water, a new method was developed. This method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. Three factors were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method. The chosen method used a sample pH of less than 1 ...


A Multibiomarker Analysis Of Pollutant Effects On Atlantic Stingray Populations In Florida’S St. Johns River, John Whalen 2017 University of North Florida

A Multibiomarker Analysis Of Pollutant Effects On Atlantic Stingray Populations In Florida’S St. Johns River, John Whalen

UNF Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine the potential health effects of organochlorine (OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure on Atlantic stingray populations in Florida’s St. Johns River (SJR). Special emphasis was placed on identifying OC- and/or PAH-related effects in stingrays from areas of the lower (LSJR) and middle (MSJR) basins shown to possess elevated levels of these compounds, as well as characterizing baseline levels of pollutant exposure in the SJR shipping channel, which may be subjected to dredging in the near future, potentially resuspending and redistributing contaminated sediments and increasing pollutant-associated effects. To accomplish this ...


Effects Of Permethrin, A Pyrethroid Insecticide, On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, XIAO XIAO 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Effects Of Permethrin, A Pyrethroid Insecticide, On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Xiao Xiao

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

Over the last few decades, the decline of using organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides has partially contributed to the rising utilization of newer synthetic insecticides, which are considered as less harmful and more environmental friendly than the older generation of insecticides. Pyrethroid insecticides are one of the newer insecticide classes reported with better biodegradability and low mammalian toxicity without sacrificing its insecticidal efficacy. Permethrin is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides with structural similarity with natural pyrethrin insecticide from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. Since its introduction in the 1970’s, permethrin has been extensively used in medicine, military ...


Does Timing Of Herbicide Use Influence Rates Of Germination Or Seedling Biomass Of Native Plants Used For Restoration?, Christine McManamen 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Does Timing Of Herbicide Use Influence Rates Of Germination Or Seedling Biomass Of Native Plants Used For Restoration?, Christine Mcmanamen

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Invasive plants can negatively impact native grasslands by changing their species composition, productivity, and function. Managers commonly use herbicides as a control method; however, this practice can lead to secondary invasion by other non-native invasive plants, unless measures are taken to promote natives. Because of this, managers often seed native plants after spraying herbicides. There is evidence, however, that chemical control of invasive plants may reduce the effectiveness of subsequent seed-addition treatments, but there is currently little quantitative information on optimal timing between spraying and seeding or on variation in herbicide sensitivity among native plants commonly used in seed mixes ...


Mercury Accumulation And Effects In The Brain Of Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhiszoprionodon Terranovae), Samantha L. Ehnert 2017 University of North Florida

Mercury Accumulation And Effects In The Brain Of Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhiszoprionodon Terranovae), Samantha L. Ehnert

UNF Theses and Dissertations

Sharks often bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) concentrations in their muscle to levels that threaten the health of human consumers. However, few published studies have examined if the high Hg levels seen in shark muscle also occur in the shark brain, or if Hg accumulation affects shark neurophysiology. Therefore, this study examined if shark brains accumulate significant levels of Hg, if Hg accumulation occurs in certain subcomponents of the brain, and if Hg accumulation is associated with oxidative stress effects on the shark central nervous system, with special focus on the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae). Sharks were collected along the U ...


Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis

Undergraduate Research Posters

“Kratom” is the common name for the botanical mitragyna speciosa. It is a tree native to Southeast Asia in which leaves contain the psychoactive alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is often ingested as teas, chewed, or smoked. It acts as a stimulant in small doses and as an opioid in large doses. Overdoses can result in vomiting, seizures, and death. Recently the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) placed Kratom on Schedule 1, but, due to public outcry, it was almost immediately removed.

Eleven kratom based products were obtained from various tobacco shops, “headshops” and via the internet including: Choice brand capsule ...


Evaluation Of Childhood Exposure To Lead In Community Water Systems In Maine, Nicholas Flavin 2017 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service

Evaluation Of Childhood Exposure To Lead In Community Water Systems In Maine, Nicholas Flavin

Muskie School Capstones

The concentration of lead in Maine’s public drinking water was evaluated from 4,700 first-draw water samples collected from 358 Maine Community Water systems. Samples collected from 2012-2015 were obtained by request from the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (MeCDC)’s Drinking Water Program.

Exposure and physiological uptake of lead can be mathematically modelled or predicted based on the amount of lead in “background” sources of contaminated media such as soil, dust, water, air or dietary items; the better the characterization of lead in these media, the better the exposure predictions. To assess childhood lead exposure ...


Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class of 2017) 2017 Sacred Heart University

Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class Of 2017)

Writing Across the Curriculum

Current treatments for drug addiction involve classical pharmacological therapy, involving the use of competitive or noncompetitive agonists (full, partial, or inverse) and antagonists. Drugs of abuse enter the brain after crossing the blood-brain barrier rapidly and binding to the proper receptor(s). They are able to do so because they are small and lipid soluble, and produce reinforcing effects by increasing levels of dopamine in brain areas associated with reward. This occurs in specific systems associated with addiction. In the mesolimbic system, neuron cell bodies originate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala ...


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