Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, 2017 University of Kentucky
Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar
Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications
The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings ...
Molecular Measurement Of Toxicity In Fish; Case Examples And Policy Implications, 2016 University of Rhode Island
Molecular Measurement Of Toxicity In Fish; Case Examples And Policy Implications, Jessica A. Freedman
Senior Honors Projects
Stormwater and oil are common urban contaminants that can be harmful to fish species. One way of recognizing exposed and impaired fish is by monitoring gene expression and gene induction. This study focused on the identification and validation of reference genes for measuring contaminant-induced changes in gene expression due to urban influence. In this study, reference genes (which are genes used to normalize data and remain consistent in varying exposures regardless of organism and tissue type) were established. Six genes were identified as reference genes (ef1a, wdtc1, mtm1, spop, rxrba and tuba1) from a longer list of potential reference genes ...
Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang
Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established. We contracted with a certified GreenScreen profiler to conduct three GreenScreen hazard assessments, for conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver. The contractor summarized publicly ...
Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, 2016 Iowa State University
Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler
Background: Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods: Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge ...
The Influence Of Oxygen Tension And Glycolytic And Citric Acid Cycle Substrates In Acrolein-Induced Cellular Injury In The Differentiated H9c2 Cardiac Cell Model, Jayme Coyle
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Most in vitro systems employ the standard cell culture maintenance conditions of 95 % air with 5 % CO2 to balance medium pH, which translates to culture oxygen tensions of approximately 20 % - above the typical ≤ 6 % found in most tissues. The current investigation, therefore, aims to characterize the effect of maintenance and toxicant exposure with a particular focus on the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein, in the presence of physiologically relevant oxygen tension using a differentiated H9c2 cardiomyoblast subclone. H9c2 cells were maintained separately in 20.1 and 5 % oxygen, after which cells were differentiated for five days, and then exposed to acrolein ...
School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson
Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the April 17, 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades K-12, a nursing care facility and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries.
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous ...
Book Reviews, 2016 University of New Hampshire
Book Reviews, Risk Editorial Board
RISK: Health, Safety & Environment
Reviews of the following books prepared by the editors of Risk on the topic of toxic tort litigation and/or public regulation of toxic substances:
Frank B. Cross, Environmentally Induced Cancer and the Law: Risks, Regulation and Victim Compensation, (1989).
Chemical Contamination and Its Victims: Medical Remedies, Legal Redress, and Public Policy (David W. Schnare & Martin T. Katzman, eds., 1989.
The Role of Science in Toxic Tort Litigation: Evaluating Causation and Risk: Drawn from Papers Presented at the TIPS Annual Meeting, August 1988, Toronto, Canada. Chicago, Ill: Tort and Insurance Practice Section, American Bar Association.
Quantifying The Toxicity Of 1-Methylnaphthalene To The Shallow-Water Coral, Porites Divaricata, For Use In The Target Lipid Model, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
Quantifying The Toxicity Of 1-Methylnaphthalene To The Shallow-Water Coral, Porites Divaricata, For Use In The Target Lipid Model, Nicholas Turner
Theses and Dissertations
The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodologies, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities among studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. This research evaluated the 48-hour toxicity of 1-methylnaphthalene to Porites divaricata using a continuous-flow passive dosing system. The range-finding exposure evaluated the dosing ...
Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, 2016 CUNY Hunter College
Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
(+)-Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, is reported to be biologically active at various Central Nervous System(CNS) receptors. However, only a few Structure Activity Relationship(SAR) studies have been conducted using boldine’s aporphine scaffold. A library of novel analogs was synthesized from boldine to understand the effect of bisbenzylation at C2 and C9 positions on the affinity and selectivity at the serotonin receptors.
Evaluation Of Alterations In Dopamine And Neuro-Toxicity Caused By Co-Exposure To Lead (Pb) And Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs), Sabah Hassain Enayah
Theses and Dissertations
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic compounds that resist natural breakdown in the environment. Various toxic metals are found naturally in the earth and may become concentrated as a result a human activity. PCBs and toxic metals are a major public health concern due to human exposure from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Humans may be exposed to these chemicals from occupational sources, ingestion through food, drinking water and some medications. The main risk arising from environmental pollution by toxic metals and PCBS is damage to the nervous system. This thesis set out to answer two questions 1) does co-exposure ...
Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., 2016 University of Louisville
Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The goal of this project was to examine the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a mediator in the pathway between air pollution exposure and the development of vascular injury. A human cohort and male mice (C57BL/6 and ecSOD-Tg) were used to evaluate changes in the ET-1 system in response to exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Human ET-1 levels were significantly associated with environmental factors and markers of vascular change, but were decreased with increased PM2.5. No association was seen between ET-1 and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) except for EPC-4, possibly indicating a regulatory relationship with this ...
The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, 2016 Sapporo Medical University
The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird
Open Access Articles
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride ...
Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, 2016 Humane Society International
Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens
Martin Stephens, Ph.D.
Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...
The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, 2016 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)
The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch
Martin Stephens, Ph.D.
The Expert Meeting on alternative methods for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) potency testing was held at the BfR as the result of a decree from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), after it was informed by German state authorities about an increase in animal numbers being used in the LD50 potency test in mice for the purposes of BoNT potency testing. Ethical concerns have been raised in both Europe and the United States about the animal suffering involved in this type of testing, especially in the context of BoNT’s aesthetic applications. There had been increased ...
Protection Against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity, 2016 Griffith University
Protection Against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity, Susan Hall, Santosh Rudrawar, Matthew Zunk, Nijole Bernaitis, Devinder Arora, Catherine M. Mcdermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications
Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The ...
From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza
Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology
This project aimed to implement the use of metal silos to improve quality and safety of maize consumed by inhabitants of the highlands of Guatemala. This manuscript includes a literature review of the maize production chain in Guatemala, a survey about agricultural practices used in the region of study, as well as a characterization of the analyzed maize regarding its mycoflora, nutritional composition, and insect infestation. To better understand the current situation regarding agricultural practices and maize consumption, a survey was carried out. Sample consisted of 280 families representing 14 rural communities distributed in the townships of Todos Santos and ...
Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, 2016 University of Texas at Tyler
Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp
Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...
Investigations Of The Effects Of Different Ventilation Structures On Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling (Pbpk) Simulations, Karen A. Yokley
Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference
No abstract provided.
Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University
Effect Of Bisphenol-A On Neurodevelopment In Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae, Alexandra M. Streifel
All College Thesis Program
This paper examines the effects of the chemical preservative bisphenol-A on the developing nervous systems of Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, larvae. This study examines the effects of bisphenol-A using both behavioral as well as morphological paradigms. It was determined that bisphenol-A significantly increased the amount of time larvae spent in seeking behavior, the number of peristaltic contractions, and the distance traveled in a linear fashion. In the morphological analysis, indications of increased dendritic area in experimental larvae existed, but there was not enough data to determine significance. For future research, it is recommended that more data be gathered to ...
Influence Of Instream Habitat, Water Quality, And Crayfish Density On Injury Frequency In Crayfish Of Midwestern Channelized Headwater Streams, 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Influence Of Instream Habitat, Water Quality, And Crayfish Density On Injury Frequency In Crayfish Of Midwestern Channelized Headwater Streams, Tyler C. Wood
Many agricultural drainage ditches in the Midwestern United States are degraded headwater streams that possess communities of crayfish. We hypothesized that crayfish communities at sites with low instream habitat diversity and poor water quality would show greater evidence of aggression. In this study eight sites on channelized headwater streams feeding Cedar Creek in Northeastern Indiana, nine sites feeding Upper Big Walnut Creek in Central Ohio, and one site on the East Branch of the Saint Joseph River in Southeastern Michigan were monitored over two years for evidence of crayfish aggression. All adult crayfish captured were identified to species, sexed, measured ...