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Multigeneration Effects Of Chronic Exposure To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Gulf Killifish (Fundulus Grandis), Andrea Yammine 2017 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Multigeneration Effects Of Chronic Exposure To Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Gulf Killifish (Fundulus Grandis), Andrea Yammine

LSU Master's Theses

The goal of this study was to examine potential adaptation within two generations of Gulf killifish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) while also investigating the use of mucus as an effective and non-lethal alternative to determine concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and vitellogenin (VTG) of F. grandis. Multiple biomarkers were used to assess adaptation within these fish, such as lysozyme (enzyme critical in innate immunity), and 11-ketotestosterone and vitellogenin (endocrine hormones often affected by PAHs).

Mucal concentrations of 11-KT and VTG were determined and evaluated for effectiveness through comparative assays with blood plasma. This method was then applied to evaluate ...


Protective Effect Of Beta-Sitosterol Against Ethanol Toxemia, Dakota Cooper, April Boucher-Zamzo 2017 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Protective Effect Of Beta-Sitosterol Against Ethanol Toxemia, Dakota Cooper, April Boucher-Zamzo

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Herbal medications have no indications of interactions with alcohol on their labels. There has been at least one clinical finding that saw palmetto with active ingredient beta-sitosterol used for enlarged male prostates caused pancreatic damage. This study with 20 male mice hypothesized that ethanol would increase the toxicity of beta-sitosterol. It was found that mice dosed by gavage with 0.1 ml of 95 proof ethanol died starting at the second dose and increased to 100% by the sixth dose (unexpected based on literature). 60-microgram injections of beta-sitosterol prevented deaths in 80% of the mice past the sixth dose opposite ...


Mitigation Of Livestock Odors Using Black Light And A New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-Of-Concept, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer 2017 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Livestock Odors Using Black Light And A New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-Of-Concept, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer

Devin L. Maurer

Concentrated livestock feeding operations have become a source of odorous gas emissions that impact air quality. Comprehensive and practical technologies are needed for a sustainable mitigation of the emissions. In this study, we advance the concept of using a catalyst for barn walls and ceilings for odor mitigation. Two catalysts, a new TiO2-based catalyst, PureTi Clean, and a conventional Evonik (formerly Degussa, Evonik Industries, Essen, Germany) P25 (average particle size 25 nm) catalyst, were studied for use in reducing simulated odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on a laboratory scale. The UV source was black light. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl ...


Novel Insight Into The Liver-Lung Axis In Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury., Lauren G. Poole 2017 University of Louisville

Novel Insight Into The Liver-Lung Axis In Alcohol-Enhanced Acute Lung Injury., Lauren G. Poole

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background. Individuals who chronically abuse alcohol are almost 4 times more likely to develop Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of Acute Lung Injury (ALI), but the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse sensitizes the lung to injury are poorly understood. However, the lung appears to share many parallel mechanisms of injury with the liver- a primary target of alcohol abuse. The overarching goal of this dissertation was therefore to expand on established mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver injury to ask innovative questions about mechanisms of alcohol-enhanced acute lung injury, as well as to develop new tools that may ...


The Comparative Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Of Hexavalent Chromium In Humans And Sea Turtles., Rachel M. Speer 2017 University of Louisville

The Comparative Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Of Hexavalent Chromium In Humans And Sea Turtles., Rachel M. Speer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Monitoring the health effects of environmental contaminants can be achieved using sentinel species as models. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood. In this study the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate and soluble Cr(VI) were assessed in leatherback lung cells and compared to those in human lung cells. Cr(VI) induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in leatherback lung cells ...


Cognitive Impairment And Neuronal Damage In Alzheimer's Disease Are Malleable: Occupational Chlorpyrifos Exposure Exacerbates Phenotypes, While The Neuroprotective Compound P7c3 Ameliorates Effects In A Transgenic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Jaymie Richelle Voorhees 2017 University of Iowa

Cognitive Impairment And Neuronal Damage In Alzheimer's Disease Are Malleable: Occupational Chlorpyrifos Exposure Exacerbates Phenotypes, While The Neuroprotective Compound P7c3 Ameliorates Effects In A Transgenic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Jaymie Richelle Voorhees

Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of peoples’ lives worldwide. While the consequences of AD are recognizable, the etiology is unclear. Gene-environment interactions have been implicated in the development of the disease, and exposure to organophosphorus (OPs) compounds is one of the environmental factors associated with AD. Evidence links exposure to levels of OPs encountered in agriculture, horticulture, and other work places with neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be established. Here, we set out to examine the long-term consequences of exposure to a ...


Machinery And Methods For Spraying, Herbert Osborn, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

Machinery And Methods For Spraying, Herbert Osborn, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin

The frequent requests for information as to methods of spraying, the apparatus to be used, and the formulae for preparation of insecticides and fungicides is sufficient reason why we present here a condensed statement of directions for this work.

There are now on the market a number of excellent outfits for spraying adapted to all grades of work, and it would be out of the question to specify any particular one to the exclusion of others as meeting all requirements. We are not under anv obligations to any firm for favors even to the extent ot apparatus for experimental work ...


Experiments With Arsenites, C. P. Gillette 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With Arsenites, C. P. Gillette

Bulletin

Paris green was brought into prominence as an insecticide for the first time in this country in 1869 and London purple in 1877. Arsenious acid (white arsenic) was successfully used for the destruction of the Canker-worm as early as 1875 and is still frequently recommended for the destruction of insects. During these years the arsenites have arisen to the first rank as insect destroyers. They have been largely experimented with by entomologists and widely used by farmers and fruit-growers, and yet there is much difference of opinion as to the proportions in which each may be safely applied to different ...


Preparation Of Insecticides: London Purple And Paris Green, 2017 Iowa State University

Preparation Of Insecticides: London Purple And Paris Green

Bulletin

I speak of these substances first because they are of all insecticides, the most important. There is 110 insect that can take either of these poisons into its system and live, hence their great value for the destruction of leaf-eating insects where the application does not endanger the lives of other beings. The poisonous principal in both of these substances is arsenic of which Paris green contains about fifty-seven per cent, and London purple about forty-seven per cent. This difference should be taken into account when these two poisons are being prepared. It should also be borne in mind that ...


Distribution Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Among Demographic Categories, Giorvanni Merilis 2017 University of South Florida

Distribution Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Among Demographic Categories, Giorvanni Merilis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used within the United States in various products such as plastics, electronics, textiles and furniture. With an increase in production and usage, PBDEs have recently emerged as a contaminant of concern. Due to their chemical structure, PBDEs have the propensity to bioaccumulate in mammals. In fact, elevated PBDE concentrations have been recorded in human breast milk. Due to the potential widespread exposure to PBDEs, this study investigates human blood concentrations of PBDEs generated through the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Through the use of statistical modeling, a comparison of mean ...


Development Of An Automated Method For Selected Aromas Of Red Wines From Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari 2017 Iowa State University and DuPont Crop Protection

Development Of An Automated Method For Selected Aromas Of Red Wines From Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The aroma profile of red wine is complex and research focusing on aroma compounds and their links to viticultural and enological practices is needed. Current research is limited to wines made from cold-hardy cultivars (interspecific hybrids of vinifera and native N. American grapes). The objective of this research was to develop a fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method, using tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-olfactometry for the simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis of volatile/semi-volatile compounds and aroma in cold-hardy red wines. Specifically, the effects of SPME coating selection, extraction time, extraction temperature, incubation time, sample volume, desorption time ...


Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson 2017 Western Kentucky University

Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Amphibian populations have been experiencing rapid declines worldwide in the past few decades. There are many proposed causations, including the use of agricultural chemicals such as herbicides. Glyphosate based herbicides are one of the most widely used herbicides. This study looks at the effects of different brands of glyphosate-based herbicides, including those intended for aquatic use, on the survival and growth of axolotl salamander larvae. Out of four brands of glyphosate herbicide (Aquamaster, Aquaneat, Helosate plus, and Roundup Pro), the survival rates of Roundup Pro were the lowest. Most mortality occurred between the 3 mg/L and 6 mg/L ...


Mitigation Of Livestock Odors Using Black Light And A New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-Of-Concept, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer 2017 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Livestock Odors Using Black Light And A New Titanium Dioxide-Based Catalyst: Proof-Of-Concept, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Devin L. Maurer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Concentrated livestock feeding operations have become a source of odorous gas emissions that impact air quality. Comprehensive and practical technologies are needed for a sustainable mitigation of the emissions. In this study, we advance the concept of using a catalyst for barn walls and ceilings for odor mitigation. Two catalysts, a new TiO2-based catalyst, PureTi Clean, and a conventional Evonik (formerly Degussa, Evonik Industries, Essen, Germany) P25 (average particle size 25 nm) catalyst, were studied for use in reducing simulated odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions on a laboratory scale. The UV source was black light. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Opioids And Cannabinoids In Wastewater Samples, Alethea Jacox 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Quantitative Analysis Of Opioids And Cannabinoids In Wastewater Samples, Alethea Jacox

Student Theses

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach that uses the analysis of human excretion products in wastewater to obtain information about exposure to drugs in defined population groups. We developed and validated an analytical method for the detection and quantification of opioids (morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone), and cannabinoids (9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor 9-carboxy- tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide) in raw influent wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation included linearity (5–1 000 ng/L for opioids, 10–1 000 ng/L for cannabinoids), imprecision (<21.2%), accuracy (83%–131%), matrix effect (from –35.1% to –14.7%) and extraction efficiency (25%–84%), limit of detection (1–5 ng/L) and quantification (5–10 ng/L) and auto-sampler stability (no loss detected). River, sewage overflow and wastewater samples were collected in triplicate from different locations in New York City and stored at -20 C until analysis. River water samples were negative for all the compounds. Water from sewage overflow location tested positive for morphine (10.7 ng/L), oxycodone (4.2–23.5 ng/L), oxymorphone (4.8 ng/L) and hydromorphone (4.2 ng/L). Wastewater samples tested positive for morphine (133.0– 258.3 ng/L), oxycodone (31.1– 63.6 ng/L), oxymorphone (16.0–56.8 ng/L), hydromorphone (6.8–18.0 ng/L), hydrocodone (4.0– 12.8 ng/L) and THCCOOH (168.2– 772.0 ng/L). This method is sensitive and specific for opioids and marijuana determination in wastewater samples.


Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine von Stackelberg 2017 Western Washington University

Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine Von Stackelberg

Graduate Student Conference

There are long-standing uncertainties about toxicity of chemical mixtures to populations. Laboratory toxicity tests have confirmed synergistic and antagonistic effects to individuals, but not to populations.We will conduct a regional scale ecological risk assessment by evaluating the effects chemical mixtures to populations with a new Bayesian Network- Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) incorporating an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP). We started applying this new BN-RRM framework in a case study with organophosphate pesticide mixtures (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and malathion). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChE) was chosen the molecular initiating event and the Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionary ...


Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Mercury Concentrations In Snowy Plovers And Sediments Of Their Breeding Environments In The Southern Great Plains, Laura Duffie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Western snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) are philopatric shorebirds sporadically distributed during the breeding season at saline lake and alkali flat breeding environments of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. The major conservation threat to interior snowy plovers breeding on the SGP derives from anthropogenic modification of breeding environments. The SGP is one of the most intensively cultivated regions in the world, and excessive groundwater mining and resulting deterioration of artesian spring flows reduces site quantity and quality critical for regional successful nesting. Most saline lakes now primarily receive freshwater inputs via irregular precipitation events and ...


Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson 2017 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) has been used in products as surfactants[AS1] . These products include fluoropolymers and as protective and water-resistant coatings to different materials such as carpets, paper, and textiles. Also, evidence of PFHxS exposure has been reported in firefighters who use certain film forming foams. Current investigations have shown widespread exposure to PFHxS in the environment, specifically in drinking water. There has also been evidence of PFHxS accumulation in humans, with a half-life lasting several years.

PFHxS is one of several perfluoronated alkyl substances (PFAS). Other PFASs are considered to be hepatotoxic in rodents and potentially in humans. Studies ...


The Optimization Of The Nuclear Protein In Testis (Nut) Antibody And Its Importance And Impact In The Pathology Lab, Lindsey Martinez 2017 University of South Florida

The Optimization Of The Nuclear Protein In Testis (Nut) Antibody And Its Importance And Impact In The Pathology Lab, Lindsey Martinez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Optimization in immunohistochemistry is often a time consuming and complex process. There are a varying array of moving parts to consider all while preserving the sensitivity and specificity of the test. When optimizing an antibody it is important to consider the fixation of the tissue and the type of epitope retrieval that would be best suited for the test. The dilution of the primary antibody is a key marker for the efficiency and effectiveness of the laboratory protocol. The purpose of this study was to produce an optimized antibody for the nuclear protein in testis to detect NUT midline carcinoma ...


Kepone In The James River Estuary: Past, Current And Future Trends, Michael A. Unger, George G. Vadas 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Kepone In The James River Estuary: Past, Current And Future Trends, Michael A. Unger, George G. Vadas

Reports

In late 1975, a manufacturing facility in Hopewell, VA had not only exposed workers to the chlorinated pesticide, Kepone, but had also severely contaminated the James River estuary. To assess the potential risk to the public, Virginia initiated a finfish-monitoring program in late 1975. Over the next 40 years over 13,000 samples were collected from the James River and Chesapeake Bay and analyzed for Kepone. Kepone production was eventually banned worldwide. The average Kepone concentrations found in most species began falling when the production of Kepone ended, but the averages remained over the action limit of 0.3 mgkg ...


Mechanisms Of Thymic Toxicity Induced By Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Of Arsenic, Huan Xu 2017 University of New Mexico

Mechanisms Of Thymic Toxicity Induced By Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Of Arsenic, Huan Xu

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is known to cause immunotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of arsenic induced immunotoxicity are still not clear. Arsenite (As+3), the trivalent inorganic form of arsenic, was found to increase DNA damage and inhibit PARP activity in thymus cells at 50 nM in vitro. Oxidative stress and double strand breaks (DSBs) formation occurred in thymus cells exposed to As+3 at 500 nM. The genotoxicity was found to be related to As+3 exporter expressions and reversed by zinc supplement. IL-7 signaling, the critical cytokine signal for the early DN thymic T cell proliferation, was found ...


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