Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Toxicology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

961 Full-Text Articles 1,765 Authors 296,614 Downloads 125 Institutions

All Articles in Toxicology

Faceted Search

961 full-text articles. Page 1 of 35.

Predicting The Spatiotemporal Exposure Of Aquatic Species To Intrusions Of Fire Retardant In Streams With Limited Data, Chris R. Rehmann, P. Ryan Jackson, Holly J. Puglis 2021 Iowa State University

Predicting The Spatiotemporal Exposure Of Aquatic Species To Intrusions Of Fire Retardant In Streams With Limited Data, Chris R. Rehmann, P. Ryan Jackson, Holly J. Puglis

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Because fire retardant can enter streams and harm aquatic species including endangered fish, agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) must estimate the downstream extent of toxic effects every time fire retardant enters streams (denoted as an “intrusion”). A challenge in estimating the length of stream affected by the intrusion and the exposure time of species in the affected reach is the lack of data typically available on the stream's geometry and flow characteristics. Previously, the USFS estimated the affected reach length assuming instantaneous mixing of the retardant over the reach; however, this approach neglects key river ...


Development Of A Rapid Drug Detection Method For Insects Using Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Psi-Ms), Alexandria Plyler 2021 Duquesne University

Development Of A Rapid Drug Detection Method For Insects Using Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Psi-Ms), Alexandria Plyler

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Insects have the ability to reflect the chemical environment that they have developed in. Thus, necrogenous insects can reflect the chemical environment of cadavers they have fed on. Forensic scientists can potentially utilize insect larvae as an alternate biological matrix to detect drugs in cadavers that are skeletonized, burned, or otherwise badly damaged. Analysis of insects using paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS), an analytical method requiring little to no sample preparation, could prove a rapid, cost-effective, and non-destructive alternative form of toxicological analysis. Traditional tissue analysis via GC and LC-MS often require lengthy sample preparation, use expensive reagents, and ...


Determination Of Metals And Microplastics In Sediment From Oyster Reefs In The Mississippi Sound, Shelby Goza 2021 University of Mississippi

Determination Of Metals And Microplastics In Sediment From Oyster Reefs In The Mississippi Sound, Shelby Goza

Honors Theses

This research centers on the determination of metals (Cd, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and microplastics (MPs) in marine sediment from oyster reefs in the Mississippi Sound Estuary. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) are a vital part of the Gulf Coast economy, but their population has dramatically declined in recent years due to multiple stressors, including oil spills and fluctuations in salinity from flooding. Increasingly frequent flooding events also introduce high loads of MPs and sediments containing heavy metals from the Mississippi River. These pollutants can have deleterious effects on oyster biology; however, they have not been adequately studied ...


Composition And Oxidative Potential Of Fine Particulate Matter From Pascagoula, Ms, Madison Smith 2021 University of Mississippi

Composition And Oxidative Potential Of Fine Particulate Matter From Pascagoula, Ms, Madison Smith

Honors Theses

Air pollution is one of the top-ranking risk factors for death and disability around the world, accounting for nearly 4.9 million deaths worldwide (State of Global Air, 2019). Specifically, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to many adverse effects on human health, yet there is very little known about what characteristics exactly cause these adverse health effects and how they cause them. Samples for this study were collected from Pascagoula, MS, a small town located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast that is home to many industrial yards, from September 2013 to December 2013. Black carbon (BC ...


Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla DeMark 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla Demark

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

Azo dyes are the most used type of dye in the textile industry. Some of these dyes have the potential to be extremely toxic to both human health and the environment. While regulations of these dyes vary across the world, it is suggested that not enough is being done to protect consumers and the environment from potentially harmful azo dyes (Rawat et al., 2016). It is the responsibility of apparel companies to ensure that their products that contain azo dyes are safe for consumers.

The purpose of this study was to understand how azo dyes and their by-products are restricted ...


Responses To Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Exposures In Two Wild-Type Zebrafish Strains, Connor Necaise 2021 University of Mississippi

Responses To Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Exposures In Two Wild-Type Zebrafish Strains, Connor Necaise

Honors Theses

Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure poses great health risks across the globe, causing both acute and chronic illnesses in humans. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms in which PM2.5 induces these adverse health effects is urgently needed. Oxidative stress due to PAHs and other common components of PM2.5 is a proposed mechanism for its adverse health effects. However, little is known about the actual mechanisms of PM2.5 damage in humans. This study aimed to distinguish behavioral differences in two lines of zebrafish (AB & 5D) as a result of developmental ...


Lc-Ms/Ms Method Development And Analysis Of Tricyclic Antidepressants In Human Plasma, Shahbaz Gul 2021 University of Mississippi

Lc-Ms/Ms Method Development And Analysis Of Tricyclic Antidepressants In Human Plasma, Shahbaz Gul

Honors Theses

Depression has become one of the most prominent problems in society, disrupting both personal and social lives. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were first developed in the 1950’s and became some of the leading anti-depressant medications on the market later that decade. Today, newer anti-depressants have risen to the forefront, being safer and having a lower side-effect probability. Nonetheless, TCAs continue to be prescribed for severe depression, especially in cases where the newer anti-depressants have failed. However, TCAs are still highly potent, the toxicity associated with these compounds cannot be ignored. They have considerable cardiovascular and neurological toxicity, and in the ...


Oxidative Potential And Composition Of Fine Particulate Matter At Two Locations In Mississippi, Victoria Claire Stevens 2021 University of Mississippi

Oxidative Potential And Composition Of Fine Particulate Matter At Two Locations In Mississippi, Victoria Claire Stevens

Honors Theses

Air pollution exposure has negative health effects on individuals across the globe. Negative impacts on human health have been documented in studies following both short-term and long-term exposure to air pollution, and these adverse effects have been seen even at the lowest levels of exposure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has specifically been linked to these negative health effects. These effects come from many sources, but one large contribution to the negative health effects comes from oxidative stress. In this study, samples were collected from Hernando, MS and Gulfport, MS in September 2013 and November 2013. Black carbon (BC ...


Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal agriculture can cause eutrophication of water ecosystems and are precursors to secondary particulate matter (PM2.5). NH3 emissions from stored swine manure represent nutrient loss affecting the fertilizing value of manure. The short-term emission bursts occur when farmers agitate manure before emptying storage and fertilizing fields. There is no proven technology to mitigate gaseous emissions during agitation, while the hazards of acute releases (e.g., H2S) are well-known. Biochar mitigates NH3 emissions from manure over the long-term. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mitigation of acute NH3 emissions during/after agitation. Two ...


New Psychoactive Substances In Taiwan: The Current Situation And Initiative For Rational Scheduling, Wen-Jing Yu, Linda B. Cottler, Jih-Heng Li 2021 Degree Program, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan

New Psychoactive Substances In Taiwan: The Current Situation And Initiative For Rational Scheduling, Wen-Jing Yu, Linda B. Cottler, Jih-Heng Li

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Use of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) has posed a global threat to public health and the security of the population. As of December 2019, the NPS items identified in total have outnumbered by three to one the controlled substances listed in the 1961 and 1971 UN Drug Conventions. However, most of these NPS have not been scheduled by the United Nations because of their easy modification on the chemical structures to shun control. Currently, the scheduling and control of NPS is mostly at the national level and a rational scheduling of NPS by objective assessments is essential but often lacking ...


Quercetin Blocks The Aggressive Phenotype Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer By Inhibiting Igf1/Igf1r-Mediated Emt Program, Wei-Jen Chen, Jie-Heng Tsai, Li-Sung Hsu, Chih-Li Lin, Hui-Mei Hong, Min-Hsiung Pan 2021 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University

Quercetin Blocks The Aggressive Phenotype Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer By Inhibiting Igf1/Igf1r-Mediated Emt Program, Wei-Jen Chen, Jie-Heng Tsai, Li-Sung Hsu, Chih-Li Lin, Hui-Mei Hong, Min-Hsiung Pan

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

The cancer-preventive activities of quercetin have been extensively studied in invasive breast cancer; however, the role of quercetin on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) has not been resolved. In this article, we demonstrated that quercetin inhibited the activation of IGF1R and its downstream kinases Akt and Erk1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (TNBC cell line). Related to this, quercetin markedly suppressed the metastatic phenotype and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting the expression of EMT transcription factors Snail and Slug. Quercetin also increased the ...


Suitability Of Sugar Alcohols As Antidiabetic Supplements: A Review, Nontokozo Z. Msomi, Ochuko L. Erukainure, Md. Shahidul Islam 2021 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Suitability Of Sugar Alcohols As Antidiabetic Supplements: A Review, Nontokozo Z. Msomi, Ochuko L. Erukainure, Md. Shahidul Islam

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

The major goals in the management of diabetes are to maintain normal control of glucose metabolism and glycemia. Dietary modification is one of the most recommended treatment modalities for diabetic patients. The use of foods sweetened with sugar alcohols (also known as polyols) such as xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol, isomalt and erythritol, has brought an escalating interest. Since some sugar alcohols do not raise plasma glucose, as they are partially digested and metabolised. Diet composition and adequacy may be altered by replacing carbohydrates with sugar alcohols. It has been established that these polyols are appropriate sugar substitutes for a ...


How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler 2021 University of Louisville

How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler

Grawemeyer Colloquium Papers

Across the world, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people live near water sources “impaired” for use or contact. Standards for human-interaction are established by international organizations such as the WHO, and legislative bodies from national to local levels with jurisdiction over the quality of our waterways to ensure public & environmental health. Standards are often assessed from “grab-samples” taken from a waterbody at a certain time, with a minimum number analyzed. Water-quality standards in the United States are enforced under the Clean Water Act (CWA) via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), applying to “waters of the United States” (WOTUS ...


Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics for neurological diseases. When injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, ASOs distribute broadly across brain regions and exert long-lasting therapeutic effects. However, many phosphorothioate (PS)-modified gapmer ASOs show transient motor phenotypes when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid, ranging from reduced motor activity to ataxia or acute seizure-like phenotypes. The effect of sugar and phosphate modifications on these phenotypes has not previously been systematically studied. Using a behavioral scoring assay customized to reflect the timing and nature of these effects, we show that both sugar and phosphate modifications influence ...


Environmentally Marginalized Populations: The "Perfect Storm" For Infectious Disease Pandemics, Including Covid-19, Gabriella Y. Meltzer, Oyemwenosa Avenbuan, Christina Awada, Oluwakemi B. Oyetade, Tricia Blackman, Simona Kwon DrPH, MPH, Esther Erdei PhD, Judith T. Zelikoff PhD 2021 New York University School of Global Public Health

Environmentally Marginalized Populations: The "Perfect Storm" For Infectious Disease Pandemics, Including Covid-19, Gabriella Y. Meltzer, Oyemwenosa Avenbuan, Christina Awada, Oluwakemi B. Oyetade, Tricia Blackman, Simona Kwon Drph, Mph, Esther Erdei Phd, Judith T. Zelikoff Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

COVID-19 has exacted a severe toll on the United States population’s physical and mental health and its effects have been felt most severely among people of color and low socioeconomic status. Using illustrative case studies, this commentary argues that in addition to COVID-19 health disparities created by psychosocial stressors such as the inability to socially distance and access quality healthcare, environmental justice communities have the additional burden of disproportionate exposure to toxic contaminants that contribute to their higher risk of COVID-19. Environmental contaminants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants found contaminating their nearby environments can alter the immune ...


Design And Testing Of Mobile Laboratory For Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Livestock Agriculture With Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Blake Fonken, Ryan Storjohann, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik, Landon Wahe, Heekwon Ahn 2021 Iowa State University

Design And Testing Of Mobile Laboratory For Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Livestock Agriculture With Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Blake Fonken, Ryan Storjohann, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik, Landon Wahe, Heekwon Ahn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Livestock production systems generate nuisance odor and gaseous emissions affecting local communities and regional air quality. There are also concerns about the occupational health and safety of farmworkers. Proven mitigation technologies that are consistent with the socio-economic challenges of animal farming are needed. We have been scaling up the photocatalytic treatment of emissions from lab-scale, aiming at farm-scale readiness. In this paper, we present the design, testing, and commissioning of a mobile laboratory for on-farm research and demonstration of performance in simulated farm conditions before testing to the farm. The mobile lab is capable of treating up to 1.2 ...


Assessment Of Monochloramine Toxicity On Three Small Coastal Organisms, Ashley K. Le 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Assessment Of Monochloramine Toxicity On Three Small Coastal Organisms, Ashley K. Le

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Monochloramine ( is a secondary disinfectant used by water treatment facilities to eliminate lingering bacteria in basins, filters, and pipelines. While an effective disinfectant, monochloramine can have negative effects on aquatic organisms. Organis ms affected by the chemical can include species whose environment is near to effluent sites and aquaculture facilities that use tap water lines or has water intake pipes near to effluent sites. Three species commonly found in south Florida that are lik ely exposed to MCA by effluent sites or aquaculture facilities are mosquitofish Gambusia affinis pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum and the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria These species ...


Physicochemical Characterization And Genotoxicity Of The Broad Class Of Carbon Nanotubes And Nanofibers Used Or Produced In Us Facilities, Kelly Fraser, Vamsi Kodali, Naveena Yanamala, M. Eileen Birch, Lorenzo Cena, Gary Casuccio, Kristin Bunker, Traci L. Lersch, Douglas E. Evans, Aleksandr Stefaniak, Mary Ann Hammer, Michael L. Kashon, Theresa Boots, Tracy Eye, John Hubczak, Sherri A. Friend, Matthew Dahm, Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan, Katelyn Siegrist, David Lowry, Alison K. Bauer, Linda M. Sargent, Aaron Erdely 2020 West Virginia University

Physicochemical Characterization And Genotoxicity Of The Broad Class Of Carbon Nanotubes And Nanofibers Used Or Produced In Us Facilities, Kelly Fraser, Vamsi Kodali, Naveena Yanamala, M. Eileen Birch, Lorenzo Cena, Gary Casuccio, Kristin Bunker, Traci L. Lersch, Douglas E. Evans, Aleksandr Stefaniak, Mary Ann Hammer, Michael L. Kashon, Theresa Boots, Tracy Eye, John Hubczak, Sherri A. Friend, Matthew Dahm, Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan, Katelyn Siegrist, David Lowry, Alison K. Bauer, Linda M. Sargent, Aaron Erdely

Health Faculty Publications

Background Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) have known toxicity but simultaneous comparative studies of the broad material class, especially those with a larger diameter, with computational analyses linking toxicity to their fundamental material characteristics was lacking. It was unclear if all CNT/F confer similar toxicity, in particular, genotoxicity. Nine CNT/F (MW #1-7 and CNF #1-2), commonly found in exposure assessment studies of U.S. facilities, were evaluated with reported diameters ranging from 6 to 150 nm. All materials were extensively characterized to include distributions of physical dimensions and prevalence of bundled agglomerates. Human bronchial epithelial cells were ...


Investigating Dose-Dependent, Multi-Generational, And Strain-Specific Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol Exposure In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Decatur Mitochondria Foster 2020 Portland State University

Investigating Dose-Dependent, Multi-Generational, And Strain-Specific Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol Exposure In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Decatur Mitochondria Foster

Dissertations and Theses

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) pose a threat to biodiversity at the individual, population, and ecosystem level, as they can interfere with processes that are responsible for regulating metabolism, development, behavior, and reproduction in living organisms. 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen and EDC utilized in pharmaceutical and livestock industries, and contaminates waterways worldwide. This research explores the effects of dose-dependent and multi-generational exposure of EE2 in three strains of zebrafish. High dose (10-25 ng/L EE2) exposure led to complete reproductive failure, as well as significantly decreased survival and growth. A period in clean water (depuration) after exposure allowed for ...


Acknowledgment Of Reviewers, Lily Chiu 2020 Taiwan Food and Drug Administration

Acknowledgment Of Reviewers, Lily Chiu

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress