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Environmental Res. Bernard Singleton 2016 .Pdf, Joy Semien 2016 Texas Southern University

Environmental Res. Bernard Singleton 2016 .Pdf, Joy Semien

Joy Semien

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest maritime oil spill in history
resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic substances in the air, soil, and water. This has potential far-
reaching health impacts on cleanup field workers and on the populations living in the contaminated
coastal areas. We have employed portable airborne particulate matter samplers (SKC Biosampler Im-
pinger) and a genetically engineered bacterial reporter system (umu-ChromoTest from EBPI) to de-
termine levels of genotoxicity of air samples collected from highly contaminated areas of coastal
Louisiana including Grand Isle, Port Fourchon, and Elmer's ...


Calcium Montmorillonite Clay Reduces Urinary Biomarkers Of Fumonisin B₁ Exposure In Rats And Humans, Abraham Robinson, Natalie M. Johnson, A. Strey, John F. Taylor, Alicia Marroquin-Cardona, N. J. Mitchell, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Nii-Ayi Ankrah, Jonathan H. Williams, Jia-Sheng Wang, Pauline E. Jolly, R. J. Nachman, Timothy D. Phillips 2016 Texas A & M University - College Station

Calcium Montmorillonite Clay Reduces Urinary Biomarkers Of Fumonisin B₁ Exposure In Rats And Humans, Abraham Robinson, Natalie M. Johnson, A. Strey, John F. Taylor, Alicia Marroquin-Cardona, N. J. Mitchell, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Nii-Ayi Ankrah, Jonathan H. Williams, Jia-Sheng Wang, Pauline E. Jolly, R. J. Nachman, Timothy D. Phillips

John H. Robinson

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. Calcium montmorillonite (i.e. NovaSil, NS) is a possible dietary intervention to help decrease chronic aflatoxin exposure where populations are at risk. Previous studies show that an oral dose of NS clay was able to reduce AF exposure in a Ghanaian population. In vitro analyses from our laboratory indicated that FB1 (like aflatoxin) could also be sorbed onto the surfaces of NS. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of NS clay to reduce urinary ...


School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson 2016 George Washington University

School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the April 17, 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades K-12, a nursing care facility and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous ...


Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a known metabolic master-switch. In conditions of starvation, mTOR suppresses biosynthetic programs and increases the recycling of proteins and organelles. Upon stimulation by nutrients and growth factors, however, mTOR causes activation of biosynthesis and suppression of autophagy. The mTOR-centered molecular pathway is a major pathway of growth regulation and metabolism, linked to aging and the development of cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, the role of environmental factors in the modulation of the mTOR pathway remains largely unknown. The present study suggests that ...


Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Meta-analysis of 101 studies published between 1934 and 1996 indicates that mean sperm concentration decreased around 50% during this period. More recent studies have found alarmingly poor semen quality in the general population of Northern Europe. Additional adverse trends include increased incidence of testicular cancer, and congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Testicular germ cell cancers increased by about 400% over the period of 50 years in industrialized countries. Decreased quality of male reproductive health has been linked to environmental endocrine disruptors exposure. However, the ability of xenobiotics to produce long-lasting effects and mechanisms of perturbation of the male ...


Water Quality And Fecal Coliform Levels In Georgia Oxbow Lakes Relative To Connectivity With The Savannah River, Carly B. Williams, John E. Weinstein, Claudia L. Rocha 2016 The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

Water Quality And Fecal Coliform Levels In Georgia Oxbow Lakes Relative To Connectivity With The Savannah River, Carly B. Williams, John E. Weinstein, Claudia L. Rocha

Georgia Journal of Science

The state of Georgia has many bodies of water that provide important wildlife habitats as well as recreational opportunities. The objective of the current study was to investigate water quality and fecal coliform levels in oxbow lakes relative to their connectivity to the Savannah River. For most water quality parameters, no differences were observed between the Savannah River and the oxbow lakes. However, pH and turbidity values were lower in the oxbow lakes (both connected and disconnected) relative to the Savannah River. Fecal coliform values between connected oxbow lakes and the Savannah River were similar to each other and significantly ...


What You Ignore At Work May Harm You: The Effects Of Light, Design, And Nature, Shelby L. Beutel 2016 Butler University

What You Ignore At Work May Harm You: The Effects Of Light, Design, And Nature, Shelby L. Beutel

BU Well

This paper looks into the effects of light, design, and nature on employees by incorporating environmental health and environmental design research into useful suggestions for the employee and the employer. The “fit” between a user and their work space has been elaborated on in recent years, and it has been shown that insufficient lighting can cause poor fit and consequential draining of energy and productivity. In the healthcare setting, medication errors have been linked to the amount of lighting within a hospital and to the variable amount of daylight throughout the year. While there is not a quick and easy ...


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


The Ecorep Program At The University Of South Carolina: How To Engage Students In On-Campus Environmental Activities, Veronica Dorothy Farrell 2016 University of South Carolina - Columbia

The Ecorep Program At The University Of South Carolina: How To Engage Students In On-Campus Environmental Activities, Veronica Dorothy Farrell

Theses and Dissertations

This senior thesis focused on determining how much the undergraduate student population is aware about current environmental problems, their impression of them, and how they act accordingly. In addition, through completion of this thesis I hoped to understand what motivates students to participate in events on campus in order to more effectively increase awareness or sustainable behaviors. Specific interest was placed on the students at the University of South Carolina. I oriented this research for one environmental organization at the University of South Carolina in particular, known as EcoReps. EcoReps are peer leaders that strive to educate students about environmental ...


Plastic Pollution And The Global Throwaway Culture: Environmental Injustices Of Single-Use Plastic, Kristin L. McDermott 2016 Salve Regina University

Plastic Pollution And The Global Throwaway Culture: Environmental Injustices Of Single-Use Plastic, Kristin L. Mcdermott

ENV 434 Environmental Justice

The global throwaway culture has created a cross-ecosystem plastic pollution injustice. The first to suffer this injustice will be the most vulnerable. Our oceans have become our dumpsters. The throwaway culture has created a disrespect of material goods that has turned the earth’s resources into rubbish after a single use. Eighty percent of the yearly 8 million tons of plastic that enter the ocean is single use plastic, such as plastic bottles, plastic shopping bags, or cigarette lighters.[1] Plastic has destroyed ecosystems, robbing impoverished communities of natural resources and of a healthy and safe living environment. First to ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Microbial Communities From Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Sheridan S. Brewer 6284984 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Isolation And Characterization Of Microbial Communities From Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Sheridan S. Brewer 6284984

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Implementing A Community-Based Social Marketing Project To Improve Agricultural Worker Health, Joan D. Flocks, Leslie Clarke, Stan Albrecht, Carol Bryant, Paul Monaghan, Holly Baker 2016 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Implementing A Community-Based Social Marketing Project To Improve Agricultural Worker Health, Joan D. Flocks, Leslie Clarke, Stan Albrecht, Carol Bryant, Paul Monaghan, Holly Baker

Joan D. Flocks

The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners ...


Pesticide Policy And Farmworker Health, Joan D. Flocks 2016 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Pesticide Policy And Farmworker Health, Joan D. Flocks

Joan D. Flocks

Although data on the carcinogenicity of agricultural pesticides are still being generated and are thus incomplete, research such as the Agricultural Health Study indicates that populations with increased, regular exposure to pesticides have high rates of a variety of cancers (National Institutes of Health & Environmental Protection Agency 2008). Policies that regulate toxins such as pesticides are envisioned by the public to be empirical and objective, but toxins are socially produced and their regulation is just as often based on political and economic factors as it is on science (Luke 2000). This does not bode well for farm- workers who are ...


Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating The Cytotoxic Effects Of Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs) Using Autobioluminescent Yeast And Human Cells, Julianna Hughes Burchett

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are widely used in different industries including pharmaceutical and cosmetic production due to their adept physical and biological properties. Because CNCs are becoming a more prevalent material and have a high potential of being redistributed in the environment, it is important to understand their toxic potentials in biological systems, including organisms of various trophic levels. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of CNCs in the lower eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells using autobioluminescent yeast and human cell reporters, respectively. The S. cerevisiae and HEK293 reporter cells were engineered to express a synthetic ...


Examining Mechanism Of Toxicity Of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles To Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Caenorhabditis Elegans, Michael Joseph Mashock 2016 Marquette University

Examining Mechanism Of Toxicity Of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles To Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Caenorhabditis Elegans, Michael Joseph Mashock

Dissertations (2009 -)

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are an up and coming technology increasingly being used in industrial and consumer applications and thus may pose risk to humans and the environment. In the present study, the toxic effects of CuO NPs were studied with two model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. The role of released Cu ions during dissolution of CuO NPs in growth media were studied with freshly suspended, aged NPs, and the released Cu2+ fraction. Exposures to the different Cu treatments showed significant inhibition of S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. Inhibition from the NPs was inversely proportional to size ...


Effect Of An Improved Biomass Stove On Acute Lower Respiratory Infections In Young Children In Rural Nepal: A Cluster-Randomised, Step-Wedge Trial, James M. Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Subarna K. Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Patrick N. Breysse, Scott L. Zeger, +5 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Effect Of An Improved Biomass Stove On Acute Lower Respiratory Infections In Young Children In Rural Nepal: A Cluster-Randomised, Step-Wedge Trial, James M. Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Subarna K. Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Patrick N. Breysse, Scott L. Zeger, +5 Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are an important cause of death in young children in low income countries. High concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) indoors caused by open burning of biomass are associated with risk of ALRI. However, improved biomass stoves reduce emissions and might reduce the incidence of lower respiratory illness. A cluster-randomised, step-wedge, community-based trial was conducted to estimate the eff ect that a change from open burning of biomass to improved biomass stoves could have on rates of ALRI in children younger than 36 months in a rural area of southern Nepal.

Methods

Households ...


Inquiry Into The Implementation Of Bush’S Executive Order 13211 And The Impact On Environmental And Public Health Regulation, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Gunwant Gill, Miriam Jovanovic 2016 CUNY School of Public Health

Inquiry Into The Implementation Of Bush’S Executive Order 13211 And The Impact On Environmental And Public Health Regulation, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Gunwant Gill, Miriam Jovanovic

Publications and Research

Executive Order 13211, promulgated in 2001, requires the federal government to consider the impact of federal action on energy independence as part of the George W. Bush’s National Energy Policy. This law review examines whether EO 13211 was used to curtail environmental protection and natural resource conservation. The article begins with a review of the procedure required of federal agencies under EO 13211 and its associated documents. The paper then examines case law and published federal rulemaking proceedings and examines how federal agencies apply tests to evaluate the potential energy effect. The study concludes that EO 13211 strikes a ...


Phytoremediation Of Herbicide-Contaminated Surface Water With Aquatic Plants, Pamela Rice, Todd Anderson, Joel Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Phytoremediation Of Herbicide-Contaminated Surface Water With Aquatic Plants, Pamela Rice, Todd Anderson, Joel Coats

Joel R. Coats

There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds for the treatment of agricultural drainage water, sewage, and industrial effluents. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems have proved effective and economical in improving the quality of wastewaters containing excess nutrients, organic pollutants, and heavy metals. This investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that herbicide-tolerant aquatic plants can remediate herbicide-contaminated waters. The addition of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail, hornwort), Elodea canadensis (American elodea, Canadian pondweed), or Lemna minor(common duckweed) significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the concentration of [14C]metolachlor (MET) remaining in the treated water. After a 16-day incubation period, only 1.44%, 4.06%, and 22.7% of the applied [14C]MET remained in the water of the surface water systems containing C. demersum, E. canadensis, or L. minor whereas 61% of the applied [14C]MET persisted in ...


Fate Of Methyl Bromide In Fumigated Soils, Todd A. Anderson, Patricia J. Rice, James H. Cink, Joel R. Coats 2016 Clemson University

Fate Of Methyl Bromide In Fumigated Soils, Todd A. Anderson, Patricia J. Rice, James H. Cink, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Recent controversy over the potential role of methyl bromide (MeBr) in damaging the ozone layer has spurred interest in increasing our understanding of the transformation and movement of this fumigant after it is applied to soil. Our research indicates MeBr is rapidly volatilized from fumigated soil (within the first 24 hours) and volatility significantly increases with temperature (35° C > 25° C = 15° C) and moisture (0.03 bar > 0.3 bar > 1 bar > 3 bar). Degradation of MeBr, measured by production of bromide ion (Br-), was also directly related to temperature and moisture. Undisturbed soil column studies indicated that MeBr ...


Arsenic Analysis: Comparative Arsenic Groundwater Concentration In Relation To Soil And Vegetation, Rominna E. Valentine Vecorena 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Arsenic Analysis: Comparative Arsenic Groundwater Concentration In Relation To Soil And Vegetation, Rominna E. Valentine Vecorena

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Arsenic (As) is a toxic semi-metallic element found in groundwater, soils, and plants. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the distribution of arsenic in the environment. Arsenic’s toxic and mobile behavior is associated with its speciation ability. There are two types of arsenic available to the environment, inorganic and organic arsenic. Of the two, inorganic arsenic is more toxic to humans and more mobile in the environment. Two inorganic compounds responsible for arsenic contamination are trivalent arsenite, As (III), and pentavalent arsenate, As (V). Trivalent arsenate is considered to be more soluble, toxic, and mobile than pentavalent arsenate. Arsenic ...


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