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Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

Stream metabolism is a critical functional measure of stream health that integrates physical parameters like slope and discharge, with ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and respiration. Stream metabolism is widely studied; however, urban stream metabolism remains poorly understood. Stream metabolism was measured for five streams ranging from 1st to 5th orders from October 11th to October 18th 2017 and four streams ranging from 1st to 4th order from October 22nd to 25th 2017 located within an approximately 9.3 square kilometer watershed of Rock Island, IL that has an urban to suburban type ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Wyoming’S Water Issue: Planning For Water Scarcity Or Ignoring It?, Hillary Donovan 2018 University of Wyoming

Wyoming’S Water Issue: Planning For Water Scarcity Or Ignoring It?, Hillary Donovan

Honors Theses AY 17/18

The state of Wyoming contains the headwaters for the Colorado River, a river that supplies billions of people their water throughout the Western United States. Water is a vital resource that all life needs to survive. As climate change is predicted to change the known water regime and timing in snowpack melt, the state must plan for changes in water availability. In 2015, Wyoming’s Governor Matthew Mead released Wyoming’s Water Strategy to address and plan for future water scarcity. Within his plan, the governor laid out plans for 10 new water storage projects in ten years. Three years ...


Comparison Of Habitat And Water Quality In The Blue River's South And Salem Forks In Southern Indiana To Support Watershed Management, Erin Crone 2018 Bellarmine University

Comparison Of Habitat And Water Quality In The Blue River's South And Salem Forks In Southern Indiana To Support Watershed Management, Erin Crone

Undergraduate Theses

A stream’s habitat and water quality are heavily influenced by land use and geology within its watershed. Pollutants and sediment loading from watershed drainage can make streams less habitable for certain species, reducing biodiversity. Watershed management strategies, such as the promotion of best management practices in agriculture, can help to combat stream degradation from watershed inputs. The upper Blue River in southern Indiana is a biodiversity hotspot but is experiencing degradation and biodiversity loss due to watershed inputs. This is exemplified by the disappearance of the eastern hellbender salamander, an indicator species, from this area. Fine sediment loading is ...


Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophilia Melanogaster, Brandon J. Adair, Tamra E. Jones 2018 Carroll College - Helena

Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophilia Melanogaster, Brandon J. Adair, Tamra E. Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Manganese is prevalent in Montana, and Manganese toxicity symptomatically resembles Parkinson’s disease. The goal of this project was to determine whether exposure to high levels of Manganese affects the Dopamine synthesis pathway. For our experiment, we chose to measure the expression of the ple gene in Drosophila melanogaster that were exposed to Manganese during development. The ple gene codes for Tyrosine Hydroxylase, an enzyme that functions in the first rate-limiting step of Dopamine synthesis. We hypothesized that an abundance of Manganese would result in decreased expression of ple in larvae and observable motor function deficits among adult flies. In ...


Evaluation Of Pm Emissions Of A Diesel Engine Fueled With Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel: A Systematic Review, Omobolanle H. Oshinusi, George M. Gray 2018 George Washington University

Evaluation Of Pm Emissions Of A Diesel Engine Fueled With Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel: A Systematic Review, Omobolanle H. Oshinusi, George M. Gray

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: The Navigation Guide developed by Johnson et al was used to conduct a robust systematic review of six experimental intervention studies looking at particulate matter (PM)emissions from conventional petroleum diesel and a biodiesel alternative utilizing waste cooking oil in heavy-duty petroleum diesel engines. Waste cooking oil biodiesel is thought to be a more sustainably sourced alternative to its fossil fuel counterpart.

Objectives: Application of the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology to answer the question: Does the replacement of petroleum diesel with waste cooking oil biodiesel reduce hazardous PMemissions? Methods: The study question was specified, evidence was selected and ...


Breastfeeding As A Predictor Of Serum Concentrations Of Per- And Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances In Reproductive-Aged Women And Children: A Rapid Systematic Review, Brianna N. VanNoy, Juleen Lam, Ami R. Zota 2018 George Washington University

Breastfeeding As A Predictor Of Serum Concentrations Of Per- And Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances In Reproductive-Aged Women And Children: A Rapid Systematic Review, Brianna N. Vannoy, Juleen Lam, Ami R. Zota

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Purpose of Review: Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals widely detected in human serum, and at low levels in breast milk. We conducted a rapid systematic review on breastfeeding practices and serum concentrations of PFASs – specifically PFOS and PFOA - among reproductive-aged women and young children using the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology.

Recent Findings: We included 14 studies examining associations between breastfeeding and PFASs in infants/toddlers or pregnant/postnatal women. Breastfeeding was significantly associated with lower PFASs exposure among women and higher PFASs exposure among children. Summary: We concluded there was “sufficient” evidence supporting an association ...


Occupational Exposure To Solvents And Associated Neurotoxicity In Construction Painters: A Systematic Review, Allison Cailliau 2018 George Washington University

Occupational Exposure To Solvents And Associated Neurotoxicity In Construction Painters: A Systematic Review, Allison Cailliau

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background

Existing evidence suggests that occupational exposure to solvents can have devastating and adverse effects on cognitive function. Individuals in the construction industry, specifically construction painters, often come in contact with these harmful chemicals on a regular basis. A solvent is a liquid that can dissolve, suspend, or extract other materials without chemical change to the solvent itself. They are present in a wide range of industries and can be used for extraction of fats and oils, degreasing, or manufacturing of paints and plastics. Their main routes of exposure are through inhalation and skin absorption, and they have a tendency ...


Assessment Of Temperature And Ultraviolet Radiation Effects On Sunburn At An Inland U.S. Beach: A Cohort Study, Jason W. Marion, Jiyoung Lee, James Rosenblum, Timothy J. Buckley 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Assessment Of Temperature And Ultraviolet Radiation Effects On Sunburn At An Inland U.S. Beach: A Cohort Study, Jason W. Marion, Jiyoung Lee, James Rosenblum, Timothy J. Buckley

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Background

Increases in outdoor temperature may lead to increases in sunburn, outdoor exposure, and skin cancer in human populations.

Objective

This study aimed to quantify sunburn incidence and risk for Ohio beachgoers exposed to varying outdoor conditions.

Methods

Sunburn incidence data were obtained through a prospective cohort study at East Fork Lake (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA). Recruitment occurred over 26 weekend days. Beach interviews and follow-up telephone interviews obtained exposure and health information. New sunburns were self-reported 8–9 days post-enrollment. Survey data were paired with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) index and temperature data for statistical analysis.

Results

Among 947 beachgoers, new ...


Investigating Sociodemographic Disparities In Cancer Risk Using Web-Based Informatics, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi 2018 Biomedical Sciences, Engineering, and Computing Group Health Data Sciences Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Investigating Sociodemographic Disparities In Cancer Risk Using Web-Based Informatics, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Cancer health disparities due to demographic and socioeconomic factors are an area of great interest in the epidemiological community. Adjusting for such factors is important when developing cancer risk models. However, for digital epidemiology studies relying on online sources such information is not readily available. This paper presents a novel method for extracting demographic and socioeconomic information from openly available online obituaries. The method relies on tailored language processing rules and a probabilistic scheme to map subjects’ occupation history to the occupation classification codes and related earnings provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Using this information, a case-control study ...


Uncovering Discursive Framings Of The Bangladesh Shipbreaking Industry, S. M. Mizanur Rahman, Chelsea Schelly, Audrey L. Mayer, Emma S. Norman 2018 Institut Charles Delaunay

Uncovering Discursive Framings Of The Bangladesh Shipbreaking Industry, S. M. Mizanur Rahman, Chelsea Schelly, Audrey L. Mayer, Emma S. Norman

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Shipbreaking in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh supplies metal to meet the needs of the nation’s construction sector. The shipbreaking industry has received international attention for environmental contamination and workers’ insecurity. However, these issues have been framed without considering the actors that produce them and their associated motives. This paper illuminates the conflicting discourses regarding the industry between two divergent groups of actors. On the one hand, national and international NGOs collaborate to enforce a discourse focused on negative localized impacts. On the other hand, yard owners, yard workers, and local community members forge a counter discourse, focused on ...


Pressure-Driven Stabilization Of Capacitive Deionization, Landon S. Caudill 2018 University of Kentucky

Pressure-Driven Stabilization Of Capacitive Deionization, Landon S. Caudill

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

The effects of system pressure on the performance stability of flow-through capacitive deionization (CDI) cells was investigated. Initial data showed that the highly porous carbon electrodes possessed air/oxygen in the micropores, and the increased system pressure boosts the gases solubility in saline solution and carries them out of the cell in the effluent. Upon applying a potential difference to the electrodes, capacitive-based ion adsorption occurs in competition with faradaic reactions that consume oxygen. Through the addition of backpressure, the rate of degradation decreases, allowing the cell to maintain its salt adsorption capacity (SAC) longer. The removal of oxygen from ...


Regulation Of Radioactive Fracking Waste, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Nichole LeClair 2018 CUNY School of Public Health

Regulation Of Radioactive Fracking Waste, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Nichole Leclair

Publications and Research

Natural gas extracted form shale reached record production totals in 2015 in the United States and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts natural gas production will continue to increase. Wastes from shale gas extraction can contain the radioactive isotopes radium-226 (Ra-226) and radium-228 (Ra-228), which decay further into radon (Rn). Exposure to radon, a form of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), is the leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, after smoking. This article explores how states handle the disposal of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) and/or NORM waste from oil and gas operations ...


Drought-Sensitivity Of Fine Dust In The U.S. Southwest: Implications For Air Quality And Public Health Under Future Climate Change, Pattanun Achakulwisut, Loretta Mickley, Susan Anenberg 2018 George Washington University

Drought-Sensitivity Of Fine Dust In The U.S. Southwest: Implications For Air Quality And Public Health Under Future Climate Change, Pattanun Achakulwisut, Loretta Mickley, Susan Anenberg

Global Health Faculty Publications

We investigate the present-day sensitivity of fine dust levels in the U.S. Southwest to regional drought conditions and use the observed relationships to assess future changes in fine dust levels and associated health impacts under climate change. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals that the most dominant mode of fine dust interannual variability for each season consists of a pattern of large-scale co-variability across the Southwest. This mode is strongly correlated to the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) accumulated over 1-6 months in local and surrounding regions spanning the major North American deserts. Across the seasons, a unit decrease in 2-month ...


Outdoor Air Quality, Taylor Curley 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Outdoor Air Quality, Taylor Curley

Global Issues in Public Health

Outdoor air quality is a significant issue for the entire world. It affects any and all people, but is more of an issue in low-income countries and among people that are more susceptible to respiratory issues such as young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people who already suffer from respiratory problems like asthma. Poor air quality is caused by the burning of fossil fuels which releases particles and chemicals into the air like carbon dioxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen to name a few. It can cause multiple health issues such as respiratory problems to people who are exposed to ...


Watered Down: The Challenges Of Managing Water Resources In Montana, Beau E. Baker 2018 University of Montana

Watered Down: The Challenges Of Managing Water Resources In Montana, Beau E. Baker

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Like much of the American West, Montana sits in the cross hairs of climate change. State drought resiliency projects and cooperative watershed management are on the rise in the face of decreased snowpack, early runoff, precipitation variability and lower seasonal stream flows. Population growth, land use practices, recreation and tourism all contribute to pressures on state water supplies.

Montana is faced with the arrival of invasive species that threaten the ecological health of its lakes, rivers and streams. State budget constraints and depressed agency capacity are hurting our ability to fend off these threats. There’s a lack of public ...


Hplc Detection Of The Possible Presence Of 17-A-Ethindyl Estradiol In Treated Effluents Released From The Chattanooga Water Treatment Plant, Jacqueline Dulanto, Benjamin Thornton, David Nelsen 2018 Southern Adventist Univeristy

Hplc Detection Of The Possible Presence Of 17-A-Ethindyl Estradiol In Treated Effluents Released From The Chattanooga Water Treatment Plant, Jacqueline Dulanto, Benjamin Thornton, David Nelsen

Research in Biology

Research has confirmed that elevated synthetic estrogen in surface waters can lead to intersex characteristics in aquatic vertebrates. Unmetabolized antibiotics, hormones from animal wastes, including humans, and discarded pharmaceuticals are some ways synthetic estrogen enter aquatic ecosystems through the release of contaminated effluents. In this investigation, the Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC was used to detect the possible presence of 17-α-ethindyl estradiol in effluents released from the Chattanooga Sewer Treatment Plant. Results were analyzed by comparing HPLC chromatograms from effluent and spiked samples. We detected a possible peak of synthetic estrogen in the effluent samples with a retention rate of 6 ...


Type 1 Diabetes, Dan Bornstein 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Type 1 Diabetes, Dan Bornstein

Global Issues in Public Health

The aim of this research was to increase the awareness of this disease and show the range of which it travels. Type 1 Diabetes, although not as common as Type 2 Diabetes, is a very serious disease present well around the world. Between the two forms, there are nearly 1.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes each year (American Diabetes Association, 2015). Northern European countries tend to have the highest prevalence of Type 1 diabetes. Younger children on average ages of 0-14 years, are most frequently struck with this disease (American Diabetes Association, 2015). With the given amount of symptoms ...


Fate Of Methoprene In Temperate Salt Marsh Ditches Following Aerial Applications, David J. Tonjes, Anne E. McElroy, Robin K. Barnes, Dominick V. Ninivaggi, Walter Dawydiak, Gregory T. Greene, Bruce J. Brownawell 2018 Department of Technology and Society

Fate Of Methoprene In Temperate Salt Marsh Ditches Following Aerial Applications, David J. Tonjes, Anne E. Mcelroy, Robin K. Barnes, Dominick V. Ninivaggi, Walter Dawydiak, Gregory T. Greene, Bruce J. Brownawell

Technology & Society Faculty Publications

Aerial applications of liquid methoprene are used in salt marshes to control mosquitoes by preventing adult emergence. Despite concern about toxicity to non-target organisms, little is known about environmental concentrations after applications, nor methoprene's persistence in salt marsh environments. Aqueous and sediment samples were collected from two marshes receiving weekly applications. Aqueous samples were collected as early as 30 minutes after applications and as long as nine days afterwards; sediment samples were taken within hours of application and as long as 19 days post-application. Use of time-of-flight liquid chromatography – mass spectral analysis allowed for ultra low detection limits (0 ...


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