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Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson 2017 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (Pfhxs) Exposure To Risk Of Liver Disease Caused By High Fat Fructose Diet, Dwight C. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) has been used in products as surfactants[AS1] . These products include fluoropolymers and as protective and water-resistant coatings to different materials such as carpets, paper, and textiles. Also, evidence of PFHxS exposure has been reported in firefighters who use certain film forming foams. Current investigations have shown widespread exposure to PFHxS in the environment, specifically in drinking water. There has also been evidence of PFHxS accumulation in humans, with a half-life lasting several years.

PFHxS is one of several perfluoronated alkyl substances (PFAS). Other PFASs are considered to be hepatotoxic in rodents and potentially in humans. Studies ...


Chronic Toxicity Of Binary‐Metal Mixtures Of Cadmium And Zinc To Daphnia Magna, Edgar Pérez, Tham C. Hoang 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Chronic Toxicity Of Binary‐Metal Mixtures Of Cadmium And Zinc To Daphnia Magna, Edgar Pérez, Tham C. Hoang

Institute of Environmental Sustainability: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The present study characterized the chronic effect of binary‐metal mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) on Daphnia magna. The titration design was chosen to characterize the 21‐d chronic effects of the binary‐metal mixtures on survival, growth, reproduction, and metal accumulation in D. magna. Using this design, increasing concentrations of Zn (10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/L) were titrated against a constant concentration of 1.5 μg/L Cd. The results demonstrated that Cd was highly toxic to D. magna. In a mixture with Cd and Zn, sublethal concentrations of 10 and 20 ...


The Optimization Of The Nuclear Protein In Testis (Nut) Antibody And Its Importance And Impact In The Pathology Lab, Lindsey Martinez 2017 University of South Florida

The Optimization Of The Nuclear Protein In Testis (Nut) Antibody And Its Importance And Impact In The Pathology Lab, Lindsey Martinez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Optimization in immunohistochemistry is often a time consuming and complex process. There are a varying array of moving parts to consider all while preserving the sensitivity and specificity of the test. When optimizing an antibody it is important to consider the fixation of the tissue and the type of epitope retrieval that would be best suited for the test. The dilution of the primary antibody is a key marker for the efficiency and effectiveness of the laboratory protocol. The purpose of this study was to produce an optimized antibody for the nuclear protein in testis to detect NUT midline carcinoma ...


Kepone In The James River Estuary: Past, Current And Future Trends, Michael A. Unger, George G. Vadas 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Kepone In The James River Estuary: Past, Current And Future Trends, Michael A. Unger, George G. Vadas

Reports

In late 1975, a manufacturing facility in Hopewell, VA had not only exposed workers to the chlorinated pesticide, Kepone, but had also severely contaminated the James River estuary. To assess the potential risk to the public, Virginia initiated a finfish-monitoring program in late 1975. Over the next 40 years over 13,000 samples were collected from the James River and Chesapeake Bay and analyzed for Kepone. Kepone production was eventually banned worldwide. The average Kepone concentrations found in most species began falling when the production of Kepone ended, but the averages remained over the action limit of 0.3 mgkg ...


Mechanisms Of Thymic Toxicity Induced By Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Of Arsenic, Huan Xu 2017 University of New Mexico

Mechanisms Of Thymic Toxicity Induced By Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Of Arsenic, Huan Xu

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is known to cause immunotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of arsenic induced immunotoxicity are still not clear. Arsenite (As+3), the trivalent inorganic form of arsenic, was found to increase DNA damage and inhibit PARP activity in thymus cells at 50 nM in vitro. Oxidative stress and double strand breaks (DSBs) formation occurred in thymus cells exposed to As+3 at 500 nM. The genotoxicity was found to be related to As+3 exporter expressions and reversed by zinc supplement. IL-7 signaling, the critical cytokine signal for the early DN thymic T cell proliferation, was found ...


An Open-Sourced Statistical Application For Identifying Complex Toxicological Interactions Of Environmental Pollutants, Jordan T. Perkins, Michael C. Petriello, Li Xu, Arnold J. Stromberg, Bernhard Hennig 2017 University of Kentucky

An Open-Sourced Statistical Application For Identifying Complex Toxicological Interactions Of Environmental Pollutants, Jordan T. Perkins, Michael C. Petriello, Li Xu, Arnold J. Stromberg, Bernhard Hennig

Superfund Research Center Faculty Publications

The rising number of chemicals that humans are exposed to on a daily basis, as well as advances in biomonitoring and detection technologies have highlighted the diversity of individual exposure profiles (complex body burdens). To address this, the toxicological sciences have begun to shift away from examining toxic agents or stressors individually to focusing on more complex models with multiple agents or stressors present. Literature on interactions between chemicals is fairly limited in comparison with dose-response studies on individual toxicants, which is largely due to experimental and statistical challenges. Experimental designs capable of identifying these complex interactions are often avoided ...


Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar 2017 University of Kentucky

Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings ...


4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol Acute Toxicity To Daphnia And Its Effects On General Esterase And Glutathione S-Transferase Activity In Fathead Minnows, Rachel Clark, Jared Lewis, Jeehoon Jung, Benjamin Thornton 2017 Southern Adventist University

4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol Acute Toxicity To Daphnia And Its Effects On General Esterase And Glutathione S-Transferase Activity In Fathead Minnows, Rachel Clark, Jared Lewis, Jeehoon Jung, Benjamin Thornton

Research in Biology

In 2014, 10,000 gallons of crude MCHM spilled into the Elk River in West Virginia. Due to a paucity of information about the toxicity of this chemical prior to the spill, our research aimed to verify the published 48-h EC50 for Daphnia magna (Daphnia) examine the effects of MCHM on two enzyme detoxification systems, general esterase and glutathione S-transferase, in Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow). We used pure MCHM instead of the crude form used in Eastman’s toxicity tests because the composition of crude MCHM is variable. The EC50 we obtained for pure MCHM did not differ ...


Navajo Home Heating Practices, Their Impacts On Air Quality And Human Health, And A Framework To Identify Sustainable Solutions, Wyatt Mark Champion 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Navajo Home Heating Practices, Their Impacts On Air Quality And Human Health, And A Framework To Identify Sustainable Solutions, Wyatt Mark Champion

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Most homes on the Navajo Nation (NN) use wood, coal, or a combination of the two fuels for heating in residential stoves that are often old, damaged, or improperly designed for coal use. Health effects from this practice have been observed for residents in the NN cities of Shiprock, NM, Fort Defiance, AZ, and Tuba City, AZ. In response to a call for assessing heating options available in the NN, a mixed-methods framework was developed to identify the most viable options in terms of culture, perception, costs and benefits. A residential wood stove change-out program was supported by findings of ...


Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Identification Of “Kratom” (Mitragyna Speciosa) Alkaloids In Commercially Available Products, Julia Grzymkowski, Michelle R. Peace, Justin Poklis

Undergraduate Research Posters

“Kratom” is the common name for the botanical mitragyna speciosa. It is a tree native to Southeast Asia in which leaves contain the psychoactive alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is often ingested as teas, chewed, or smoked. It acts as a stimulant in small doses and as an opioid in large doses. Overdoses can result in vomiting, seizures, and death. Recently the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) placed Kratom on Schedule 1, but, due to public outcry, it was almost immediately removed.

Eleven kratom based products were obtained from various tobacco shops, “headshops” and via the internet including: Choice brand capsule ...


Navajo Home Heating Practices, Their Impacts On Air Quality And Human Health, And A Framework To Identify Sustainable Solutions, Wyatt Mark Champion 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Navajo Home Heating Practices, Their Impacts On Air Quality And Human Health, And A Framework To Identify Sustainable Solutions, Wyatt Mark Champion

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Most homes on the Navajo Nation (NN) use wood, coal, or a combination of the two fuels for heating in residential stoves that are often old, damaged, or improperly designed for coal use. Health effects from this practice have been observed for residents in the NN cities of Shiprock, NM, Fort Defiance, AZ, and Tuba City, AZ. In response to a call for assessing heating options available in the NN, a mixed-methods framework was developed to identify the most viable options in terms of culture, perception, costs and benefits. A residential wood stove change-out program was supported by findings of ...


Endocrine-Disrupting Properties Of Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products (Ppcps): An Evaluation Using Aquatic Model Organisms, Manahil Monshi 2017 Wayne State University

Endocrine-Disrupting Properties Of Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products (Ppcps): An Evaluation Using Aquatic Model Organisms, Manahil Monshi

Wayne State University Theses

Thousands of chemicals have introduced into the environment as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution, and the U.S. Government Accountability Office has estimated that as many as 1,500 new chemical entities are synthesized each year ("Key Issues: Toxic Chemicals - High Risk Issue," 2017). Many of these chemicals are now found in surface water and ground water and can have detrimental effects on environmental health and on human health. This anthropogenic contamination has resulted in the labeling of the diverse array of chemicals found in water, which are not routinely monitored or regulated, as contaminants of ...


The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, William D. Marks 2017 SUNY College at Buffalo

The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, William D. Marks

Theses and Dissertations

HIV is capable of causing a set of neurological diseases collectively termed the HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Worsening pathology is observed in HIV+ individuals who use opioid drugs. Memory problems are often observed in HAND, implicating HIV pathology in the hippocampus, and are also known to be exacerbated by morphine use. HIV-1 Tat was demonstrated to reduce spatial memory performance in multiple tasks, and individual subsets of CA1 interneurons were found to be selectively vulnerable to the effects of Tat, notably nNOS+/NPY- interneurons of the pyramidal layer and stratum radiatum, PV+ neurons of the pyramidal layer, and SST ...


Poison In Pink, Sydney V. Cook 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Poison In Pink, Sydney V. Cook

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Humans slather, spray, mist, and cleanse their bodies with personal care products like lotion, hairspray, cologne, and shampoo every day. Our cupboards are stocked full of them, but few of us understand what is in those jars and bottles. We trust that if it’s on the shelf at the store, it’s safe. However, this is not always the case, and many personal care products contain chemicals that are harmful to human and environmental health.

My multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies thesis project combines evidenced-based research, interviews, nonfiction narrative, and science communication to create part of a book manuscript intended to ...


Does Timing Of Herbicide Use Influence Rates Of Germination Or Seedling Biomass Of Native Plants Used For Restoration?, Christine McManamen 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Does Timing Of Herbicide Use Influence Rates Of Germination Or Seedling Biomass Of Native Plants Used For Restoration?, Christine Mcmanamen

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Invasive plants can negatively impact native grasslands by changing their species composition, productivity, and function. Managers commonly use herbicides as a control method; however, this practice can lead to secondary invasion by other non-native invasive plants, unless measures are taken to promote natives. Because of this, managers often seed native plants after spraying herbicides. There is evidence, however, that chemical control of invasive plants may reduce the effectiveness of subsequent seed-addition treatments, but there is currently little quantitative information on optimal timing between spraying and seeding or on variation in herbicide sensitivity among native plants commonly used in seed mixes ...


Differential Gene Expression Analysis Of Metolachlor Treated Human Liver Cells By Microarray, Navinder Paul Kaur Brar 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Differential Gene Expression Analysis Of Metolachlor Treated Human Liver Cells By Microarray, Navinder Paul Kaur Brar

Theses and Dissertations @ UNI

Metolachlor is one of the most common pre-emergent pesticides used by Iowa farmers. It is used to control broadleaf weeds and grasses in the fields of corn and soybean. It is a frequent contaminant of groundwater and surface water due to runoff after application. It has been shown to inhibit protein and chlorophyll synthesis in plant cells, but its effect on mammalian cells has not been consistently conclusive. As metolachlor and other herbicides have been shown to be associated with harmful health effects in non-target organisms it is very important to determine a mechanism of action on non-target cells, especially ...


Chronic Effects Of Lead Exposure On Atherinops Affinis (Topsmelt): Influence Of Salinity And Organism Age, Erik Joseph Reynolds 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Chronic Effects Of Lead Exposure On Atherinops Affinis (Topsmelt): Influence Of Salinity And Organism Age, Erik Joseph Reynolds

Master's Theses

Pb (lead) appears in the environment as a consequence of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Mining, smelting, coal burning, lead acid batteries, and cement manufacturing substantially release Pb into aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of salinity and organism age on chronic toxicity of Pb to Atherinops affinis (topsmelt) in support of development of a species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Species sensitivity distributions assist in ecological risk assessments and establishing quality criteria for contaminants. Three chronic exposure studies were conducted for 28 days in a water flow-through testing system. Survival, standard length, dry weight, and ...


Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class of 2017) 2017 Sacred Heart University

Immunotherapy Against Drugs Of Abuse, Gianna Raimondi (Class Of 2017)

Writing Across the Curriculum

Current treatments for drug addiction involve classical pharmacological therapy, involving the use of competitive or noncompetitive agonists (full, partial, or inverse) and antagonists. Drugs of abuse enter the brain after crossing the blood-brain barrier rapidly and binding to the proper receptor(s). They are able to do so because they are small and lipid soluble, and produce reinforcing effects by increasing levels of dopamine in brain areas associated with reward. This occurs in specific systems associated with addiction. In the mesolimbic system, neuron cell bodies originate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala ...


The Effects Of Metolachlor Exposure On The Thp-1 Alveolar Monocyte And Macrophage Function, Jared S. Parmater 2017 University of Northern Iowa

The Effects Of Metolachlor Exposure On The Thp-1 Alveolar Monocyte And Macrophage Function, Jared S. Parmater

Theses and Dissertations @ UNI

The use of additive chemicals such as pesticides has become commonplace in agricultural practices in the Midwestern United States. Metolachlor, an herbicide used to regulate broadleaf weeds in corn and soybeans, is a widely utilized pesticide in the United States. This herbicide is effective in killing broadleaf weeds but has detrimental effects and consequences in non-target organisms. It is a frequent contaminant of ground water due to post application run-off and the air.

Inhalation constitutes one route of exposure, in addition to ingestion, adding to the list of unintended targets and consequences. This route of exposure creates an argument for ...


Evaluation Of Childhood Exposure To Lead In Community Water Systems In Maine, Nicholas Flavin 2017 Muskie School of Public Service, University of Southern Maine

Evaluation Of Childhood Exposure To Lead In Community Water Systems In Maine, Nicholas Flavin

Muskie School Capstones

The concentration of lead in Maine’s public drinking water was evaluated from 4,700 first-draw water samples collected from 358 Maine Community Water systems. Samples collected from 2012-2015 were obtained by request from the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (MeCDC)’s Drinking Water Program.

Exposure and physiological uptake of lead can be mathematically modelled or predicted based on the amount of lead in “background” sources of contaminated media such as soil, dust, water, air or dietary items; the better the characterization of lead in these media, the better the exposure predictions. To assess childhood lead exposure ...


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