The Dreadds Technique Utilized To Control The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Of Rodents, 2017 Kent State University
The Dreadds Technique Utilized To Control The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Of Rodents, Hannah Kennedy, Matthew Russ, Brett Lowden
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Stress has been shown to induce adverse effects such as depression, heart disease, and hypertension (Roman et al., 2016, Aschbacher et al., 2016, Ojike et al., 2016). Following a stressful event there is an increase in circulating glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol in humans and corticosterone (CORT) in rodents. CORT is primarily controlled via the PVN, the major regulating structure in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis, Ferguson et al., 2009). Normally, stressful stimuli causes activation of the PVN, triggering the release of CRH from the hypothalamus, subsequently causing the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in the production of ...
P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher
Western Research Forum
Niveen Fulcher1, Cleusa De Oliveira2, & Susanne Schmid1,2
1Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario
2Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario
Altered sensory processing in response to novel DREADD-induced inactivation of GABA in pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus
Background: Sensory processing deficits are associated with certain psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sensory filtering and sensorimotor gating are evolutionarily conserved preattentive responses that filter and block redundant sensory stimuli that would otherwise overwhelm our brains. To date, underlying mechanisms of these deficits are undefined. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ...
P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad
Western Research Forum
Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...
A Synthetic Genetic System To Investigate Brain Connectivity And Genetically Manipulate Interacting Cells, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A Synthetic Genetic System To Investigate Brain Connectivity And Genetically Manipulate Interacting Cells, Ting-Hao Huang
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
The underlying goal of neuroscience research is to understand how the nervous system functions to bring about behavior. A detailed map of neural circuits is required for scientists to tackle this question. To this purpose, we developed a synthetic and genetically-encoded system, TRanscellular ACtivation of Transcription (TRACT) to monitor cell-cell contact. Upon ligand-receptor interaction at sites of cell-cell contact, the transmembrane domain of an engineered Notch receptor is cleaved by intramembrane proteolysis and releases a fragment that regulates transcription in the receptor-expressing cell. We demonstrate that in cultured cells, the synthetic receptor can be activated to drive reporter gene expression ...
The Sodium Channel Beta4 Auxiliary Subunit Selectively Controls Long-Term Depression In Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Sodium Channel Beta4 Auxiliary Subunit Selectively Controls Long-Term Depression In Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons, Xincai Ji, Sucharita Saha, Guangping Gao, Amy W. Lasek, Gregg E. Homanics, Melissa Guildford Derner, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin
Psychiatry Publications and Presentations
Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for generating the initial rapid depolarization of neuronal membrane potential during action potentials (APs) that enable cell-to-cell communication, the propagation of signals throughout the brain, and the induction of synaptic plasticity. Although all brain neurons express one or several variants coding for the core pore-forming sodium channel alpha subunit, the expression of the beta (beta1-4) auxiliary subunits varies greatly. Of particular interest is the beta4 subunit, encoded by the Scn4b gene, that is highly expressed in dorsal and ventral (i.e., nucleus accumbens - NAc) striata compared to other brain regions, and that endows sodium channels ...
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy, 2017 Brigham Young University
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy, Michael Bradshaw, Jeffrey Brown, Kyril Cole, Whitney Harris, Kody Hasebi, Ysabella Del Rosario, Sara Werner, Bryan Witt, Alonzo Cook
Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference
No abstract provided.
Physical Mechanisms And Biological Consequences Of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Modulation By Fhf Proteins, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Physical Mechanisms And Biological Consequences Of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Modulation By Fhf Proteins, Yue Liu
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Purpose: FHFs are cytosolic proteins that bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) and modulate their functions to control membrane excitability. FHFs raise the voltage dependence of NaV fast inactivation to promote excitability, while A isoforms FHF (A-FHFs) also capture open sodium channels into a long-term inactivated (LTI) state to limit excitability. My research has addressed how FHFs balance membrane excitability as it relates to normal and pathological brain functions. Part of this work stemmed from the discovery of a missense FHF1 mutation in patients with severe early onset epilepsy. Methods and Results: Wild-type FHF1A and FHF1B were ...
Adaptor Protein 2 (Ap-2) Complex Is Essential For Functional Axogenesis In Hippocampal Neurons, 2017 Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Adaptor Protein 2 (Ap-2) Complex Is Essential For Functional Axogenesis In Hippocampal Neurons, Jae Won Kyung, In Ha Cho, Sukmook Lee, Woo Keun Song, Timothy A. Ryan, Michael B. Hoppa, Sung Hyun Kim
Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship
The complexity and diversity of a neural network requires regulated elongation and branching of axons, as well as the formation of synapses between neurons. In the present study we explore the role of AP-2, a key endocytic adaptor protein complex, in the development of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that the loss of AP-2 during the early stage of development resulted in impaired axon extension and failed maturation of the axon initial segment (AIS). Normally the AIS performs two tasks in
concert, stabilizing neural polarity and generating action potentials. In AP-2 silenced axons polarity is established, however there is a ...
Novel Mechanisms Regulating Dopamine Transporter Endocytic Trafficking: Ack1-Controlled Endocytosis And Retromer-Mediated Recycling, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Novel Mechanisms Regulating Dopamine Transporter Endocytic Trafficking: Ack1-Controlled Endocytosis And Retromer-Mediated Recycling, Sijia Wu
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Dopamine transporters (DAT) facilitate high-affinity presynaptic dopamine (DA) reuptake in the central nervous system, and are required to constrain extracellular DA levels and maintain presynaptic DAergic tone. DAT is the primary target for addictive and therapeutic psychostimulants, which require DAT binding to elicit reward. DAT availability at presynaptic terminals ensures its proper function, and is dynamically regulated by endocytic trafficking. My thesis research focused on two fundamental questions: 1) what are the molecular mechanisms that control DAT endocytosis? and 2) what are the mechanism(s) that govern DAT’s post-endocytic fate? Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, I discovered that a ...
Characterisation Of Angiogenin Mediated Paracrine Neuroprotection In In Vitro Models, 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Characterisation Of Angiogenin Mediated Paracrine Neuroprotection In In Vitro Models, Sergej Susdalzew
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting motoneurons. Mutations in ANG, encoding a member of the pancreatic RNase A superfamily, segregate with ALS. Angiogenin is an acute-phase protein, which is secreted from motoneurons under stress conditions. Our group demonstrated that it is taken up by astrocytes where it induces RNA cleavage and mediates neuroprotection in paracrine. It has been shown that angiogenin preferably cleaves tRNAs within the anticodon loop to produce tRNA-derived, stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs).The functions of tiRNAs are unclear they have been shown to modulate various pathways, including apoptosis, gene expression and protein translation.
Sex Differences In Estradiol Signaling In The Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Gutatta) Auditory Cortex, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Sex Differences In Estradiol Signaling In The Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Gutatta) Auditory Cortex, Amanda Krentzel
Although several sex differences have been described in brain structure, function, and development, sex as a biological factor is underrepresented in neuroscience studies. In the mammalian brain, there are sex differences in the mechanism of rapid estradiol actions on neuronal physiology. In the songbird, the brain is a major source of estradiol production, and estradiol rapidly modulates auditory responsiveness through dynamic changes and an unknown receptor mechanism. I set out to determine if there are sex differences in rapid estradiol modulation of auditory cortical activity, as has been shown in other systems. I tested this hypothesis through three aims: 1 ...
Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, Grayland W. Godfrey Ii
Theses and Dissertations
An essential process to the development of the neural network of the nervous system is axon guidance. The noncanonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway has been identified as an integral component in controlling the projection of axons during axon guidance. Prickle, ROR1 and ROR2 are PCP related proteins that do not have clearly defined roles in the process. This study aims to use zebrafish CoPA neurons as a model to study the roles of Prickle, ROR1, and ROR2 in axon guidance. Using in situ hybridization, morpholino knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9 loss of function experiments were able to identify ror1, ror2 ...
Structural And Functional Alterations In Neocortical Circuits After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Structural And Functional Alterations In Neocortical Circuits After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Michal Vascak
Theses and Dissertations
National concern over traumatic brain injury (TBI) is growing rapidly. Recent focus is on mild TBI (mTBI), which is the most prevalent injury level in both civilian and military demographics. A preeminent sequelae of mTBI is cognitive network disruption. Advanced neuroimaging of mTBI victims supports this premise, revealing alterations in activation and structure-function of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal systems, which are essential for network processing. However, clinical neuroimaging cannot resolve the cellular and molecular substrates underlying such changes. Therefore, to understand the full scope of mTBI-induced alterations it is necessary to study cortical networks on the microscopic level, where neurons ...
The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, 2017 SUNY College at Buffalo
The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, William D. Marks
Theses and Dissertations
HIV is capable of causing a set of neurological diseases collectively termed the HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Worsening pathology is observed in HIV+ individuals who use opioid drugs. Memory problems are often observed in HAND, implicating HIV pathology in the hippocampus, and are also known to be exacerbated by morphine use. HIV-1 Tat was demonstrated to reduce spatial memory performance in multiple tasks, and individual subsets of CA1 interneurons were found to be selectively vulnerable to the effects of Tat, notably nNOS+/NPY- interneurons of the pyramidal layer and stratum radiatum, PV+ neurons of the pyramidal layer, and SST ...
Hydrogen Sulfide Regulation Of Kir Channels, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Hydrogen Sulfide Regulation Of Kir Channels, Junghoon Ha
Theses and Dissertations
Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels establish and regulate the resting membrane potential of excitable cells in the heart, brain and other peripheral tissues. Phosphatidylinositol- 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key direct activator of ion channels, including Kir channels. Gasotransmitters, such as carbon monoxide (CO), have been reported to regulate the activity of Kir channels by altering channel-PIP2 interactions. We tested, in a model system, the effects and mechanism of action of another important gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) thought to play a key role in cellular responses under ischemic conditions. Direct administration of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), as an exogenous H2S ...
Alpha-Synuclein: Insight Into The Hallmark Of Parkinson's Disease As A Target For Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics And Therapeutics, 2017 University of Central Florida
Alpha-Synuclein: Insight Into The Hallmark Of Parkinson's Disease As A Target For Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Baggio A. Evangelista
Honors Undergraduate Theses
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. With 500,000 individuals currently living with Parkinson’s and nearly 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, this disease causes significant financial burden on the healthcare system - amassing to annual expenditures totaling 200 billion dollars; predicted to increase through 2050. The disease phenotype is characterized by a combination of a resting tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, and depression due to dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain. The cause of the neurotoxicity has been largely discussed, with strong evidence suggesting that the protein, alpha-Synuclein, is a key ...
Oxidative Stress And Proteomic Studies Of Mammalian Models Of Age-Related Metabolic Dysfunction In Neurodegenerative Disorders, Aaron M. Swomley
Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry
Expression proteomics is the field of science wherein proteins that make up the cellular proteome are identified both by name and by fold-change. Depending on the application of proteomics, this change in level could be due to internal cellular stressors or introduction of xenobiotics. Global oxidative stress measures use immunohistochemistry to determine the relative level of oxidative stress of macromolecules within the cell. In this dissertation, both global oxidative stress measures and expression proteomics were used in a variety of mammalian models in order to determine the effects of protein upregulation, intranasal insulin administration, and resveratrol supplementation on the cellular ...
Persistent Electrophysiological Identity Of Neurons In The Nucleus Accumbens Shell, 2017 University of Colorado Boulder
Persistent Electrophysiological Identity Of Neurons In The Nucleus Accumbens Shell, Joel Forrest Ayers
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Electrophysiology is an important technique using chronically-implanted electrode arrays, which allow for recording of neural activity in vivo during behavioral tasks that require cue and reward associations. Recordings are used to study how patterns of neural activity encode behaviorally-relevant information and how the disruption of this encoding can occur following cocaine experience. Behavioral testing and acute manipulations (such as chemogenetics) of associative behaviors can take place over several days. To precisely assess the progress of neural encoding over time, it is important to identify single unit neurons across multiple recording sessions. Here, we examined neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc ...
The Effect Of Stress, Time Of Day And Adrenal Hormones On Bmal1, Per2 And C-Fos Expression In The Rat Hippocampus And Amygdala, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
The Effect Of Stress, Time Of Day And Adrenal Hormones On Bmal1, Per2 And C-Fos Expression In The Rat Hippocampus And Amygdala, Jeanelle France
Undergraduate Honors Theses
The term circadian rhythm refers to the behavioral and physiological changes an organism exhibits during an approximately 24-hour period. Plants, animals and fungi all maintain circadian rhythms, by part, with a molecular clock system. The molecular clock consists of a positive and negative feedback loop that alter gene transcription and translation. BMAL1 and CLOCK make up the positive transcription arm that stimulates the production of two classes of genes, period (Per 1-3) and cryptochrome (Cry 1-2). PER and Cry protein make up the negative feedback loop of the molecular clock and inhibit their own transcription in the nucleus.
The molecular ...
Whole Genome Dna Methylation Sequencing Of The Chicken Retina, Cornea And Brain, 2016 James Madison University
Whole Genome Dna Methylation Sequencing Of The Chicken Retina, Cornea And Brain, Isac Lee, Bejan A. Rasoul, Ashton S. Holub, Alannah Lejeune, Raymond A. Enke, Winston Timp
Ray Enke Ph.D.
No abstract provided.