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Full-Text Articles in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Functions Of Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factor 2 In Excitable Tissues, Christopher Marra Sep 2020

Functions Of Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factor 2 In Excitable Tissues, Christopher Marra

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Purpose: Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors (FHFs) are a group of proteins known to associate with and modulate voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in excitable cells. The four FHF genes are differentially expressed in specific cell-types, with FHF2 expressed prominently in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, heart and dorsal root ganglia. Due to previous unavailability of an Fhf2 knockout mouse, this gene’s functions have been understudied in comparison to other those encoding other FHFs. The purpose of this research has been to better understand the normal physiological functions of FHF2 at the cellular and system levels in the heart, sensory ...


Methylmercury Cytotoxicity On Developing Neuronal Lineages And Differences In Susceptibility Based On Media Type, Madeline Henley Aug 2020

Methylmercury Cytotoxicity On Developing Neuronal Lineages And Differences In Susceptibility Based On Media Type, Madeline Henley

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger Aug 2020

Characterization Of Neuronal Differentiation And Activity In Human-Induced Pluripotent Neural Stem Cells, Allison Biddinger

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil Aug 2020

The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) composed of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and neurofilaments is considered to be ALS’s neuropathological hallmark. RGNEF has been previously shown to interact with TDP-43 and to have a regulatory effect on the expression levels of NEFL mRNA and NFL protein in vitro. Here, I examined the mechanism of the RGNEF N-terminus, leucine-rich domain (LeuR) domain’s interaction with TDP-43. I observed that the minimal domain required is 110 amino acids (LeuR110), that the Ankyrin domain adjacent to LeuR110 does not participate, and that LeuR110 forms of a high molecular weight complex with TDP-43 ...


Methods For Detecting Per2::Luciferase Bioluminescence Rhythms In Freely Moving Mice, B. Martin-Burgos, W. Wang, I. William, S. Tir, I. Mohammad, R. Javed, Smith College, Y. Cui, Ciearra B. Smith, V. Van Der Vinne, P.C. Molyneux, Stephen C. Miller, David R. Weaver, T.L. Leise, M.E. Harrington Aug 2020

Methods For Detecting Per2::Luciferase Bioluminescence Rhythms In Freely Moving Mice, B. Martin-Burgos, W. Wang, I. William, S. Tir, I. Mohammad, R. Javed, Smith College, Y. Cui, Ciearra B. Smith, V. Van Der Vinne, P.C. Molyneux, Stephen C. Miller, David R. Weaver, T.L. Leise, M.E. Harrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Circadian rhythms are driven by daily oscillations of gene expression. An important tool for studying cellular and tissue rhythms is the use of a gene reporter, such as bioluminescence from the reporter gene luciferase controlled by a rhythmically expressed gene of interest. Here we describe methods that allow measurement of bioluminescence from a freely-moving mouse housed in a standard cage. Using a LumiCycle In Vivo (Actimetrics), we determined conditions that allow detection of circadian rhythms of bioluminescence from the PER2 reporter, PER2::LUC, in freely behaving mice. We tested delivery of D-luciferin via a subcutaneous minipump and in the drinking ...


Altered Micos Morphology And Mitochondrial Ion Homeostasis Contribute To Poly(Gr) Toxicity Associated With C9-Als/Ftd, Shuangxi Li, Zhihao Wu, Yu Li, Ishaq Tantray, Diego De Stefani, Andrea Mattarei, Gopinath Krishnan, Fen-Biao Gao, Hannes Vogel, Bingwei Lu Aug 2020

Altered Micos Morphology And Mitochondrial Ion Homeostasis Contribute To Poly(Gr) Toxicity Associated With C9-Als/Ftd, Shuangxi Li, Zhihao Wu, Yu Li, Ishaq Tantray, Diego De Stefani, Andrea Mattarei, Gopinath Krishnan, Fen-Biao Gao, Hannes Vogel, Bingwei Lu

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) manifests pathological changes in motor neurons and various other cell types. Compared to motor neurons, the contribution of the other cell types to the ALS phenotypes is understudied. G4C2 repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of ALS along with frontotemporal dementia (C9-ALS/FTD), with increasing evidence supporting repeat-encoded poly(GR) in disease pathogenesis. Here, we show in Drosophila muscle that poly(GR) enters mitochondria and interacts with components of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System (MICOS), altering MICOS dynamics and intra-subunit interactions. This impairs mitochondrial inner membrane structure, ion homeostasis ...


Rela/P65 Blocks Histone Deacetylase-3 Neurotoxicity And Protects Neurons Against Neuronal Death Induced By Polyq-Expanded Huntingtin And Ataxin-1 In A P65 Phospho S276 Dependent Manner, Yiyu Zhang Aug 2020

Rela/P65 Blocks Histone Deacetylase-3 Neurotoxicity And Protects Neurons Against Neuronal Death Induced By Polyq-Expanded Huntingtin And Ataxin-1 In A P65 Phospho S276 Dependent Manner, Yiyu Zhang

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Neurodegenerative diseases have a large negative impact to human society. Symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases includes memory loss, impaired recognition, motor dysfunction due to dysregulated neuronal loss in different brain regions. However, the neurobiological basis of these brain diseases is not fully understood and there are no cures or effective treatments. Polyglutamine (Poly-Q) disorders is a class of neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by polyglutamine expansion within the protein coding regions of specific genes. Huntington’s disease (HD), Spinal Cerebellar Ataxia Type 1 (SCA1) and Spinal Cerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3) are three common diseases among Poly-Q disorders. To better understand ...


The Role Of Skeletal Muscle-Synthesized Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor In The Maintenance Of Motor Neuron Mitochondrial Populations, Mikel Cawley Aug 2020

The Role Of Skeletal Muscle-Synthesized Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor In The Maintenance Of Motor Neuron Mitochondrial Populations, Mikel Cawley

All NMU Master's Theses

Mitochondria are essential for the high energy demands of the neuromuscular junction and, as a consequence, leave motorneurons susceptible to dysfunction. A potential origin of progressive pathology may be a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) signaling at the motor unit. We have shown that mice deficient in skeletal muscle-synthesized BDNF (msBDNF) demonstrate progressive motorneuron and muscle pathology at 120d. We hypothesize mitochondrial populations will be altered in motorneurons of msBDNF deficient-mice. At 117d, msBDNF deficient-mice received intramuscular injections of MitoTracker™ dye targeting the right gastrocnemius muscle. At 120d experimental groups underwent a gastrocnemius harvest or a sciatic nerve ligation protocol ...


Loss Of Supervillin Causes Myopathy With Myofibrillar Disorganization And Autophagic Vacuoles, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Elizabeth J. Luna, Anders Oldfors, Cordula Knopp Aug 2020

Loss Of Supervillin Causes Myopathy With Myofibrillar Disorganization And Autophagic Vacuoles, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Elizabeth J. Luna, Anders Oldfors, Cordula Knopp

Open Access Articles

The muscle specific isoform of the supervillin protein (SV2), encoded by the SVIL gene, is a large sarcolemmal myosin II- and F-actin-binding protein. Supervillin (SV2) binds and co-localizes with costameric dystrophin and binds nebulin, potentially attaching the sarcolemma to myofibrillar Z-lines. Despite its important role in muscle cell physiology suggested by various in vitro studies, there are so far no reports of any human disease caused by SVIL mutations. We here report four patients from two unrelated, consanguineous families with a childhood/adolescence onset of a myopathy associated with homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SVIL. Wide neck, anteverted shoulders and prominent ...


Cellular And Circuit Properties Of Slow Oscillations In The Thalamic Reticular Nucleus, John O'Malley Aug 2020

Cellular And Circuit Properties Of Slow Oscillations In The Thalamic Reticular Nucleus, John O'Malley

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

During sleep, neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) generate distinct types of oscillatory activity. While the reciprocal synaptic circuits between TRN and sensory thalamic nuclei underlie the generation of sleep spindles, the mechanisms regulating slow (<1 >Hz) forms of thalamic oscillations are poorly understood. Under in vitro conditions, in the absence of synaptic inputs, TRN neurons can generate slow oscillations in a cell-intrinsic manner. Activation of postsynaptic Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) leads to long-lasting plateau potentials thought to be mediated by both T-type calcium currents and calcium-activated nonselective cation currents (ICAN). However, the identity of ICAN ...


Regulation Of Translation And Synaptic Plasticity By Tsc2, Annie Hien Jul 2020

Regulation Of Translation And Synaptic Plasticity By Tsc2, Annie Hien

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Mutations in TSC2 cause the disorder tuberous sclerosis (TSC), which has a high incidence of autism and intellectual disability. TSC2 regulates mRNA translation required for group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic long-term depression (mGluR-LTD), but the identity of mRNAs responsive to mGluR-LTD signaling in the normal and TSC brain is largely unknown. We generated Tsc2+/- mice to model TSC autism and performed ribosome profiling to identify differentially expressed genes following mGluR-LTD in the normal and Tsc2+/- hippocampus. Ribosome profiling reveals that in Tsc2+/-mice, RNA-binding targets of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) are increased. In wild-type hippocampus, induction of ...


Ampa Receptor Auxiliary Subunit Gsg1l Suppresses Short-Term Facilitation In Corticothalamic Synapses And Determines Seizure Susceptibility, Aichurok Kamalova, Kensuke Futai, Eric Delpire, Terunaga Nakagawa Jul 2020

Ampa Receptor Auxiliary Subunit Gsg1l Suppresses Short-Term Facilitation In Corticothalamic Synapses And Determines Seizure Susceptibility, Aichurok Kamalova, Kensuke Futai, Eric Delpire, Terunaga Nakagawa

Open Access Articles

The anterior thalamus (AT) is critical for memory formation, processing navigational information, and seizure initiation. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate synaptic function of AT neurons remain largely unexplored. We report that AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit GSG1L controls short-term plasticity in AT synapses that receive inputs from the cortex, but not in those receiving inputs from other pathways. A canonical auxiliary subunit stargazin co-exists in these neurons but is functionally absent from corticothalamic synapses. In GSG1L knockout mice, AT neurons exhibit hyperexcitability and the animals have increased susceptibility to seizures, consistent with a negative regulatory role of GSG1L. We hypothesize ...


Kcnq2 Localization In The Brainstem, Christina Valera May 2020

Kcnq2 Localization In The Brainstem, Christina Valera

Honors Scholar Theses

KCNQ2 channels are potassium channels that serve to control neuronal excitability. Loss of function mutations in these channels are known to cause various forms of epilepsy. Recently, KCNQ2 R201C and R201H gain of function mutations have been shown to exhibit an exaggerated startle response and other unique phenotypes uncharacteristic of epilepsy. These phenotypes resemble hyperekplexia, a condition in which glycine neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brainstem is affected. While KCNQ2 has widespread localization throughout the brain, its presence in the brainstem remains unknown. We used immunostaining to determine the localization of KCNQ2 in the vagus nerve and hypoglossal nerve ...


Association Of Dtnbp1 With Schizophrenia: Findings From Two Independent Samples Of Han Chinese Population, Yongfeng Yang, Xiaoduo Fan, Ge Yang May 2020

Association Of Dtnbp1 With Schizophrenia: Findings From Two Independent Samples Of Han Chinese Population, Yongfeng Yang, Xiaoduo Fan, Ge Yang

Psychiatry Publications

Objectives: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a strong genetic basis. Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) is one of the genes thought to be pivotal in regulating the glutamatergic system. Studies have suggested that variations in DTNBP1 confer susceptibility to SZ and clinical symptoms. Here, we performed a two-stage independent verification study to identify polymorphisms of the DTNBP1 gene that might be associated with SZ in the Han Chinese population.

Methods: In stage 1, 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 healthy controls (HCs) using the Illumina GoldenGate assays on a ...


Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir May 2020

Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir

Open Access Articles

YAP1 gene fusions have been observed in a subset of paediatric ependymomas. Here we show that, ectopic expression of active nuclear YAP1 (nlsYAP5SA) in ventricular zone neural progenitor cells using conditionally-induced NEX/NeuroD6-Cre is sufficient to drive brain tumour formation in mice. Neuronal differentiation is inhibited in the hippocampus. Deletion of YAP1's negative regulators LATS1 and LATS2 kinases in NEX-Cre lineage in double conditional knockout mice also generates similar tumours, which are rescued by deletion of YAP1 and its paralog TAZ. YAP1/TAZ-induced mouse tumours display molecular and ultrastructural characteristics of human ependymoma. RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics of ...


Expression Analyses Of Hippocampal And Cortical Proteins In A Rat Model For Alzheimer’S Disease, Rangon Islam May 2020

Expression Analyses Of Hippocampal And Cortical Proteins In A Rat Model For Alzheimer’S Disease, Rangon Islam

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Currently, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has no cure. Using a rat AD model, we identified aberrantly expressed proteins during pre-pathology as potential biomarkers. The expression of certain biomarkers was reversed by diazoxide, a repurposed hypertension drug. These results suggest that drug repurposing at an early stage of AD has therapeutic potential.


Hiv-1 Tat Interactions With Opioids Are Modulated By Progesterone And Estradiol, Dejun Jackson May 2020

Hiv-1 Tat Interactions With Opioids Are Modulated By Progesterone And Estradiol, Dejun Jackson

Honors Theses

HIV infection and combined substance abuse are comorbid epidemics. Previous studies show that concurrent opioid drug use may potentiate HIV-1-mediated neurotoxicity partly via interactions with opioids. Preclinical studies suggest that the HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat), an HIV regulatory protein, can synergize with opioids to exacerbate its already neurotoxic effects. However, its interactions with clinical opioids, such as oxycodone, have yet to be elucidated. Additionally, Tat disrupts a number of systems including the dopaminergic system, which contribute to its capacity to potentiate the rewarding effects of abused drugs. Although the neurotoxic effects of Tat may be inhibited by gonadal steroids ...


Neuroligin3 Splice Isoforms Shape Inhibitory Synaptic Function In The Mouse Hippocampus, Motokazu Uchigashima, Ming Leung, Takuya Watanabe, Amy Cheung, Timmy Le, Sabine Pallat, Alexandre Luis Marques Dinis, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai May 2020

Neuroligin3 Splice Isoforms Shape Inhibitory Synaptic Function In The Mouse Hippocampus, Motokazu Uchigashima, Ming Leung, Takuya Watanabe, Amy Cheung, Timmy Le, Sabine Pallat, Alexandre Luis Marques Dinis, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai

Open Access Articles

Synapse formation is a dynamic process essential for the development and maturation of the neuronal circuitry in the brain. At the synaptic cleft, transsynaptic protein-protein interactions are major biological determinants of proper synapse efficacy. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission (E-I balance) stabilizes synaptic activity, and dysregulation of the E-I balance has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the E-I balance remain to be elucidated. Here, using single-cell transcriptomics, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to murine CA1 pyramidal neurons obtained from organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, we investigate Neuroligin (Nlgn) genes that ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes May 2020

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber May 2020

Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber

Senior Honors Theses

The improved survival rate for pediatric cancer patients is one of the greatest triumphs of recent medicine, but the late effects faced by these survivors have been uncovered through this new population of survivors. Many survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience cognitive deficits in areas such as attention, memory, processing speed, and academic achievement following cancer treatment. Recent research has pointed to chemotherapeutic agents, host risk factors, and genetic predispositions as perpetrators of these deficits, although other factors are also under investigation. Consequently, the search for appropriate interventions for the amelioration of these deficits has dominated the literature ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers May 2020

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


The Functional Role Of Mitochondria In Neural Progenitor Cells, Alyssa Luz-Ricca May 2020

The Functional Role Of Mitochondria In Neural Progenitor Cells, Alyssa Luz-Ricca

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Neurodevelopment is a complex process that requires the precise spatiotemporal control of cellular differentiation. As cells differentiate, they undergo metabolic changes that make them increasingly reliant on their mitochondria for energy production. Beyond playing a central role in the bioenergetic support of newborn neurons, functional changes in mitochondria regulate the processes of cellular differentiation. Importantly, mitochondrial function extends beyond energy production. Mitochondria in neural stem cells play an essential role in both producing intermediates for biosynthesis and regulating calcium levels. In this thesis, I review the functional role of mitochondria in stem cell fate decisions, differentiation, and proliferation during neurodevelopment ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham May 2020

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley Apr 2020

Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley

Senior Scholars Day

Alcohol has sexually dimorphic effects on the brain, and the endogenous opioid, beta-endorphin (BE), mediates many effects of alcohol. In the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, alcohol stimulates neurons to enhance dopaminergic signaling, but the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Alcohol could impact dopaminergic signaling in the reward pathway by affecting the production and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that acute alcohol intoxication would increase c-fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in a sex- and BE-dependent manner. In this ...


The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman Apr 2020

The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman

Senior Honors Theses

Depression is a major clinical concern, having a complex onset and the presence of multiple, often unidentifiable causes. Depression affects millions of individuals worldwide, with a high prevalence in regions of the world with a Western-style diet as compared to regions with a Mediterranean diet. A Western-style diet consists of foods high in sugar, fat, and processed meats and grains, whereas the Mediterranean diet contains significantly more vegetables, fruits, lean meats, and whole grains. The link between diet and mental health disorders has implications for individuals of all ages who are hesitant to turn to medication. In addition to presenting ...


Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith Apr 2020

Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith

Honors Theses

The geriatric population of America has grown exponentially in the past century. Health degradations and expensive medical care are characteristic of this population with many of these costs due to age-related cognitive decline. It is essential to completely understand the mechanisms of normal and abnormal aging in the search for treatments for cognitive decline. A reduction of neurogenesis is a common factor in aging, but this reduction is even more drastic in individuals experiencing cognitive decline. It is unclear what effect reduced neurogenesis has on the extracellular environment, including glial cells. In particular, changes in microglial activation could be related ...


Serum-Based Biomarkers And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Collegiate Athletes Post Return-To-Play, Taylor R. Susa Apr 2020

Serum-Based Biomarkers And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Collegiate Athletes Post Return-To-Play, Taylor R. Susa

All NMU Master's Theses

Recently there has been an increase in the use of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), to measure the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Proteins such as BDNF, S100B, UCH-L1, and Tau have been found to have altered levels in blood serum after TBI. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between serum-based and MRI-based biomarkers in concussed athletes post return-to-play. This study aimed to bridge this gap by collecting serum samples from 42 participants across two groups. The first group (n = 21) consisted of recently cleared to return-to-play collegiate athletes after experiencing a sports-related concussion. The second group (n ...


Amino Acid Sensing Ability By The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin In Oligodendrocytes, Emma England Apr 2020

Amino Acid Sensing Ability By The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin In Oligodendrocytes, Emma England

Senior Theses and Projects

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that require substantial nutrients such as lipids and amino acids to create the extensive, metabolically expensive myelin sheath surrounding the axons of neurons. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulatory kinase that is necessary for the maturation of progenitor OLs through their distinct oligo-lineage phases. Amino acids are vital for the functioning of cells. The focus of this study was to determine if mTOR activity is dependent on the availability of leucine, methionine, and alanine. This was assessed by examining the phosphorylation level of the ...


The Expression Of Mtor And Trib3 In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Katie Lazur Apr 2020

The Expression Of Mtor And Trib3 In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Katie Lazur

Senior Theses and Projects

Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that are responsible for producing the myelin sheath which allows for faster neuronal firing rates. Myelin production is a metabolically expensive process, which requires the oligodendrocytes to be aware of the nutrients are available to them. It has been demonstrated that the mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is required for the later stages of maturation in oligodendrocytes. However, when mTOR is inhibited by Rapamycin in the early stages of oligodendrocyte development, the oligodendrocytes are still able to fully differentiate. Tribbles Homolog 3 (Trib3) is a pseudo kinase that ...