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Identification Of A Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance To Organic Arsenic In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Taradon Luangtongkum, Zhiyi Qiang, Byeonghwa Jeon, Liping Wang, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of A Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance To Organic Arsenic In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Taradon Luangtongkum, Zhiyi Qiang, Byeonghwa Jeon, Liping Wang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Although bacterial mechanisms involved in the resistance to inorganic arsenic are well understood, the molecular basis for organic arsenic resistance has not been described. Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, is highly prevalent in poultry and is reportedly resistant to the arsenic compound roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid), which has been used as a feed additive in the poultry industry for growth promotion. In this study, we report the identification of a novel membrane transporter (named ArsP) that contributes to organic arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. ArsP is predicted to be a membrane permease containing eight transmembrane helices, distinct ...


Persistence Of Enteric Viruses On Surfaces Under Varying Environmental Conditions, Nicole L. Turnage 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Persistence Of Enteric Viruses On Surfaces Under Varying Environmental Conditions, Nicole L. Turnage

Theses and Dissertations

Human enteric viruses such as human norovirus (hNoV) and Aichivirus A (AiV) are common foodborne viruses with hNoVs being identified as the leading causative agent of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. Moreover, hNoVs have been identified as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in the U.S. and worldwide. Fomite surface contamination is a major transmission route for enteric viruses. The application of an optimized virus recovery method from fomites is essential for better understanding of virus persistence under varying environmental conditions (EC). This study aimed to optimize a surface sampling method for virus recovery from nonporous food ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse

Theses and Dissertations

The craft beer industry is increasing in popularity in the United States. The craft brewing process typically does not use a pasteurization step, therefore the boiling process is the primary critical control step. Any microorganisms introduced after boiling, or those that are not killed during boiling, are likely to participate in fermentation and persist in the final product. Previous culture-based studies have isolated bacteria and yeast from craft beers at specific time points, but little research has been done on the process as a whole. The objectives of this research are to (1) track bacteria development throughout the brewing process ...


Modeling The Survival Of Salmonella In Soy Sauce-Based Products Stored At Two Different Temperatures, Ana Cristina Arciniega Castillo 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Modeling The Survival Of Salmonella In Soy Sauce-Based Products Stored At Two Different Temperatures, Ana Cristina Arciniega Castillo

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Acidified foods are defined in the regulations as “low acid foods to which acid(s) has been added to bring finished pH to 4.6 or below”. As the market for these products expands, an increasing number of them are being processed with reduced heat treatment, relying on acid alone to ensure the destruction of pathogens. When considering the survival rate of microbial pathogens in these products, pH, water activity, temperature, salt content and holding time are integral and must be considered together.

Despite improvements in production, handling, and distribution of food products in recent years, protecting consumers from foodborne ...


Validation Of Extrusion Processing For The Safety Of Low-Moisture Foods, Tushar Verma 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validation Of Extrusion Processing For The Safety Of Low-Moisture Foods, Tushar Verma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Salmonella in low-moisture foods is an emerging challenge due to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. The new Food Safety Modernization Act requires the food processors to validate their process controls that indeed kills the desired number of bacteria. This research had two major objectives: 1) Develop a response surface model for Salmonella inactivation during the extrusion of low-moisture food 2) Evaluate the use of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as an adequate surrogate for Salmonella during the extrusion of low-moisture food. Oat flour was selected as a low-moisture food model. For inoculation, cocktail of five different strains of ...


Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D. 2017 Iowa State University

Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.

Rodrigo Tarté

Review of the current state of antimicrobial ingredients that qualify as "clean label"ingredients.


The Recovery Of Protein From Egg Yolk Protein Extraction Granule Byprouct, Irene Jennifer Kaufman 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Recovery Of Protein From Egg Yolk Protein Extraction Granule Byprouct, Irene Jennifer Kaufman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In addition to proving an excellent source of nutrients, eggs are used in the food, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries for their rheological and bioactive properties. Much of the potential for the added value is in individual components of the egg, rather than the whole egg. At low speed centrifugation, yolk separates into two distinct fractions—granules and plasma. It is becoming increasingly popular in the industry to remove the plasma fraction of the egg yolk to use for its livetins, particularly immunoglobulin Y, leaving behind a granule by-product (“yellow cake”). Previous research has shown potential added-value from the granule fraction ...


Effect Of Red Cabbage Extract On Minced Nile Perch Fish Patties Vacuum Packaged In High And Low Oxygen Barrier Films, Ayse Demirbas, Yavuz Yagiz, Ziynet Boz, Bruce A. Welt, Eric McLamore, Maurice Marshall, William Pelletier, Amarat Simonne 2017 University of Florida

Effect Of Red Cabbage Extract On Minced Nile Perch Fish Patties Vacuum Packaged In High And Low Oxygen Barrier Films, Ayse Demirbas, Yavuz Yagiz, Ziynet Boz, Bruce A. Welt, Eric Mclamore, Maurice Marshall, William Pelletier, Amarat Simonne

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish causes loss of product quality. Oxidative rancidity causes loss of nutritional value and undesirable color changes. Therefore, powerful antioxidant extracts may provide a relatively low cost and natural means to reduce oxidation, resulting in longer, higher quality and higher value shelf life of foods.

In this study, we measured synergistic effects of red cabbage antioxidant and vacuum packaging on lipid oxidation in fresh tilapia patties using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, peroxide value (PV), pH and color analysis.

Concentrated red cabbage extract was obtained ...


Dna Barcoding Analysis Of Seafood Accuracy In Washington, D.C. Restaurants, David Stern, Eduardo Castro Nallar, Jason Rathod, Keith A. Crandall 2017 George Washington University

Dna Barcoding Analysis Of Seafood Accuracy In Washington, D.C. Restaurants, David Stern, Eduardo Castro Nallar, Jason Rathod, Keith A. Crandall

Computational Biology Institute

In Washington D.C., recent legislation authorizes citizens to test if products are properly represented and, if they are not, to bring a lawsuit for the benefit of the general public. Recent studies revealing the widespread phenomenon of seafood substitution across the United States make it a fertile area for consumer protection testing. DNA barcoding provides an accurate and cost-effective way to perform these tests, especially when tissue alone is available making species identification based on morphology impossible. In this study, we sequenced the 5′ barcoding region of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene for 12 samples of vertebrate and invertebrate ...


Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden

Masters Theses

Dispersion is a natural part of a biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. Dispersion occurs when bacteria revert from a stationary, sessile state to a free-swimming, planktonic state and are freed from a biofilm. Bacterial biofilms consist of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA that together make up the extracellular polymeric substances. Surrounded by this mucus-like substance, sessile cells can be extremely difficult to eradicate as compared to the planktonic form of Listeria monocytogenes. Biofilms are robust due to increased surface adherence, inhibition of diffusion of harmful compounds, and increased genetic diversity that exists within a biofilm. As a result ...


Use Of Different Ripening Inhibitors To Enhance Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Nanoemulsion, Victor Ryu 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Use Of Different Ripening Inhibitors To Enhance Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Nanoemulsion, Victor Ryu

Masters Theses

The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d < 70 nm) were formed. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions decreased with increasing ripening inhibitor concentration, which was attributed to a reduction in the amount of hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents transferred to the separated hydrophobic domain, mimicking bacterial cell membranes, by using dialysis and chromatography. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions also depended on the nature of the ripening inhibitor used: palm ≈ corn > canola > coconut which also depended on their ability to transfer hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents to the separated hydrophobic domain.


Influence Of Biomimetic Chelating Packaging On Natural Antimicrobial Efficacy, Paul Castrale 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Influence Of Biomimetic Chelating Packaging On Natural Antimicrobial Efficacy, Paul Castrale

Masters Theses

The iron chelating molecule, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used in food applications for the preservation of oxidation prone ingredients. Research has suggested that EDTA is also capable of enhancing the antimicrobial effectiveness of various compounds including naturally-derived antimicrobials. With consumer demand for cleaner food labels, there remains an opportunity to introduce new chelating technology to replace synthetically-derived EDTA. Through photographting and chemical conversion, hydroxamic acid ligands were covalently bound to polypropylene films resulting in polypropylene-graft-poly(hydroxamic acid) (PP-g-PHA). The resulting films demonstrated an ability to chelate 64 nmol/cm2 from an iron saturated environment or ...


Controlling Brochothrix Thermosphacta As A Spoilage Risk Using In Package Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, P. J Cullen, Paula Bourke 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Controlling Brochothrix Thermosphacta As A Spoilage Risk Using In Package Atmospheric Cold Plasma, Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, P. J Cullen, Paula Bourke

Articles

Brochothrix thermosphacta is a predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta in response to key parameters such as treatment time, voltage level, interactions with media composition and post treatment storage conditions. Challenge populations were evaluated as suspensions in PBS, as biofilms in meat model medium and surface attached on raw lamb chops under MAP.

ACP treatment ...


The Survival Of Various Pathogenic Organisms In Fats And Oils, Kelsey Ellen Lamb 2017 University of Kentucky

The Survival Of Various Pathogenic Organisms In Fats And Oils, Kelsey Ellen Lamb

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The research within this thesis sought to determine the ability of various animal derived fats and plant derived oils to support the survival of several pathogenic cocktails over a multitude of storage times. The Salmonella study explored the survival rate of a four strain Salmonella cocktail in beef tallow, pig lard, duck fat, coconut oil, and extra virgin olive oil over seven days at 26˚C and 37˚C storage. The animal fats and the coconut oil supported the survival of the bacteria until the conclusion of the study. The Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli study explored the survival rate of ...


A Critical Assessment Of The “Sterile Womb” And “In Utero Colonization” Hypotheses: Implications For Research On The Pioneer Infant Microbiome, Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Jens Walter 2017 University of Alberta

A Critical Assessment Of The “Sterile Womb” And “In Utero Colonization” Hypotheses: Implications For Research On The Pioneer Infant Microbiome, Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Jens Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

After more than a century of active research, the notion that the human fetal environment is sterile and that the neonate’s microbiome is acquired during and after birth was an accepted dogma. However, recent studies using molecular techniques suggest bacterial communities in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium from healthy pregnancies. These findings have led many scientists to challenge the “sterile womb paradigm” and propose that microbiome acquisition instead begins in utero, an idea that would fundamentally change our understanding of gut microbiota acquisition and its role in human development. In this review, we provide a critical assessment of ...


Application Of Natural Antimicrobials For Food Preservation, Brijesh Tiwari, Vasilis Valdramidis, Colm O' Donnell, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke 2016 University College Dublin

Application Of Natural Antimicrobials For Food Preservation, Brijesh Tiwari, Vasilis Valdramidis, Colm O' Donnell, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke

Brijesh Tiwari

In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed 10 along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial 11 compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and 12 spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic proper- 13 ties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed 14 including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in 15 conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Antimicrobial Inhibitory Activities Of Phenolic Extracts From Four Selected Soybean Hulls In Culture And Chicken Skin Model Systems, And Preliminary Ace-Inhibitory Activity, Rajaa Abdulkair Abutheraa 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Antimicrobial Inhibitory Activities Of Phenolic Extracts From Four Selected Soybean Hulls In Culture And Chicken Skin Model Systems, And Preliminary Ace-Inhibitory Activity, Rajaa Abdulkair Abutheraa

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean components provide health benefits to humans. Soybean hulls, a major by-product of the soybean processing industry consist of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and polyphenols such as anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins and isoflavones. The polyphenolic compounds in the hulls give them various colors such as black, brown, green, yellow or even a mottled appearance. Studies have reported different soybean varieties with varying total phenolic compounds in their seed hulls, which have antioxidant property. Phenolic extracts can be used as substitutes for synthetic antimicrobials and preservatives to assist in preventing the growth of pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, E coli 0157:H7, and ...


A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu

Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the application of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, in foods. The possible presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food companies. Therefore, the demand for rapid and sensitive methods to detect foodborne pathogens is growing. In this research, an impedimetric immunosensor was first developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in foods. It was based on the techniques of immunomagnetic separation, enzyme labelling, and electrochemical ...


The Effects Of Using Cinnamon Leaf And Bark Essential Oils On Listeria Monocytogenes (L.M.), Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), In Model System, Strawberry Shake And Fresh Celery, And Sensory & Shelf Life Studies, Wafaa Brnawi 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Using Cinnamon Leaf And Bark Essential Oils On Listeria Monocytogenes (L.M.), Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), In Model System, Strawberry Shake And Fresh Celery, And Sensory & Shelf Life Studies, Wafaa Brnawi

Theses and Dissertations

Essential oils derived from the bark and leaves of the cinnamon plant have long been used as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in different types of foods. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of cinnamon essential oils (CEOs), obtained from cinnamon leaf or bark, against two foodborne pathogens i.e., Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.). Two different concentrations of microbial loading were used i.e.,109 and 104, cultured in nutrient media broth, strawberry shakes, and on celery sticks. Both CEOs of leaf and bark at 0.5% and 1% were found to completely ...


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