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Risk Assessment And Research Synthesis Methodologies In Food Safety: Two Effective Tools To Provide Scientific Evidence Into The Decision Making Process., Juan E. Ortuzar 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Risk Assessment And Research Synthesis Methodologies In Food Safety: Two Effective Tools To Provide Scientific Evidence Into The Decision Making Process., Juan E. Ortuzar

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

The food supply chain is a complex and diverse system. Some food products need minimum processing to reach the consumers, while others involve several different processes, countries and suppliers, can take several months to be on the table of the end consumer. Regarding food safety, the public health of consumers is at stake and the consequences of outbreaks could prove disastrous. This has been recognized as a matter of global importance for the food industry and authorities around the world since several efforts to improve quality, safety and trade of food have arisen since the early 1960s. The birth of ...


Farm-To-Fork Fresh Produce Food Safety: An Evaluation Of Perceptions, Knowledge, And Implementation Of Good Agriculture Practices In Kentucky, Daniel J. Sinkel 2016 Western Kentucky University

Farm-To-Fork Fresh Produce Food Safety: An Evaluation Of Perceptions, Knowledge, And Implementation Of Good Agriculture Practices In Kentucky, Daniel J. Sinkel

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Farmers’ markets have increasingly become a popular venue for purchase of fresh, locally-grown produce, with the number of farmers’ markets in Kentucky reaching an all-time high of 159 in 2016. Good Agriculture Practices (GAPs) is a program created by the USDA’s Agriculture Marketing Service to function as a food safety audit for small-scale fresh produce growers, such as those who sell fresh produce at local farmers’ markets. However, under the provisions of the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011, small-scale farmers who sell an average of $25,000 in annual fresh produce sales across the span of three years ...


Fungi In The Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Mallory J. Suhr 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fungi In The Healthy Human Gastrointestinal Tract, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Mallory J. Suhr

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented ...


Stable Engraftment Of Bifidobacterium Longum Ah1206 In The Human Gut Depends On Individualized Features Of The Resident Microbiome, María X. Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez, Francesca Bottacini, Amy O’Callaghan, Marco Ventura, Douwe van Sinderen, Benjamin Hillmann, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Robert W. Hutkins, Jens Walter 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Stable Engraftment Of Bifidobacterium Longum Ah1206 In The Human Gut Depends On Individualized Features Of The Resident Microbiome, María X. Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez, Francesca Bottacini, Amy O’Callaghan, Marco Ventura, Douwe Van Sinderen, Benjamin Hillmann, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Robert W. Hutkins, Jens Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Live bacteria (such as probiotics) have long been used to modulate gut microbiota and human physiology, but their colonization is mostly transient. Conceptual understanding of the ecological principles as they apply to exogenously introduced microbes in gut ecosystems is lacking. We find that, when orally administered to humans, Bifidobacterium longum AH1206 stably persists in the gut of 30% of individuals for at least 6 months without causing gastrointestinal symptoms or impacting the composition of the resident gut microbiota. AH1206 engraftment was associated with low abundance of resident B. longum and underrepresentation of specific carbohydrate utilization genes in the pre-treatment microbiome ...


Combinations Of Multiple Natural Antimicrobials With Different Mechanisms As An Approach To Control Listeria Monocytogenes, Savannah Grace Hawkins 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Combinations Of Multiple Natural Antimicrobials With Different Mechanisms As An Approach To Control Listeria Monocytogenes, Savannah Grace Hawkins

Masters Theses

To improve food safety and shelflife requires the use of preservation processes, such as physical (heat, refrigeration) or chemical (antimicrobial addition) processes. Regulatory approved synthetic food antimicrobials (preservatives) have some uses but are very limited in their spectrum of activity. Thus, alternatives are needed to conventional chemical antimicrobials. One method is to use naturally occurring antimicrobials, especially those found in spices and herbs, essential oils (EO) and essential oil components (EOC). EOs have been shown to have antimicrobial activity but the activity is highly variable. Finding a combination of EOs, EOCs, or other natural antimicrobials that act synergistically would allow ...


Identification Of Potential Bacterial Surrogates For Validation Of Thermal Inactivation Processes Of Hepatitis A Virus, Marcel Schmidt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Identification Of Potential Bacterial Surrogates For Validation Of Thermal Inactivation Processes Of Hepatitis A Virus, Marcel Schmidt

Masters Theses

Thermal treatment is a method for inactivating pathogens in a wide range of food products. Recent studies have shown that hepatitis A virus (HAV) has a D72°C [D72 degree celcius] of 0.9 min in buffer which is greater than vegetative bacterial pathogens. Common surrogates, such as Listeria innocua, are not resistant enough to be used as surrogates for HAV, thus, new surrogates need to be identified. The purpose of this study was to compare the thermal inactivation kinetics (D- and z-values) of Staphylococcus carnosus in different foods and different incubation temperatures to identify a potential surrogate for ...


Assessing Stress Responses To Atmospheric Cold Plasma Exposure Using Escherichia Coli Knock Out Mutants, Lu Han, Daniela Boehm, Sonal Patil, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Assessing Stress Responses To Atmospheric Cold Plasma Exposure Using Escherichia Coli Knock Out Mutants, Lu Han, Daniela Boehm, Sonal Patil, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke

Articles

Aim: This study investigated the effect of Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) exposure induced stress on microbial inactivation patterns and the regulation of genes involved in the microbial stress response in conjunction with key processing parameters of exposure time and post treatment storage time.

Methods and Results: Cell suspensions of Escherichia coli BW 25113 and its isogenic knock-out mutants in rpoS, soxR, soxS, oxyR and dnaK genes were treated with high voltage ACP in a sealed package for 1, 3 and 5 min followed by 0, 1 and 24 h post-treatment storage. ROS densities and colony formation were determined. ΔrpoS strain ...


From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

From Milpas To The Market: A Study On The Use Of Metal Silos For Safer And Better Storage Of Guatemalan Maize, José Rodrigo Mendoza

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

This project aimed to implement the use of metal silos to improve quality and safety of maize consumed by inhabitants of the highlands of Guatemala. This manuscript includes a literature review of the maize production chain in Guatemala, a survey about agricultural practices used in the region of study, as well as a characterization of the analyzed maize regarding its mycoflora, nutritional composition, and insect infestation. To better understand the current situation regarding agricultural practices and maize consumption, a survey was carried out. Sample consisted of 280 families representing 14 rural communities distributed in the townships of Todos Santos and ...


Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp

Biology Theses

Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...


A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen 2016 Northern Michigan University

A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen

All NMU Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated human associated bacterial pathogen. It plays an important role in skin and soft-tissue infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. S. aureus diagnosis and treatment requires a minimum of 24-48. With this in mind, previous studies suggest that faster pathogen identification has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Improved patient outcomes including a reduction in hospitalization time, decreased risk of nosocomial infections, and decreased in medical costs. The impact of faster identification on patient outcome has led us to develop an alternative method of S. aureus identification via ImmunoMagnetic Separation (IMS) and ...


Synbiotic Ice Cream As A Probiotic Carrier Tested In A Human Blind Crossover Trial, Erin M. McNamara 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Synbiotic Ice Cream As A Probiotic Carrier Tested In A Human Blind Crossover Trial, Erin M. Mcnamara

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Diet is an important factor in gastrointestinal health. A synbiotic food option utilizing prebiotic and probiotic ingredients may be beneficial for improving gastrointestinal health. To conduct a human subject study of synbiotic ice cream containing prebiotic (inulin) and two strains of probiotics (Lactobacillus casei KE99 and Bifidobacterium bifidum) to determine its effectiveness as a carrier for a these ingredients and to identify any negative gastrointestinal side effects.

The study started with baseline data collection including a food frequency, a three day food recall, and one stool sample. The study was a 12 week crossover design with three weeks consuming placebo ...


The Effect Of Salt Reduction On The Microbial Composition And Quality Characteristics Of Sliced Roast Beef And Turkey, Chad G. Bower 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Effect Of Salt Reduction On The Microbial Composition And Quality Characteristics Of Sliced Roast Beef And Turkey, Chad G. Bower

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

This study analyzed the effects of salt reduction on microbiological composition and quality characteristics of deli-style turkey breast and roast beef. Turkey breast and roast beef were manufactured with four different salt concentrations: 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% on a meat block basis in addition to sugar, phosphate, and water. Samples were cooked, chilled overnight, sliced, and packaged. On the day of slicing, samples were evaluated for water activity, cooking yield, proximate composition and percent salt. Samples were evaluated throughout 18w of refrigerated storage for pH, texture profile analysis, aerobic plate count (APC), and anaerobic plate ...


Studies Of Debaryomyces Hansenii Killer Toxin And Its Effect On Pathogenic Bloodstream Candida Isolates, Rhaisa A. Crespo Ramírez 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Studies Of Debaryomyces Hansenii Killer Toxin And Its Effect On Pathogenic Bloodstream Candida Isolates, Rhaisa A. Crespo Ramírez

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Candida species are normal commensal organisms found in the skin, mouth, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of humans. Candida albicans is a normal component of the gut flora, and the oral and genital cavities. However, this organism is an opportunistic pathogen and it is one of the most frequently isolated species from patients with nosocomial fungal infections. Candida infections have grown in recent years due to antimycotics resistance and the extensive use of antibiotics. This has pushed scientists to look for alternative therapeutic agents to treat fungal infections.

Yeasts can produce toxic proteins called “mycocins” or “killer toxins” that can ...


Antibacterial Effects Of Peppermint, Mentha Piperita Essential Oil In Free-Form And In Nanoparticles On Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Car Reen Kok, Junsi Yang, Ozan Ciftci, Robert W. Hutkins 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Antibacterial Effects Of Peppermint, Mentha Piperita Essential Oil In Free-Form And In Nanoparticles On Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Car Reen Kok, Junsi Yang, Ozan Ciftci, Robert W. Hutkins

UCARE Research Products

Mentha piperita, commonly known as peppermint originally came from Europe and the Middle East and its oil is commonly used in traditional medicine and aromatherapy. Like many other free essential oils (EO), peppermint oil is believed to possess antimicrobial properties.

However, the application of EO in food as an antimicrobial agent has yet to be established. This would require proper formulation of the EO for it to be viable in foods. This study aims to test the effects of both free Mentha piperita EO and Mentha piperita EO nanoparticles against Pseudomonas fluorescens and compare their inhibitory effects. We used nanoparticles ...


An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer

All College Thesis Program

Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers ...


Effect Of Reduced Sodium Cheese On The Growth Of Pathogenic Bacteria And Inactivation Of Listeria Innocua Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction With Co2, Suyapa Padilla Antunez 2016 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Effect Of Reduced Sodium Cheese On The Growth Of Pathogenic Bacteria And Inactivation Of Listeria Innocua Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction With Co2, Suyapa Padilla Antunez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Listeria monocytogenes continues to challenge the dairy industry in causing post-process contamination of cheeses. To reduce risk of contamination, it is crucial to understand the growth and survival of pathogenic bacteria in cheese products and to develop post-process mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the fate of pathogens in reduced and regular sodium Mozzarella cheese, and the potential of Supercritical Fluid Extraction with CO2 (SFE) to reduce Listeria innocua on Mozzarella and Queso Fresco. The survival of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and E.coli O157:H7 (2-3 log CFU/g) in reduced sodium Mozzarella (1.62%), compared to regular sodium Mozzarella ...


Identification Of Soil Microbes Capable Of Utilizing Cellobiosan, Jieni Lian, Jinlyung Choi, Yee Shiean Tan, Adina C. Howe, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe 2016 Iowa State University

Identification Of Soil Microbes Capable Of Utilizing Cellobiosan, Jieni Lian, Jinlyung Choi, Yee Shiean Tan, Adina C. Howe, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Approximately 100 million tons of anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and cellobiosan, are produced through biomass burning every year. These sugars are also produced through fast pyrolysis, the controlled thermal depolymerization of biomass. While the microbial pathways associated with levoglucosan utilization have been characterized, there is little known about cellobiosan utilization. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of six cellobiosan-utilizing microbes from soil samples. Each of these organisms is capable of using both cellobiosan and levoglucosan as sole carbon source, though both minimal and rich media cellobiosan supported significantly higher biomass production than levoglucosan. Ribosomal sequencing was used to identify ...


Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were 2016 California State University - Northridge

Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The interaction between lipid oxidation products and bovine sarcoplasmic (SP) and myofibrillar protein (MP) homogenates in the presence of green tea was investigated. To monitor the effect of green tea on lipid oxidation, aldehydes were measured while effect on protein was monitored via changes in myoglobin, thiols, and tryptophan fluorescence over nine days of refrigerated storage. The presence of SP and MP decreased free aldehydes in the buffers. The SP bound more aldehydes than MP. The tea compounds exhibited more favorable binding energies than aldehydes near histidine 64 close to the heme moiety of myoglobin. Addition of tea lowered tryptophan ...


Effect Of Phytosanitary Irradiation And Methyl Bromide Fumigation On The Physical, Sensory, And Microbiological Quality Of Blueberries And Sweet Cherries, Karen Thang, Kimberly Au, Cyril Rakovski, Anuradha Prakash 2016 Chapman University

Effect Of Phytosanitary Irradiation And Methyl Bromide Fumigation On The Physical, Sensory, And Microbiological Quality Of Blueberries And Sweet Cherries, Karen Thang, Kimberly Au, Cyril Rakovski, Anuradha Prakash

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Background

The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. ‘Bluecrop’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and ‘Sweetheart’ cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage.

Results

Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by ...


Aptameric Sensors: In Vitro Selection Of Dna That Binds Bromocresol Purple, Derek B. Miller 2016 University of Central Florida

Aptameric Sensors: In Vitro Selection Of Dna That Binds Bromocresol Purple, Derek B. Miller

Honors in the Major Theses

Aptamers being used as sensors is an emerging field that has capabilities of being tomorrow’s diagnostic tools. As aptameric sensors have become more popular, their visualization systems have been limited. The majority of today’s aptameric sensors require expensive machinery such as a fluorometer in order to visualize results. We propose a system that will cut the need for instrumentation and be detected via the naked eye. With the selection of an aptamer to bind the pH indicating dye bromocresol purple (BCP) this may be achieved. When rendered active, the binding towards BCP will facilitate a color change from ...


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