Potato Cultivar Differences Associated With Mealiness, 2016 Iowa State University
Potato Cultivar Differences Associated With Mealiness, Diane R. Mccomber, Harry T. Horner, Mark A. Chamberlin, David F. Cox
Russet Burbank, Norchip, Pontiac, and LaSoda potato cultivars were examined for the parameters mealy and waxy. Russet Burbank was judged dry, hard and particulate, typifying mealiness. Using phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, raw mealy cells were determined to be larger and more irregularly shaped than cells from waxy cultivars. Mealy cooked cells were engorged with gelatinized starch, cell walls were more polarized, and cell shapes were better retained after mashing, when compared to waxy cells. NMR-T2 bound water readings from Russet Burbank and Pontiac samples did not differ from each other. Starch granule sizes and shapes varied by ...
Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, 2016 University of Texas at Tyler
Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp
Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...
A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen
All NMU Master's Theses
Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated human associated bacterial pathogen. It plays an important role in skin and soft-tissue infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. S. aureus diagnosis and treatment requires a minimum of 24-48. With this in mind, previous studies suggest that faster pathogen identification has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Improved patient outcomes including a reduction in hospitalization time, decreased risk of nosocomial infections, and decreased in medical costs. The impact of faster identification on patient outcome has led us to develop an alternative method of S. aureus identification via ImmunoMagnetic Separation (IMS) and ...
Synbiotic Ice Cream As A Probiotic Carrier Tested In A Human Blind Crossover Trial, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Synbiotic Ice Cream As A Probiotic Carrier Tested In A Human Blind Crossover Trial, Erin M. Mcnamara
Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses
Diet is an important factor in gastrointestinal health. A synbiotic food option utilizing prebiotic and probiotic ingredients may be beneficial for improving gastrointestinal health. To conduct a human subject study of synbiotic ice cream containing prebiotic (inulin) and two strains of probiotics (Lactobacillus casei KE99 and Bifidobacterium bifidum) to determine its effectiveness as a carrier for a these ingredients and to identify any negative gastrointestinal side effects.
The study started with baseline data collection including a food frequency, a three day food recall, and one stool sample. The study was a 12 week crossover design with three weeks consuming placebo ...
Studies Of Debaryomyces Hansenii Killer Toxin And Its Effect On Pathogenic Bloodstream Candida Isolates, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Studies Of Debaryomyces Hansenii Killer Toxin And Its Effect On Pathogenic Bloodstream Candida Isolates, Rhaisa A. Crespo Ramírez
Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology
Candida species are normal commensal organisms found in the skin, mouth, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of humans. Candida albicans is a normal component of the gut flora, and the oral and genital cavities. However, this organism is an opportunistic pathogen and it is one of the most frequently isolated species from patients with nosocomial fungal infections. Candida infections have grown in recent years due to antimycotics resistance and the extensive use of antibiotics. This has pushed scientists to look for alternative therapeutic agents to treat fungal infections.
Yeasts can produce toxic proteins called “mycocins” or “killer toxins” that can ...
The Effect Of Salt Reduction On The Microbial Composition And Quality Characteristics Of Sliced Roast Beef And Turkey, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The Effect Of Salt Reduction On The Microbial Composition And Quality Characteristics Of Sliced Roast Beef And Turkey, Chad G. Bower
Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science
This study analyzed the effects of salt reduction on microbiological composition and quality characteristics of deli-style turkey breast and roast beef. Turkey breast and roast beef were manufactured with four different salt concentrations: 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% on a meat block basis in addition to sugar, phosphate, and water. Samples were cooked, chilled overnight, sliced, and packaged. On the day of slicing, samples were evaluated for water activity, cooking yield, proximate composition and percent salt. Samples were evaluated throughout 18w of refrigerated storage for pH, texture profile analysis, aerobic plate count (APC), and anaerobic plate ...
Antibacterial Effects Of Peppermint, Mentha Piperita Essential Oil In Free-Form And In Nanoparticles On Pseudomonas Fluorescens, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Antibacterial Effects Of Peppermint, Mentha Piperita Essential Oil In Free-Form And In Nanoparticles On Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Car Reen Kok, Junsi Yang, Ozan Ciftci, Robert Hutkins
UCARE Research Products
Mentha piperita, commonly known as peppermint originally came from Europe and the Middle East and its oil is commonly used in traditional medicine and aromatherapy. Like many other free essential oils (EO), peppermint oil is believed to possess antimicrobial properties.
However, the application of EO in food as an antimicrobial agent has yet to be established. This would require proper formulation of the EO for it to be viable in foods. This study aims to test the effects of both free Mentha piperita EO and Mentha piperita EO nanoparticles against Pseudomonas fluorescens and compare their inhibitory effects. We used nanoparticles ...
An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University
An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer
All College Thesis Program
Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers ...
Identification Of Soil Microbes Capable Of Utilizing Cellobiosan, 2016 Iowa State University
Identification Of Soil Microbes Capable Of Utilizing Cellobiosan, Jieni Lian, Jinlyung Choi, Yee Shiean Tan, Adina C. Howe, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe
Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications
Approximately 100 million tons of anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and cellobiosan, are produced through biomass burning every year. These sugars are also produced through fast pyrolysis, the controlled thermal depolymerization of biomass. While the microbial pathways associated with levoglucosan utilization have been characterized, there is little known about cellobiosan utilization. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of six cellobiosan-utilizing microbes from soil samples. Each of these organisms is capable of using both cellobiosan and levoglucosan as sole carbon source, though both minimal and rich media cellobiosan supported significantly higher biomass production than levoglucosan. Ribosomal sequencing was used to identify ...
Acoustic Emission Of Lactococcus Lactis Ssp. Lactis C2 Infected With Three Bacteriophages C2, Sk1 And Ml3, 2016 University of Kentucky
Acoustic Emission Of Lactococcus Lactis Ssp. Lactis C2 Infected With Three Bacteriophages C2, Sk1 And Ml3, Luxi Meng
Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences
The objective of this research was to monitor the Acoustic Emission (AE) produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 infected with three bacteriophages (c2, sk1 and ml3 at 90 min) using an acoustic emission-monitoring device which was designed at University of Kentucky in Lexington KY. The acoustic emission data was collected and then analyzed. These Acoustic Emission (AE) data suggested that bacteriophage ml3, sk1 and c2 can easily be distinguished by the differences in Absolute Energy (ABE), Centroid Frequency (CF) and Peak Frequency (PF) signals. The AE data suggested that bacteriophage sk1 and c2 caused greater stress on the lactis ...
Proteomics Study Of Pre-Harvest Sprouting In Wheat, 2016 South Dakota State University
Proteomics Study Of Pre-Harvest Sprouting In Wheat, Pramod Khadka
Theses and Dissertations
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a condition characterized by the early germination of spikes during moist environmental conditions. PHS lowers yield, degrades the quality of grain and thus limits the profits of wheat producers groups. During this investigation, proteomics studies of PHS-resistant and PHS-susceptible wheat embryos were conducted at different imbibition time periods via a cutting-edge technology called iTRAQ. Proteomic analysis revealed that 190 differentially expressed proteins might be involved in various cellular functions, such as carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, stress response, redox regulation, ATP synthesis, and protein translation, during this untimely germination of the wheat ...
Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry
Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current
All varieties of bean sprouts (mung bean, alfalfa, broccoli, and radish) are classified as a “super-food” and are common staples for health conscious consumers. Along with the proposed health benefits, there is also an inherent risk of foodborne illness. When sprouts are cooked, there is little risk of illness. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore novel techniques to minimize or prevent the incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of sprouts. Three areas were investigated: 1) the use of a biocontrol organism, 2) the use of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion, and 3) the influence of the ...
Influence Of Inoculum Preparation Upon Sensitivity Of Common Food Borne Pathogens To Emulsion Based Antimicrobials, 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Influence Of Inoculum Preparation Upon Sensitivity Of Common Food Borne Pathogens To Emulsion Based Antimicrobials, Dillon Sd Murray
Masters Theses May 2014 - current
Antimicrobial optimization procedures use the most resistant bacterial culture that could be present in the food to determine the levels of treatment needed to ensure safety. These procedures usually only focus on one method of preparing these inoculums for testing despite prior research showing that the preparation of the culture can influence how the culture reacts to a treatment. In this work, planktonic cells grown in a liquid media and sessile cells grown on a similar solid media were subjected to identical emulsion based antimicrobial systems. The cultures were monitored over time and their numbers periodically enumerated. Weibullian destruction models ...
Comparative Study Of The D-Values Of Salmonella Spp. And Enterococcus Faecium In Wheat Flour, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Comparative Study Of The D-Values Of Salmonella Spp. And Enterococcus Faecium In Wheat Flour, Didier Dodier
Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology
Low-moisture foods contaminated with Salmonella spp. have been implicated in several foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States. The food industry has to incorporate preventive control in their process and validate thermal processes to assure food safety. The thermal destruction of Enterococcus faecium ATTC 8459 and Salmonella spp. was determined at 3 water activity levels (0.11, 0.18 and 0.33) at 80ºC, 85ºC and 90ºC. Aerobic plates counts petrifilms were used as non-selective medium for both bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae petrifilms were used as selective medium for Salmonella spp., and peptone water modified with sodium azide as a selective medium ...
Inactivation Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Shiga Toxin Producing E. Coli (Stec) Throughout Beef Summer Sausage Production And The Use Of High Pressure Processing As An Alternative Intervention To Thermal Processing, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Inactivation Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Shiga Toxin Producing E. Coli (Stec) Throughout Beef Summer Sausage Production And The Use Of High Pressure Processing As An Alternative Intervention To Thermal Processing, Eric L. Oliver
Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and six additional serogroups of Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC-7) have been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks related to fermented sausage products and are considered adulterants by the USDA-FSIS. The objective of this study was to evaluate high pressure processing (HPP) as an alternative to thermal treatment to reduce STEC-7 meeting the USDA-FSIS performance standards (5.0-log reduction). A rifampicin-resistant, non-pathogenic E. coli (surrogate) cocktail, was used in manufacturing testing. Sausages were fermented at ~42.2°C, slowly increased to 54.4°C internal temperature, cold showered, and chilled for 6 hours. Sampling occurred post-fermentation (PF ...
Efficacy Of Galactooliosaccharide (Gos) And/Or Rhamnose-Based Synbiotics In Enhancing Ecological Performance Of Lactobacillus Reuteri In The Human Gut And Characterization Of Its Gos Metabolic System, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Efficacy Of Galactooliosaccharide (Gos) And/Or Rhamnose-Based Synbiotics In Enhancing Ecological Performance Of Lactobacillus Reuteri In The Human Gut And Characterization Of Its Gos Metabolic System, Monchaya Rattanaprasert
Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology
Probiotic L. reuteri has potential to produce antimicrobial compounds and secrete immunosuppressive factors. These metabolic attributes could benefit the human host by providing colonization resistance (competitive and metabolic exclusion) against enteropathogens and mitigating inflammation. As metabolically active cells are fundamental to such probiotic properties, synbiotic approaches that supply L. reuteri with a source(s) of carbon, energy, and/or external electron acceptor for cell growth in the gut environment could therefore prompt the probiotic to engage in beneficial activities. In this study, the efficacy of GOS and/or rhamnose-based synbiotic approaches in promoting colonization persistence and metabolic activity of L ...
Evaluation Of A Natural Antimicrobial-Based Sanitizer As An Alternative To Chlorine For Reducing Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria On Organic Produce, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Evaluation Of A Natural Antimicrobial-Based Sanitizer As An Alternative To Chlorine For Reducing Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria On Organic Produce, Ellen Rebecca Simmons
There is a need for the development of a “natural” sanitizing agent to reduce or eliminate foodborne pathogens that meets USDA organic standards, as an alternative to chlorine. The sanitizer needs to eliminate foodborne pathogens and prevent cross contamination in rinse liquids in the presence of organic matter. In this study, the focus was to evaluate a natural antimicrobial-based sanitizing (NABS) agent in rinse liquids to determine if it was capable of eliminating foodborne pathogens on organic produce through cross-contamination studies. Five-serovar/strain cocktails of pathogenic bacteria were combined to form an inoculum cocktail, which was used to inoculate the ...
Determination Of The Gelation Mechanism Of Freeze–Thawed Hen Egg Yolk, 2015 Iowa State University
Determination Of The Gelation Mechanism Of Freeze–Thawed Hen Egg Yolk, Carmen Au, Nuria C. Acevedo, Harry T. Horner, Tong Wang
Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications
A study of yolks stored up to 168 d at −20 °C was conducted to determine the gelation behavior and mechanism of freeze–thawed yolk. Methods used were rheology, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native- and SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy for matrix mobility. Results indicate that both constituents of plasma and granules contributed to gelation of yolk under freezing. PAGE analyses suggest that granular proteins participated in aggregation during freeze–thaw. Increasing gel strength and particle size and decreasing water and ...
Cold Plasma Inactivation Of Internalised Bacteria And Biofilms For Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli, Dana Ziuzina, Lu Han, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke
Microbial biofilms and bacteria internalised in produce tissue may reduce the effectiveness of decontamination methods. In this study, the inactivation efficacy of in-package atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) afterglow was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli in the forms of planktonic cultures, biofilms formed on lettuce and associated bacteria internalised in lettuce tissue. Prepared lettuce broth (3%) was inoculated with bacteria resulting in a final concentration of ~ 7.0 log10 CFU/ml. For biofilm formation and internalisation, lettuce pieces (5 × 5 cm) were dip-inoculated in bacterial suspension of ~ 7.0 log10 CFU/ml for 2 h ...
Cold Plasma Inactivation Of Bacterial Biofilms And Reduction Of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors, 2015 Dublin Institute of Technology
Cold Plasma Inactivation Of Bacterial Biofilms And Reduction Of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors, Dana Ziuzina, Daniela Boehm, Sonal Patil, Patrick Cullen, Paula Bourke
The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and health- care associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS)-regu- lated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B) and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of cultur- ability and retention of metabolic activity ...