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556 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Six fluorescein-labeled peptide nucleic acid oligomers targeting Listeria-specific sequences on the 16S ribosomal subunit were evaluated for their abilities to hybridize to whole cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four of these probes yielded weak or no fluorescent signals after hybridization and were not investigated further. The remaining two FISH-compatible probes, LisUn-3 and LisUn-11, were evaluated for their reactivities against 22 Listeria strains and 17 other bacterial strains belonging to 10 closely related genera. Hybridization with BacUni-1, a domain-specific eubacterial probe, was used as a positive control for target accessibility in both Listeria spp. and nontarget cells. RNase ...


Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 University of Wyoming

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Wide-Spectrum Biomimetic Antimicrobial Systems, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Wide-Spectrum Biomimetic Antimicrobial Systems, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective components of the host immune response and are widely distributed throughout nature. Recently, nontoxic antimicrobial polymers that mimic the structures of naturally occurring AMPs have been designed and are under development commercially as novel therapeutics. These compounds have several potential advantages over natural AMPs, including greater stability and reduced immunogenicity compared to natural peptides, relatively simple and scalable syntheses and the ability to tailor or “fine tune” their activities through combinatorial approaches. In previous work, we demonstrated the utility of certain generally regarded as safe (GRAS) flavorant and aroma compounds as enhancers of uptake and ...


Influence Of Processing Conditions On Apparent Viscosity And System Parameters During Extrusion Of Distiller’S Dried Grains-Based Snacks, Poonam Singha, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Padmanaban Krishnan 2017 South Dakota State University

Influence Of Processing Conditions On Apparent Viscosity And System Parameters During Extrusion Of Distiller’S Dried Grains-Based Snacks, Poonam Singha, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Padmanaban Krishnan

POONAM SINGHA

A combination of different levels of distillers dried grains processed for food application (FDDG), garbanzo flour and corn grits were chosen as a source of high-protein and high-fiber extruded snacks. A four-factor central composite rotatable design was adopted to study the effect of FDDG level, moisture content of blends, extrusion temperature, and screw speed on the apparent viscosity, mass flow rate or MFR, torque, and specific mechanical energy or SME during the extrusion process. With increase in the extrusion temperature from 100 to 140°C, apparent viscosity, specific mechanical energy, and torque value decreased. Increase in FDDG level resulted in ...


Influence Of Processing Conditions On Apparent Viscosity And System Parameters During Extrusion Of Distiller’S Dried Grains-Based Snacks, Poonam Singha, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Padmanaban Krishnan 2017 South Dakota State University

Influence Of Processing Conditions On Apparent Viscosity And System Parameters During Extrusion Of Distiller’S Dried Grains-Based Snacks, Poonam Singha, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Padmanaban Krishnan

Padmanaban Krishnan

A combination of different levels of distillers dried grains processed for food application (FDDG), garbanzo flour and corn grits were chosen as a source of high-protein and high-fiber extruded snacks. A four-factor central composite rotatable design was adopted to study the effect of FDDG level, moisture content of blends, extrusion temperature, and screw speed on the apparent viscosity, mass flow rate or MFR, torque, and specific mechanical energy or SME during the extrusion process. With increase in the extrusion temperature from 100 to 140°C, apparent viscosity, specific mechanical energy, and torque value decreased. Increase in FDDG level resulted in ...


Effects Of Pre-Chiller Temperature On The Microbial Ecology Of Whole Bird Carcass Rinses, Rachael Elizabeth Blevins 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Pre-Chiller Temperature On The Microbial Ecology Of Whole Bird Carcass Rinses, Rachael Elizabeth Blevins

Theses and Dissertations

Upon entering a poultry processing facility, birds are already contaminated with a variety of microorganisms. It is the responsibility of the processor to reduce these numbers to deliver a wholesome product to customers. This is not an easy task as there are ample opportunities for further microbial contamination. Some of these opportunities are obvious. For example, any areas where contaminants could be washed off one bird and onto another are always an area for concern, i.e. the scalder or the chiller. There are numerous opportunities for contamination that are not so obvious. These incidents of contamination are not necessarily ...


Radiofrequency Processing For Inactivation Of Salmonella Spp. And Enterococcus Faecium Nrrl B-2354 In Whole Black Peppercorn And Ground Black Pepper, Xinyao Wei 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Radiofrequency Processing For Inactivation Of Salmonella Spp. And Enterococcus Faecium Nrrl B-2354 In Whole Black Peppercorn And Ground Black Pepper, Xinyao Wei

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Black pepper has been implicated in several foodborne illness outbreaks and food product recalls due to Salmonella contamination. Conventional decontamination methods for black pepper are challenged by harmful residues or quality deterioration. Radiofrequency (RF) heating reduces the come-up time which allows to design a high-temperature short-time processing to inactivate Salmonella with minimal deterioration in product quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate RF heating for inactivation of Salmonella in whole black peppercorn and ground black pepper samples, evaluate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a surrogate for Salmonella, and assess quality deterioration during RF heating of whole black peppercorn ...


Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne illnesses are a leading cause of infectious diseases in the world. Among enteric organisms Salmonella is a key pathogen. It’s high prevalence in poultry and other food-animal sources make it imperative to study. Salmonella has the ability to modify its genetic content with help of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Incompatibiltiy group 1 (IncI1) plasmids are commonly reported in Salmonella. This study evaluates role on IncI1 plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Salmonella. Genetic determinants of resistance and virulence are noted among our IncI1-containing Salmonella isolates. These genetic elements are also transferable and reported to carry ...


Evaluation Of The Impact Of Tart Cherries Polyphenols On The Human Gut Microbiota And Phenolic Metabolites In Vitro And In Vivo, Alba Claudia Mayta-Apaza 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Impact Of Tart Cherries Polyphenols On The Human Gut Microbiota And Phenolic Metabolites In Vitro And In Vivo, Alba Claudia Mayta-Apaza

Theses and Dissertations

Tart cherries are polyphenol abundant stone fruits claimed to exert health benefits further of its nutritional properties. The abundant phytochemicals content in tart cherries also referred as dietary polyphenols have been considered as an effective natural antioxidant when added in daily diet. However, it has been hypothesized the intervention of gut microbiota on the overall functionality of such compounds. This thesis contains a wide-ranging literature review focused on tart cherry as a crop, current market, functional food, and several health benefits. Furthermore, the research done describes and in vitro and in vivo assays of a short-term dietary intervention of tart ...


Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen around the world and chickens are the major reservoir to transmit Salmonella into the human food chain. For decreasing the infection of Salmonella, we developed six attenuated live vaccines based on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (ST) for testing the cross-serovar and cross-serogroup protection from the challenge of Salmonella Heidelberg and Campylobacter jejuni. One of the constructed vaccine strain showed ability to protect against challenge from Salmonella Heidelberg. Even though some preventive approaches are able to decrease Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens or other farm animals, Salmonella transmission mechanisms remain unclear ...


Effect Of Hot Water Conditioning On Microbial Safety And Quality Of In-Shell Pecans, Karuna Kharel 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Hot Water Conditioning On Microbial Safety And Quality Of In-Shell Pecans, Karuna Kharel

LSU Master's Theses

Hot water conditioning of in-shell pecans is one common practice followed by industries to facilitate shelling. It also acts as a preventive control for potential microbiological contamination that might occur during pre- and post-harvest processes. However, heat treatment may have an effect on the eating quality of nuts. The main objectives of the study were to develop a post-harvest hot water treatment intervention as a kill step to destroy foodborne pathogens on in-shell pecans and evaluate the effect of treatments on physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance and purchase intent of dehulled and roasted pecans. The time (1-5 min) and temperature (70 ...


Heat, Acid And Osmotic Stress Tolerance Of Leuconostoc Mesenteroides As Influenced By Prior Exposure To Various Mild Stress Conditions, Ingrid C. Osorio Rodriguez 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Heat, Acid And Osmotic Stress Tolerance Of Leuconostoc Mesenteroides As Influenced By Prior Exposure To Various Mild Stress Conditions, Ingrid C. Osorio Rodriguez

LSU Master's Theses

The importance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides is recognized for its contribution to taste in cultured dairy products. It has been cited for its potential role as a probiotic. Consumer demand exists for new dairy products with health benefits. In the manufacture of probiotic-products survival of Leuconostoc mesenteroides would depend on its ability to tolerate challenging processing and storage conditions. Improved viability by prior exposure to mild stresses can increase stress tolerance toward a more severe stress. Furthermore, it can result in cross-protection due to connection of several proteins in response to stresses. Objective was to evaluate the effect of prior exposure ...


Identification Of A Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance To Organic Arsenic In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Taradon Luangtongkum, Zhiyi Qiang, Byeonghwa Jeon, Liping Wang, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of A Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance To Organic Arsenic In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Taradon Luangtongkum, Zhiyi Qiang, Byeonghwa Jeon, Liping Wang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Although bacterial mechanisms involved in the resistance to inorganic arsenic are well understood, the molecular basis for organic arsenic resistance has not been described. Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, is highly prevalent in poultry and is reportedly resistant to the arsenic compound roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid), which has been used as a feed additive in the poultry industry for growth promotion. In this study, we report the identification of a novel membrane transporter (named ArsP) that contributes to organic arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. ArsP is predicted to be a membrane permease containing eight transmembrane helices, distinct ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse

Theses and Dissertations

The craft beer industry is increasing in popularity in the United States. The craft brewing process typically does not use a pasteurization step, therefore the boiling process is the primary critical control step. Any microorganisms introduced after boiling, or those that are not killed during boiling, are likely to participate in fermentation and persist in the final product. Previous culture-based studies have isolated bacteria and yeast from craft beers at specific time points, but little research has been done on the process as a whole. The objectives of this research are to (1) track bacteria development throughout the brewing process ...


Persistence Of Enteric Viruses On Surfaces Under Varying Environmental Conditions, Nicole L. Turnage 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Persistence Of Enteric Viruses On Surfaces Under Varying Environmental Conditions, Nicole L. Turnage

Theses and Dissertations

Human enteric viruses such as human norovirus (hNoV) and Aichivirus A (AiV) are common foodborne viruses with hNoVs being identified as the leading causative agent of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. Moreover, hNoVs have been identified as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in the U.S. and worldwide. Fomite surface contamination is a major transmission route for enteric viruses. The application of an optimized virus recovery method from fomites is essential for better understanding of virus persistence under varying environmental conditions (EC). This study aimed to optimize a surface sampling method for virus recovery from nonporous food ...


Validation Of Extrusion Processing For The Safety Of Low-Moisture Foods, Tushar Verma 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validation Of Extrusion Processing For The Safety Of Low-Moisture Foods, Tushar Verma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Salmonella in low-moisture foods is an emerging challenge due to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. The new Food Safety Modernization Act requires the food processors to validate their process controls that indeed kills the desired number of bacteria. This research had two major objectives: 1) Develop a response surface model for Salmonella inactivation during the extrusion of low-moisture food 2) Evaluate the use of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as an adequate surrogate for Salmonella during the extrusion of low-moisture food. Oat flour was selected as a low-moisture food model. For inoculation, cocktail of five different strains of ...


Modeling The Survival Of Salmonella In Soy Sauce-Based Products Stored At Two Different Temperatures, Ana Cristina Arciniega Castillo 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Modeling The Survival Of Salmonella In Soy Sauce-Based Products Stored At Two Different Temperatures, Ana Cristina Arciniega Castillo

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Acidified foods are defined in the regulations as “low acid foods to which acid(s) has been added to bring finished pH to 4.6 or below”. As the market for these products expands, an increasing number of them are being processed with reduced heat treatment, relying on acid alone to ensure the destruction of pathogens. When considering the survival rate of microbial pathogens in these products, pH, water activity, temperature, salt content and holding time are integral and must be considered together.

Despite improvements in production, handling, and distribution of food products in recent years, protecting consumers from foodborne ...


A Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport In Planta And After Postharvest Sanitization, Laurel Lynn Dunn 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport In Planta And After Postharvest Sanitization, Laurel Lynn Dunn

Doctoral Dissertations

The consumption of fresh produce is increasingly linked to incidence of foodborne illness. Pathogens including Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes are exposed to produce crops through direct human or animal contact, contaminated agricultural water, bioaerosols, run-off, and improperly treated compost. S. enterica has demonstrated exceptional tolerance to the stresses encountered in the environment, on plant tissue, and from postharvest antimicrobial mitigation strategies. Understanding the transcriptomic mechanisms S. enterica employs to survive these hazards is integral for the development of more effective preventive controls and post-harvest steps to prevent the pathogen from infecting consumers.


Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D. 2017 Iowa State University

Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.

Rodrigo Tarté

Review of the current state of antimicrobial ingredients that qualify as "clean label"ingredients.


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