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An Investigation Into Spent Coffee Waste As A Renewable Source Of Bioactive Compounds And Industrially Important Sugars, Damhan S. Scully, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-ghannam 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

An Investigation Into Spent Coffee Waste As A Renewable Source Of Bioactive Compounds And Industrially Important Sugars, Damhan S. Scully, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs) rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h ...


Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske 2016 Iowa State University

Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske

Kevin Schalinske

BackgroundAltered methyl group and homocysteine metabolism were tissue-specific, persistent, and preceded hepatic DNA hypomethylation in type 1 diabetic rats. Similar metabolic perturbations have been shown in the Zucker (type 2) diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat in the pre-diabetic and early diabetic stages, but tissue specificity and potential impact on epigenetic marks are unknown, particularly during pathogenesis.

Methods ZDF (fa/fa) and lean (+/?) control rats were killed at 12 and 21 weeks of age, representing early and advanced diabetic conditions. Blood and tissues were analysed with respect to methyl group and homocysteine metabolism, including DNA methylation.

Results At 12 weeks, hepatic ...


Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler 2016 Iowa State University

Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler

James Hollis

Background: Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods: Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge ...


Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Lower Dietary Energy Density And A Better Diet Quality In Us Adults, Yong Zhu, James Hollis 2016 University of Iowa

Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Lower Dietary Energy Density And A Better Diet Quality In Us Adults, Yong Zhu, James Hollis

James Hollis

Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19–64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003–8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States ...


Fumonisin B-Glucose Reaction Products Are Less Toxic When Fed To Swine, Guillermo Fernandez-Surumay, Gary D. Osweiler, Michael J. Yaeger, George E. Rottinghaus, Suzanne Hendrich, Lucas K. Buckley, Patricia A. Murphy 2016 Iowa State University

Fumonisin B-Glucose Reaction Products Are Less Toxic When Fed To Swine, Guillermo Fernandez-Surumay, Gary D. Osweiler, Michael J. Yaeger, George E. Rottinghaus, Suzanne Hendrich, Lucas K. Buckley, Patricia A. Murphy

Suzanne Hendrich

The effects of fumonisin B-glucose reaction products in swine diets was examined. Pigs were fed diets containing 528 µmol of total fumonisin B/kg (FB), 528 µmol of total FB-glucose adducts/kg (FB-G, 122 µmol of unreacted FB/kg), or 0 µmol of total FB/kg for 15 days to test the efficacy of the FB-G reaction products in detoxifying FB. Weight gain in FB pigs was lower than in FB-G or controls, which was correlated with feed intake reduction in FB pigs. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and total bilirubin in FB pigs were higher than in FB-G or control ...


Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy James Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. McClelland 2016 Iowa State University

Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy James Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland

Diane F. Birt

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch ...


Coffee Powder Wettability, Flowability And Characterization Thereof, Natalia Atuesta, Afolawemi Afolabi, Teresa M. Carvajal 2016 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Coffee Powder Wettability, Flowability And Characterization Thereof, Natalia Atuesta, Afolawemi Afolabi, Teresa M. Carvajal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The production efficiency and high-quality results in industrial processes usually rely on how well product characteristics are understood as well as how well processes are controlled in order to obtain specific results. Therefore, in a billion-dollar industry as is the case of the instant coffee market, understanding the properties of the compounds produced using different techniques is a very important tool to enhance performance and delivery of high-quality coffee powders. The aim of the present study is to provide a framework of some powder properties such as particle size, shape, diameter, circularity, convexity, aspect ratio and surface energy among others ...


Matrix Effects On The Detection Of Milk And Peanut Residues By Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (Elisa), Abigail S. Burrows 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Matrix Effects On The Detection Of Milk And Peanut Residues By Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (Elisa), Abigail S. Burrows

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Food matrices are complex systems of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins in which interactions between matrix components and allergenic proteins are known to have negative effects on the recovery of allergens when analyzed by ELISA. The purpose of this study was to first evaluate the recovery of milk and peanut residues from multiple food matrices and mixes and to secondly evaluate the use of a modified extraction protocol, sequential extractions, on the recovery of milk and peanut allergens.

Pastry dough matrices and pastry dough mixes incurred with milk were prepared at varying concentrations of flour and evaluated for recovery of NFDM ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Black beans contain high phenolic contents that are considered potent antioxidants. Relatively little is known about their ability to inhibit the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase from releasing glucose from starch and/or disaccharides. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum procedures for extracting total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total condensed tannins (TCT) from black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and then to determine the ability of the phenolic rich extracts to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Due to their high phenolic levels, it was hypothesized that black beans would be an effective inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase ...


High Intensity Ultrasound Assisted Extraction Of Oak Compounds For Accelerated Aging Of Wines And Whiskies, Lindsay Elizabeth Rogerson 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

High Intensity Ultrasound Assisted Extraction Of Oak Compounds For Accelerated Aging Of Wines And Whiskies, Lindsay Elizabeth Rogerson

Masters Theses

Aging of wines and whiskies in oak barrels is a timely and expensive process which could be reduced by acceleration. The purpose of this study is to identify if the use of high intensity ultrasound (HIUS) assisted extraction as an alternative, accelerated aging method could be utilized in the production of an oak extract to be used in wine and whiskies. HIUS will also be compared to reflux and room-temperature control extraction treatments as other accelerated aging methods. Secondary objectives of this study were to compare the heat treatment of charred and toasted staves donated by an anonymous donor, their ...


Genetic Diversity In Concentration Of A Protein Subcomponent In Selected Wheat Lines, Andrew B. Berman, Kelsey Gentry, Alexander K. Lee, Molly Yandrofski, Malorie Young, Robert L. Paris 2016 Cedarville University

Genetic Diversity In Concentration Of A Protein Subcomponent In Selected Wheat Lines, Andrew B. Berman, Kelsey Gentry, Alexander K. Lee, Molly Yandrofski, Malorie Young, Robert L. Paris

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Celiac Disease is a hypersensitive response to gluten caused by HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 T-cell presentation, initiating destruction of intestinal epithelial cells. Studies indicate that an indigestible fragment of the gluten molecule, alpha-gliadin subcomponent 33-mer, rich in proline and glutamine, is responsible for the hypersensitivity response. Determination of 33 mer concentration in wheat lines would be beneficial to future development of wheat lines with reduced 33 mer concentration. Protein from wheat flour was extracted and subjected to western blot in order to quantify the concentration of 33-mer. This will be a valuable tool for future research efforts focused on identification and ...


Improving The Utilization Of Dry Edible Beans In A Ready-To-Eat Snack Product By Extrusion Cooking, Franklin Sumargo 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Improving The Utilization Of Dry Edible Beans In A Ready-To-Eat Snack Product By Extrusion Cooking, Franklin Sumargo

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

The growing snacking habit and steady increasing demand for healthy snacks have drastically changed the ready-to-eat snack market in recent years. While the current healthy, ready-to-eat snack products are still dominated by whole cereal grains, legumes, especially dry edible beans, have a high potential to emerge in nutritional, novel food. Dry edible beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L) are not only economically valuable but also nutritionally important, since they are important sources of proteins, B vitamins, mineral elements, and soluble dietary fibers even when compared to whole grain cereals. Recent studies have shown extrusion processing is not only effective at producing an ...


Stability Of Sorgum Bicolor Alcoholic Extract As Affected By Ph And Temperature, James Jordan Bradwell 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Stability Of Sorgum Bicolor Alcoholic Extract As Affected By Ph And Temperature, James Jordan Bradwell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Storage stability of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extract as affected by pH and temperature

Jordan Bradwell, Philipus Pangloli, Vermont P Dia

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville TN

Red sorghum contains phytochemicals such as 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and flavonoids with potential application in food as coloring and health promoting agents. The objective was to determine the stability of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of sorghum as affected by pH (2, 4 and 6) and temperature of storage (4 and 22 °C). The following parameters were measured: polyphenol concentration, absorbance at 490 nm and L*, a* and b ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Pinto Beans (Baja) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mohammed Alrugaibah 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Pinto Beans (Baja) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mohammed Alrugaibah

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Pinto beans contain high levels of diverse phenols, known mainly for their potent antioxidative properties. However, reports have shown that phenols can inhibit the carbohydrate–hydrolysis enzymes, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, thereby retarding glucose absorption. Still, a severe gap in knowledge exists on the ability of pinto beans to inhibit these enzymes. Therefore, the objective of this project was to determine the ability of phenolic rich extracts obtained from pinto beans (BaJa) to inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The hypothesis was that pinto beans would be able to inhibit these enzymes due to the presence of high levels of chemically diverse phenols ...


Synthesis, Isolation, And Characterization Of Potentially Carcinogenic Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Zachary Reichert 2016 Andrews University

Synthesis, Isolation, And Characterization Of Potentially Carcinogenic Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Zachary Reichert

Honors Theses

Previous research demonstrates that meat cooked at high temperatures produces heterocyclic amines (HCAs)—a class of carcinogenic molecules—from burned creatin(in)e and amino acids. However, research performed in our lab, as well as in the peer-reviewed literature, suggests that substituting arginine for creatin(in)e may lead to HCA formation. Arginine is structurally similar to creatin(in)e and can be found abundantly in soy-based food products. Therefore, we have burned arginine and phenylalanine to investigate the potential formation of arginine-based HCAs. The present study attempts to isolate and characterize these potential arginine-HCAs.


Supplementation Of Laying-Hen Feed With Annatto Tocotrienols And Impact Of Α-Tocopherol On Tocotrienol Transfer To Egg Yolk, Hannah Hansen, Tong Wang, David Dolde, Hongwei Xin, Kenneth J. Prusa 2016 Iowa State University

Supplementation Of Laying-Hen Feed With Annatto Tocotrienols And Impact Of Α-Tocopherol On Tocotrienol Transfer To Egg Yolk, Hannah Hansen, Tong Wang, David Dolde, Hongwei Xin, Kenneth J. Prusa

Tong Wang

Hens can efficiently transfer nutrients from their feed to the eggs. Tocotrienols (T3s) have various health benefits including lowering cholesterol. Annatto is the only known source of T3s without the presence of α-tocopherol; hence it can be used to study T3 transfer without the interference of α-tocopherol. In this study, hens were fed diets for 7 weeks containing annatto at 100, 500, or 2000 ppm (by weight) and also 2000 ppm annatto with 200, 600, or 1000 ppm of added α-tocopherol to study the effect of α-tocopherol on transfer of T3s. No significant differences were found in egg production or ...


Microalgae Lipid Characterization, Linxing Yao, Jose A. Gerde, Show-Ling Lee, Tong Wang, Abdel Kamel Harrata 2016 Iowa State University

Microalgae Lipid Characterization, Linxing Yao, Jose A. Gerde, Show-Ling Lee, Tong Wang, Abdel Kamel Harrata

Tong Wang

To meet the growing interest of utilizing microalgae biomass in the production of biofuels and nutraceutical and pharmaceutical lipids, we need suitable analytical methods and a comprehensive database for their lipid components. The objective of the present work was to demonstrate methodology and provide data on fatty acid composition, lipid class content and composition, characteristics of the unsaponifiables, and type of chlorophylls of five microalgae. Microalgae lipids were fractionated into TAG, FFA, and polar lipids using TLC, and the composition of fatty acids in total lipids and in each lipid class, hydrocarbons, and sterols were determined by GC-MS. Glyco- and ...


Comparative Evaluation Of Light-Emitting Diode (Led) Vs. Fluorescent (Fl) Lighting In Commercial Aviary Hen Houses, Hongqian Long, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, Zhonghua Ning 2016 Iowa State University

Comparative Evaluation Of Light-Emitting Diode (Led) Vs. Fluorescent (Fl) Lighting In Commercial Aviary Hen Houses, Hongqian Long, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, Zhonghua Ning

Tong Wang

In this ongoing study, indoor environment, production performance, egg quality, and some welfare aspects of laying hens in two commercial aviary houses installed with light-emitting diode (LED) lights are compared with those in two aviary houses of similar hen age with fluorescent (FL) lights. To date the study (covering 18 – 44 weeks of hen age) shows the following preliminary results. The daily mean temperature and relative humidity (RH) in all houses were generally maintained within 20-25°C and 50-80%, respectively. The holders of LED and FL light bulbs had similar temperatures, approximately 40°C. There were no significant differences in ...


Effect Of Feeding Functional Snack “Khakhra” On Blood Glucose And Antioxidant Status Of Type Ii Diabetic Males Residing In Anand, VIMAL JAYSWAL 2016 Sardar Patel University

Effect Of Feeding Functional Snack “Khakhra” On Blood Glucose And Antioxidant Status Of Type Ii Diabetic Males Residing In Anand, Vimal Jayswal

VIMAL JAYSWAL

Type II diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is a major cause of secondary complications like coronary and peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Dietary approach is one of the ways to prevent hyperglycemia. The present study was planned to find out the effect of functional snack “Khakhra” on blood glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin and blood antioxidant status. Functional khakhra was developed by using wheat, amaranth seed, ragi, oats, soyabean, flaxseed, jambu seed, kadijiri, coriander, tomato and spices at different levels. Sensory evaluation as well as α-amylase inhibitory capacity of control and experimental “Khakhra” was carried out ...


An Hsus Report: Welfare Issues With The Use Of Hormones And Antibiotics In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society of the United States 2016 Animal Studies Repository

An Hsus Report: Welfare Issues With The Use Of Hormones And Antibiotics In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society Of The United States

Farm Animals, Agribusiness, and Food Production

No abstract provided.


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