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Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types ...


The Effect Of Destoning And Enzymatic Pretreatments On The Biofuel Production From Olive Cake, Patrick Tai 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Effect Of Destoning And Enzymatic Pretreatments On The Biofuel Production From Olive Cake, Patrick Tai

Master's Theses and Project Reports

More than 16,000 tons of olive cake was produced in the United States in 2017. Olive cake is a by-product of olive oil extraction, which has limited animal feed potential, and poses an environmental threat when landfilled due to its high organic load and polyphenol content. This residue has potential for biofuel (bioethanol and biomethane) production because it is rich in polysaccharides such as pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Yet, olive cake contains olive stones that can impede its conversion to biofuel. Therefore, two methods of destoning, centrifugation and screening by horizontal screw press, were first compared. Both methods removed ...


Cloning And Characterization Of A Pyrethroid Pesticide Decomposing Esterase Gene, Est3385, From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Psb-S, Xiangwen Luo, Deyong Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Jiao Du, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu 2018 Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China

Cloning And Characterization Of A Pyrethroid Pesticide Decomposing Esterase Gene, Est3385, From Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Psb-S, Xiangwen Luo, Deyong Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Jiao Du, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu

Entomology Faculty Publications

Full length open reading frame of pyrethroid detoxification gene, Est3385, contains 963 nucleotides. This gene was identified and cloned based on the genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S available at the GneBank. The predicted amino acid sequence of Est3385 shared moderate identities (30–46%) with the known homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Est3385 was a member in the esterase family I. Recombinant Est3385 was heterologous expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized for its substrate specificity, kinetics and stability under various conditions. The optimal temperature and pH for Est3385 were 35 °C and 6.0, respectively. This enzyme could ...


Effect Of Gallic And Ferulic Acids On Oxidative Phosphorylation On Candida Albicans (A72 And Sc5314) During The Yeast-To-Hyphae Transition, REHAB ALDAHASH 2018 University of Nebraska – Lincoln

Effect Of Gallic And Ferulic Acids On Oxidative Phosphorylation On Candida Albicans (A72 And Sc5314) During The Yeast-To-Hyphae Transition, Rehab Aldahash

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Candida albicans is a dormant commensal in the mucosa of healthy individuals but can become an opportunistic pathogen when the host microflora is compromised. It has been reported as the most common cause of fungal infection among hospitalized U.S. patients, with elevated mortality rate. Candida species have been reported as resistant to antifungal drugs that increase the application of novel strategies to treat this infection. Among the natural compounds that have most gained attention as potential agents against fungi are phenolic compounds against fungi. C. albicans has the ability to switch phenotype from yeast-to-hyphae cells, with hyphae being the ...


Ecofeminism In The Speculative Fiction Of Ursula K. Le Guin, Octavia Butler, And Margaret Atwood, Cara Williams 2018 University of Connecticut

Ecofeminism In The Speculative Fiction Of Ursula K. Le Guin, Octavia Butler, And Margaret Atwood, Cara Williams

Honors Scholar Theses

The aim of this article is to explore the speculative fiction works of three prominent, female speculative fiction writers: Ursula K. Le Guin, Margaret Atwood,and Octavia Butler through an ecofeminist lens. Ecofeminism, as first coined by Francois D'Eaubonne in 1974, is a philosophy that compares the oppression and abuse of women to that of the environment. This article notes how Le Guin, Atwood, and Butler portray women and the environment in post-apocalyptic science fiction. Specifically, this article looks at how these authors explore food acquisition and consumption in their various worlds. This article asks the question, how does ...


Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor For Detection Of Biogenic Amines In Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials, Diana C. Vanegas, Laksmi Patiño, Connie Mendez, Daniela Alves de Oliveira, Alba M. Torres, Carmen Gomes, Eric S. McLamore 2018 Universidad del Valle, Cali

Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor For Detection Of Biogenic Amines In Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials, Diana C. Vanegas, Laksmi Patiño, Connie Mendez, Daniela Alves De Oliveira, Alba M. Torres, Carmen Gomes, Eric S. Mclamore

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA) are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the development of laser scribed graphene electrodes, with locally sourced materials, for reagent-free food safety biosensing. To fabricate the biosensors, the graphene surface was functionalized with copper microparticles and diamine oxidase, purchased from a local supermarket; and then compared to biosensors fabricated with analytical grade materials. The amperometric biosensor exhibits good electrochemical performance, with an average histamine sensitivity ...


Using Values To Communicate Agricultural Science: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach, Allison Arp 2018 Iowa State University

Using Values To Communicate Agricultural Science: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach, Allison Arp

Iowa State University Summer Symposium on Science Communication

This study looked at how preexisting values influence audience processing of scientific information focusing on the topic of GMOs and how that may affect the audience’s interpretation of the message regardless of the communicator’s credibility or trustworthiness. Research found that attitude accessibility, agricultural identity and in some cases a biospheric value orientation were the most important predictors for a number of constructs related to GMO attitudes. Agricultural identity did not correlate with other value orientations, yet was the strongest predictor of many related attitudes. These results support previous ELM research and emphasize the complex nature of science and ...


Ethanol Production By Soy Fiber Treatment And Simultaneous Saccharification And Co-Fermentation In An Integrated Corn-Soy Biorefinery, Jasreen K. Sekhon, Devin Maurer, Tong Wang, Stéphanie Jung, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Drexel University

Ethanol Production By Soy Fiber Treatment And Simultaneous Saccharification And Co-Fermentation In An Integrated Corn-Soy Biorefinery, Jasreen K. Sekhon, Devin Maurer, Tong Wang, Stéphanie Jung, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Insoluble fiber (IF) recovered from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) of soybeans is a fraction rich in carbohydrates and proteins. It can be used to enhance ethanol production in an integrated corn-soy biorefinery, which combines EAEP with traditional corn-based ethanol processing. The present study evaluated IF as a substrate for ethanol production. The effects of treatment of IF (soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), liquid hot water (LHW), and enzymatic hydrolysis), primarily simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), as well as scaling up (250 mL to 60 L) on ethanol production from IF alone or a corn and IF slurry were ...


Lignocellulosic Biorefineries In Europe: Current State And Prospects, Amit Jaiswal, Shady Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Lignocellulosic Biorefineries In Europe: Current State And Prospects, Amit Jaiswal, Shady Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Articles

In 2012, the European Bioeconomy strategy was launched, defining the bioeconomy as "the 33 production of renewable biological resources and the conversion of these resources and waste 34 streams into value added products". This strategy and its action plans increased the turnover 35 of the total bioeconomy in the EU from 2.09 trillion Euro in 2008 to 2.29 trillion in 2015 .


Sowing The Seeds Of Skepticism: Russian State News And Anti-Gmo Sentiment, Shawn F. Dorius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill 2018 Dorius

Sowing The Seeds Of Skepticism: Russian State News And Anti-Gmo Sentiment, Shawn F. Dorius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill

Sociology Publications

Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering. The recent branding of Russian agriculture as the ecologically clean alternative to genetically engineered foods is suggestive of an economic motive behind ...


Characterization And Mechanisms Of Anthocyanin Degradation And Stabilization, Nathan Blaine Stebbins 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization And Mechanisms Of Anthocyanin Degradation And Stabilization, Nathan Blaine Stebbins

Theses and Dissertations

Anthocyanins (ACYs) are polyphenol compounds found in nature, which contribute vivid colors to many fruits and vegetables, while also possessing significant health benefits. These pigments range in color from orange-red to blue-violet and could serve as natural colorants to replace artificial additives. There is a great demand from consumers to have fewer artificial compounds in their foods. However, the relatively instability of ACYs must be further understood in order to limit color degradation before they can completely replace synthetic colorants.

ACYs slowly degrade over time, but there is a knowledge gap on their fate and mechanisms causing degradation. In order ...


A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Nutritionally Equivalent Meals With And Without Pork, Kelli Young 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Nutritionally Equivalent Meals With And Without Pork, Kelli Young

Theses and Dissertations

The following report details a life cycle assessment of several dietary and meal scenarios with and without pork. The goal of the LCA was to identify the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and land use of pork containing and porkless diets and meal plans in a field-to-fork analysis. The dietary and meal plan scenarios are iso-caloric meaning they contain the same number of calories. The first set of diets is based on a USDA consumption pattern, 2000 kcal per day. This diet was used to create three other dietary scenarios with and without pork. The USDA recommended food ...


Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen around the world and chickens are the major reservoir to transmit Salmonella into the human food chain. For decreasing the infection of Salmonella, we developed six attenuated live vaccines based on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (ST) for testing the cross-serovar and cross-serogroup protection from the challenge of Salmonella Heidelberg and Campylobacter jejuni. One of the constructed vaccine strain showed ability to protect against challenge from Salmonella Heidelberg. Even though some preventive approaches are able to decrease Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens or other farm animals, Salmonella transmission mechanisms remain unclear ...


Snap, Crackle, Crunch: For This Team Of Food Visionaries, Insects Are The Key To Feeding The World, Susan Abram 2017 Colby College

Snap, Crackle, Crunch: For This Team Of Food Visionaries, Insects Are The Key To Feeding The World, Susan Abram

Colby Magazine

For most people, a cricket's chirp is the song of summer. But for a multidisciplinary team of Colby alumni, the uninhibited chorus that comes from the insects marks a leap towards the future of sustainable food systems.


Method For Sampling And Analysis Of Volatile Biomarkers In Process Gas From Aerobic Digestion Of Poultry Carcasses Using Time-Weighted Average Spme And Gc–Ms, Jacek A. Koziel, Lam T. Nguyen, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) van Leeuwen 2017 Iowa State University

Method For Sampling And Analysis Of Volatile Biomarkers In Process Gas From Aerobic Digestion Of Poultry Carcasses Using Time-Weighted Average Spme And Gc–Ms, Jacek A. Koziel, Lam T. Nguyen, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) – gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick’s first law of diffusion were within 6.6–12.3% of experimentally controlled values after accounting for VOC adsorption to the SPME fiber housing. Method ...


Effect Of Tio2 Nanoparticles On Thermo-Mechanical Properties Of Cast Zein Protein Films, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Mahendra Thunga, Gowrishanker Srinivasan, Sheng Wang, Michael R. Kessler, David A. Grewell, Chenxu Yu, Buddhi P. Lamsal 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Tio2 Nanoparticles On Thermo-Mechanical Properties Of Cast Zein Protein Films, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Mahendra Thunga, Gowrishanker Srinivasan, Sheng Wang, Michael R. Kessler, David A. Grewell, Chenxu Yu, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Zein protein (ZP) films embedded with core-and-shell nanoparticles, with titanium dioxide as core and silica as shell (TiO2@@SiO2), were prepared by solution-casting method for its effect on mechanical properties. ZP (>90% protein) at 1.5% w/w was prepared in aqueous ethanol solution with addition of TiO2@@SiO2 nanoparticles and sonicated at 0, 16, 80 and 160 μm amplitudes prior to casting on leveled glass plates or petri dishes. The physical and mechanical properties of prepared films were characterized. Storage modulus below the glass transition temperature Tg (∼40 °C) decreased after sonication at all levels. Multiple peaks for DSC ...


Adapting To The Changing World Of Biotechnology: Syngenta Ag Mir162 Corn Litigation As Regulation By Litigation, Paul Goeringer 2017 Texas A&M University School of Law

Adapting To The Changing World Of Biotechnology: Syngenta Ag Mir162 Corn Litigation As Regulation By Litigation, Paul Goeringer

Texas A&M Law Review

Agriculture has relied on plant breeding to improve genetics since the first domestication of agricultural plants 10,000 years ago. More recently, Gregor Mendel and his hybridization experiments on peas led to what we know as modern genetics. The rise in recombinantDNA technology has opened up many possibilities in plant breeding, including Roundup Ready technology and crop varieties designed to resist a number of pests. At the same time, governments and the private sector have sought to institute regulations for handling the releases of new biotechnology to ensure the technologies will have limited environmental impacts and provide safe foods to ...


The Gmo/Ge Debate, Joanna K. Sax 2017 Texas A&M University School of Law

The Gmo/Ge Debate, Joanna K. Sax

Texas A&M Law Review

We live longer and healthier lives because advances in science create easier and better ways to sustain and survive. Society has an intricate relationship with biotechnology. Vaccines save lives. Fluoridated water decreases dental issues. Antibiotics treat bacterial infections. Nuclear power is a form of clean energy. With any emerging technology, the benefits do not exist in a vacuum, thus, negative consequences result as well. Our widespread uses of antibiotics are creating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Our research into nuclear energy also facilitated the creation of nuclear bombs. Perhaps it is human nature to use scientific advances for good and for ...


Recognizing Challenges And Opportunities In The Quest To End Hunger, Jennifer Williams Zwagerman 2017 Texas A&M University School of Law

Recognizing Challenges And Opportunities In The Quest To End Hunger, Jennifer Williams Zwagerman

Texas A&M Law Review

As an attorney and professor that does not focus on intellectual property law, I was a bit apprehensive about providing a keynote address for a Symposium focusing on “Agriculture, Intellectual Property, and Feeding the World in the 21st Century.” As I thought about this topic, knowing that there were other speakers who would focus more on the IP issues and technical aspects of various topics, I kept coming back to the importance of technology as we worktowards the goal of feeding the world, and the many ways in which innovation plays a role in meeting that goal. It also brought ...


Application Of X-Ray Imaging As A Technique For Fissure Detection In Rough Rice Kernels, Zephania R. Odek 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of X-Ray Imaging As A Technique For Fissure Detection In Rough Rice Kernels, Zephania R. Odek

Theses and Dissertations

Fissured rice kernels break during milling, leading to head rice yield (HRY) reductions. Conventional fissure detection instruments cannot be used to observe fissures in rough rice kernels, the form in which rice in normally dried and stored. X-rays can penetrate hulls allowing visualization of the internal structure of a rough rice kernel. This study evaluated the capability of X-ray imaging to adequately detect fissures in rough rice and established a correlation between HRY and the fissured kernel percentage (FKP) in a rough rice sample. Fifteen long-grain rice cultivars, harvested in Arkansas in 2015 and 2016 were dried using heated air ...


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