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Analysis Of The Flow Behaviors Of Corn Meal During Extrusion, Daniel N. Hauersperger, Martin R. Okos, Troy Tonner 2017 Purdue University

Analysis Of The Flow Behaviors Of Corn Meal During Extrusion, Daniel N. Hauersperger, Martin R. Okos, Troy Tonner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Food extrusion can be used to make many products we consume today, including pasta, cereals and more. The ability to predict the characteristics of the final product from an extruder using raw material characteristics and operating conditions is vital to the extrusion process. In order to answer this need, the flow behavior of corn meal was measured in a lab viscometer (off-line) and compared to the flow behaviors from an extruder (in-line) at three different moisture contents (32.5%, 35%, 37.5% wet basis). The extruder and product are heated through the friction of the corn meal passing through the ...


The Effects Of Compaction On Reconstitution Characteristics Of Dairy Powder, Michelle P. Dixon, Rose Prabin Kingsly Ambrose, Dhananjay Ashok Pai 2017 Purdue University

The Effects Of Compaction On Reconstitution Characteristics Of Dairy Powder, Michelle P. Dixon, Rose Prabin Kingsly Ambrose, Dhananjay Ashok Pai

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Milk powders are becoming more ubiquitous within the food industry, and they offer consumers a convenient form for direct intake of dairy. The costs associated with dairy are reduced when products are converted to powder, which markedly increases shelf life at ambient temperatures. Creating compacts from powders further improves cost efficiency by reducing volume. However, milk powders typically possess poor rehydration properties, such as a slow dispersion rate and low solubility, and powder compaction additionally prolongs rehydration time, reducing consumer acceptability. Previous studies have shown that modifying dairy products before or during the drying process can improve rehydration properties, but ...


Investigation Of Low Cost Solar Drying Of Apricots For Tajikistan, Huimin Wang, Richard L. Stroshine Dr. 2017 Purdue University

Investigation Of Low Cost Solar Drying Of Apricots For Tajikistan, Huimin Wang, Richard L. Stroshine Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Dried apricots are one of Tajikistan’s major export products. The country wants to expand its production in the southern region. However, the producers don’t have the expertise needed to produce dried apricots that meet the quality requirements of the European Union and other potential export markets. Local producers in southern Tajikistan would benefit from improvements in methods of applying sulfur and drying the apricots. This would allow them to gain a share of global markets. Methods that were studied include sulfur treatment prior to drying and approaches for rapidly drying the apricots while preventing contamination. Because the project ...


Validation Of Extrusion Processing For The Safety Of Low-Moisture Foods, Tushar Verma 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validation Of Extrusion Processing For The Safety Of Low-Moisture Foods, Tushar Verma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Salmonella in low-moisture foods is an emerging challenge due to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. The new Food Safety Modernization Act requires the food processors to validate their process controls that indeed kills the desired number of bacteria. This research had two major objectives: 1) Develop a response surface model for Salmonella inactivation during the extrusion of low-moisture food 2) Evaluate the use of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as an adequate surrogate for Salmonella during the extrusion of low-moisture food. Oat flour was selected as a low-moisture food model. For inoculation, cocktail of five different strains of ...


Membranes For Food And Bioproduct Processing, Alexandru Marius Avram 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Membranes For Food And Bioproduct Processing, Alexandru Marius Avram

Theses and Dissertations

Modified membranes for process intensification in biomass hydrolysis

Production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is one of the leading candidates for replacement of petroleum based fuels and chemicals. However, conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is not cost effective compared to the production of fuels and chemicals from crude oil reserves. Some novel and economically feasible approaches involve the use of ionic liquids as solvents or co-solvents, since these show improved solvation capability of cellulose over simple aqueous systems. Membranes offer unique opportunities for process intensification which involves fractionation of the resulting biomass hydrolysate leading to ...


Application Of X-Ray Imaging As A Technique For Fissure Detection In Rough Rice Kernels, Zephania R. Odek 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of X-Ray Imaging As A Technique For Fissure Detection In Rough Rice Kernels, Zephania R. Odek

Theses and Dissertations

Fissured rice kernels break during milling, leading to head rice yield (HRY) reductions. Conventional fissure detection instruments cannot be used to observe fissures in rough rice kernels, the form in which rice in normally dried and stored. X-rays can penetrate hulls allowing visualization of the internal structure of a rough rice kernel. This study evaluated the capability of X-ray imaging to adequately detect fissures in rough rice and established a correlation between HRY and the fissured kernel percentage (FKP) in a rough rice sample. Fifteen long-grain rice cultivars, harvested in Arkansas in 2015 and 2016 were dried using heated air ...


Factors Impacting Iron Transfer Into The Rice Kernel During Parboiling, Katherine Wilkes 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Factors Impacting Iron Transfer Into The Rice Kernel During Parboiling, Katherine Wilkes

Theses and Dissertations

Efforts to deliver essential micronutrients through existing rice fortification methods are challenged by poor consumer acceptance of fortified rice, production costs, and equipment availability. Current research efforts seek to explore the potential of parboiling to improve nutrient delivery. This study investigates factors that affect iron transfer into the kernel endosperm via parboiling by evaluating the impact of varied milling durations, iron concentrations in the soaking water, and parboiling conditions upon iron penetration into the rice kernel. Long-grain rice grown in Arkansas was parboiled as rough, brown, and milled rice under various soaking and steaming temperature conditions. Visual quality of the ...


Natural Air Drying And Storage Of Soybean Seed And Implications On Germination Rates, Vigor, And Oil Quality, Zachary Young 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Natural Air Drying And Storage Of Soybean Seed And Implications On Germination Rates, Vigor, And Oil Quality, Zachary Young

Theses and Dissertations

Recently introduced technology-comprising cables used for monitoring grain moisture content (MC) and temperature throughout the entire grain mass during drying offers a means to utilize low-temperature natural air-drying for soybean seed. From an electronic monitor and fan control standpoint, the new technology appears to be very promising for managing drying and storage conditions for soybean seed. The objectives for this study were to simulate conditions typically encountered in on-farm, in-bin drying systems and investigate impact of seed cultivar, temperature, moisture content and duration of storage on seed germination rates and vigor (electrical conductivity). In addition this research addresses the problem ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Communities In Craft Beer, Lindsey Rodhouse

Theses and Dissertations

The craft beer industry is increasing in popularity in the United States. The craft brewing process typically does not use a pasteurization step, therefore the boiling process is the primary critical control step. Any microorganisms introduced after boiling, or those that are not killed during boiling, are likely to participate in fermentation and persist in the final product. Previous culture-based studies have isolated bacteria and yeast from craft beers at specific time points, but little research has been done on the process as a whole. The objectives of this research are to (1) track bacteria development throughout the brewing process ...


An Overview Of Functional Non-Meat Ingredients In Meat Processing: The Current Toolbox, Joseph G. Sebranek 2017 Iowa State University

An Overview Of Functional Non-Meat Ingredients In Meat Processing: The Current Toolbox, Joseph G. Sebranek

Joseph G. Sebranek

My “assignment” as part of this discussion of the challenges facing meat processors trying to meet consumer demands for clean labels is to review the critical functional roles of the fundamental non-meat ingredients that are essential for processed meats. The market pressure for shorter, simpler, easier-to-understand ingredient statements is providing considerable motivation for processors to reduce or even eliminate some of the traditional, wellestablished non-meat ingredients. However, the practical applications of many of the traditional non-meat ingredients have been developed and refined as a result of years, decades or even centuries of use, and have clearly evolved to play very ...


Preserving Figs, Carolyn Washburn, Charlotte P. Brennand 2017 Utah State University Extension

Preserving Figs, Carolyn Washburn, Charlotte P. Brennand

All Current Publications

This publication provides facts about figs including selection and preparation; freezing; canning; jams jelly, preserves; drying; pickling; storage; and nutritional information.


Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D. 2017 Iowa State University

Antimicrobial Ingredients, Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.

Rodrigo Tarté

Review of the current state of antimicrobial ingredients that qualify as "clean label"ingredients.


Proteolysis Influences Tenderness Of Aged Pork Loins, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Amanda Outhouse, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan 2017 Iowa State University

Proteolysis Influences Tenderness Of Aged Pork Loins, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Amanda Outhouse, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan

Steven M. Lonergan

Aged pork loins were selected to have similar ultimate pH, color, lipid content, and purge. The star probe values (kg) obtained from these loins were evaluated and loins were sorted into either a low star probe (LSP) group or a high star probe (HSP) group. Loins were evaluated for autolysis of calpain-1 and degradation of troponin-T, desmin, and titin. Results showed calpain-1 was completely autolyzed in all samples. LSP pork loins exhibited more degradation of troponin-T, desmin, and titin, demonstrating proteolysis influences measured tenderness in aged pork.


Degradation Of Filamin In Aged Pork Loins Classified By High And Low Star Probe Values, Amanda C. Outhouse, Kelsey B. Carlson, Chris A. Fedler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Prusa, Steven M. Lonergan 2017 Iowa State University

Degradation Of Filamin In Aged Pork Loins Classified By High And Low Star Probe Values, Amanda C. Outhouse, Kelsey B. Carlson, Chris A. Fedler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Prusa, Steven M. Lonergan

Steven M. Lonergan

Filamin is necessary to maintain the integrity of muscle structure. Postmortem degradation of filamin results in loss of organizational structure at the Z-disk and improves meat tenderness. Intact and degraded filamin was successfully identified in aged pork loin. The removal of amino acids to form this degradation product is likely the first cleavage of intact filamin observed in postmortem muscle. A significant decrease in abundance of intact filamin in low star probe (SP) value samples demonstrates that degradation of filamin varies when aging period and pH are similar. Filamin degradation was significantly different in SP groups, suggesting that filamin proteolysis ...


Environmental Impact Analysis Of Soybean Oil Production From Expelling, Hexane Extraction And Enzyme Assisted Aqueous Extraction, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jasreen J. K. Sekhon, Tong Wang, Stéphanie Jung, Lawrence A. Johnson 2017 Iowa State University

Environmental Impact Analysis Of Soybean Oil Production From Expelling, Hexane Extraction And Enzyme Assisted Aqueous Extraction, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jasreen J. K. Sekhon, Tong Wang, Stéphanie Jung, Lawrence A. Johnson

Stéphanie Jung

In the industry, expelling and hexane extraction are the two typical processes for soybean oil production. However, the low efficiency and hazardous chemical problem are the main issues for these two processes respectively. Enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) is applied to increase the efficiency without using organic solvent, which is replaced by water. The environmental impact analysis of these three processes are based on their mass flows, energy consumption and global warming potential. For mass flows, the environmental impact indices were calculated based on mass balance of input and output components. Energy consumption was used to evaluate the carbon ...


Sustainable Production Of Bioenergy From Agricultural And Food Waste, Stéphanie Jung 2017 Iowa State University

Sustainable Production Of Bioenergy From Agricultural And Food Waste, Stéphanie Jung

Stéphanie Jung

This project will determine the potential of pre- and post-consumer waste collected from ISU Dining for bioethanol production. The investigator will gather data about the quantity and composition of these wastes and how much energy could be produced.


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Integrated Enzyme Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybean Oil, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jasreen J. K. Sekhon, Tong Wang, Stephanie Jung, Lawrence A. Johnson 2017 Iowa State University

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Integrated Enzyme Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybean Oil, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jasreen J. K. Sekhon, Tong Wang, Stephanie Jung, Lawrence A. Johnson

Stéphanie Jung

Aqueous oil extraction is a process which replace organic solvent, hexane is most used in solvent extraction, with water. Comparing to typical solvent extraction and expelling processes, the aqueous extraction has higher oil yield (over 80%) than expelling process and that is exempt the issues resulted from chemical loading and remaining. The enzyme was used to improve the breakdown of cell and release free oil. The enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) includes dehulling, flaking, extraction and demulsification processes. SuperPro Designer was used to conduct the techno-economic analysis (TEA) of the extraction process. The total capital investment, operation cost and ...


Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem 2017 University of Missouri

Is It A Jungle Out There? Meat Packing, Immigrants, And Rural Communities, Georgeanne Artz, Rebecca Jackson, Peter Orazem

Rebecca Jackson

The shift of the U.S. meat packing industry from urban to rural areas has generated controversy regarding potential social and economic costs of meat packing plants on their host communities. This study uses media comments to identify the most prominent controversies regarding meat packing, its largely immigrant workforce, and rural communities. We find that the industry has impacted the demographic composition of rural communities and their schools, but find no evidence that the industry increases per capita government expenditures. Our results suggest rural communities trade off the economic benefits of hosting these large employers against the costs of accommodating ...


Nuevas Tendencias En Ingredientes No Cárnicos (New Trends In Non-Meat Ingredients), Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D. 2017 Iowa State University

Nuevas Tendencias En Ingredientes No Cárnicos (New Trends In Non-Meat Ingredients), Rodrigo Tarté Ph.D.

Rodrigo Tarté

Esta sesión proporcionará información actual sobre la situación tecnológica en el área de ingredientes no cárnicos para encarar las nuevas tendencias de mercado y de consumo.


The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills 2017 Iowa State University

The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills

James S. Dickson

The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health, and foodsafety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A two-day consensus meeting was held on November 18–19, 2008 in Chicago, IL, United States of America, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors ...


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