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Homogenization And Thermal Processing Reduce The Concentration Of Extracellular Vesicles In Bovine Milk, Anna P. Colella, Anuradha Prakash, John Miklavcic 2023 Chapman University

Homogenization And Thermal Processing Reduce The Concentration Of Extracellular Vesicles In Bovine Milk, Anna P. Colella, Anuradha Prakash, John Miklavcic

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in bovine milk confer beneficial physiologic effects to consumers. Industrial processing treatments may affect the amount or bioactivity of EVs intrinsic to bovine milk. We investigated how the content and concentration of EVs were affected by homogenization and thermal processing of raw bovine milk. Raw milk was processed by homogenization, low-temperature (LT) heat, or pasteurization [high-temperature short-time (HTST) and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)] in a pilot processing facility. EVs were isolated from the raw and processed bovine milk using differential ultracentrifugation and quantified using a nanoparticle tracking analyzer. Bovine milk EVs were assessed for total miRNA and protein concentrations …


Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman

Applied Science Program: Theses

Ready to Use Supplemental Food (RUSF) is a nutrient dense paste or compressed bar used to supplement a person’s nutritional needs because of malnutrition or due to food shortages. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate some methods of how the dairy organism Kluyveromyces marxianus can be used to enrich the protein value of bread or ferment a substrate such as wheat bran into a more digestible form.


Arkansas Wheat Performance Tests 2022-2023, J. F. Carlin, R. B. Mulloy, R. D. Bond 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Wheat Performance Tests 2022-2023, J. F. Carlin, R. B. Mulloy, R. D. Bond

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Wheat variety performance tests are conducted each year in Arkansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Crop Variety Improvement Program.

The tests provide information to companies developing cultivars and marketing seed within the state and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating variety recommendations for small-grain producers. The tests were conducted at the Northeast Research and Extension Center at Keiser, the Vegetable Substation near Kibler, the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, the Pine Tree Research Station near Colt, and the Rohwer Research Station near Rohwer. Specific location and cultural practice information accompany each …


Protein Enriched Bread Using Spent Wine Yeast, Zachary Christman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Protein Enriched Bread Using Spent Wine Yeast, Zachary Christman

Applied Science Program: Theses

Yeast is a common byproduct of wine production. Wine yeast may be used as a food source. It does not contain bitter and astringent compounds such as those present in spent yeast from making beer The use of nutritional yeast and yeast extract for protein enrichment of bread are presented in this article.


Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2022, Fred Bourland 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2022, Fred Bourland

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

The current economic environment continues to drive the need to produce record or near-record yields to be profitable. Price volatility in 2022 added another level of difficulty in the quest for being profitable. The cotton market saw significant movement after reaching a $1.5802 per pound high in May 2022, cotton prices corrected and more than halved in value at the October 2022 low, and then consolidated around the 80 cents per pound level in December 2022 (Cotton is Consolidating). Great uncertainties still exist for the upcoming season, most of which are outside of our control. These include, but are not …


Non-Destructive Evaluation Of White Striping And Microbial Spoilage Of Broiler Breast Meat Using Structured-Illumination Reflectance Imaging, Ebenezer O. Olaniyi 2023 Mississippi State University

Non-Destructive Evaluation Of White Striping And Microbial Spoilage Of Broiler Breast Meat Using Structured-Illumination Reflectance Imaging, Ebenezer O. Olaniyi

Theses and Dissertations

Manual inspection is a prevailing practice for quality assessment of poultry meat, but it is labor-intensive, tedious, and subjective. This thesis aims to assess the efficacy of an emerging structured illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) technique with machine learning approaches for assessing WS and microbial spoilage in broiler breast meat. Broiler breast meat samples were imaged by an in house-assembled SIRI platform under sinusoidal illumination. In first experiment, handcrafted texture features were extracted from direct component (DC, corresponding to conventional uniform illumination) and amplitude component (AC, unique to the use of sinusoidal illumination) images retrieved from raw SIRI pattern images build …


Measurement Of Conduction, Radiation, And Convection Thermal Energy To Assess Baking Performance In Residential Ovens., Sean Simpson 2023 University of Louisville

Measurement Of Conduction, Radiation, And Convection Thermal Energy To Assess Baking Performance In Residential Ovens., Sean Simpson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Residential ovens are complicated thermal environments capable of delivering convection, conduction, and radiation heat transfer to food. The amount and mode of heat transfer can change based on the design of the oven cavity, cooling systems, and oven cycle algorithms. Studies have shown that the changes in one heat transfer mode can have an impact on the quality of baked goods. The many variables involved make designing residential ovens a time consuming and costly process. The goal of this study is to adapt thermal energy sensing technology to collect energy data from a residential oven and develop correlations to quality …


B. R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2022, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B. R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2022, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading rice producer in the United States. The state represents 50.1% of total U.S. rice production and 49.8% of the total acres planted to rice in 2022. Rice cultural practices vary across the state and across the U.S. However, these practices are also dynamic and continue to evolve in response to changing political, environmental, and economic times. This survey was initiated in 2002 to monitor and record changes in the way Arkansas rice producers approach their livelihood. The survey was conducted by polling county extension agents in each of the counties in Arkansas that produce rice. Questions …


Dry-Aged Beef Flavor Development, And The Effect Of High Levels Of Vitamin-E On Beef Color Stability, Nicolas Herrera 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dry-Aged Beef Flavor Development, And The Effect Of High Levels Of Vitamin-E On Beef Color Stability, Nicolas Herrera

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Palatability and consumer purchasing are essential factors of fresh meat. To meet consumer expectations during purchasing and consumption, fresh beef must maintain desirable cherry-red color at retail and achieve desirable cooked flavor. Dry-aged beef popularity has grown, and identifying methods to ensure quality dry-aged meat is necessary to maintain demand. To understand dry-aged palatability, this dissertation addressed effects of moisture loss and aging time, fundamental factors of dry-aged beef, using bone-in and boneless strip loins. Study two investigated flavor development using cookery methods and internal temperatures in boneless and bone-in dry-aged beef. In study one, increased dry-aging time (creation effect) …


Influence Of Overcooking On Food Digestibility And In Vitro Fermentation, Wensheng Ding 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Influence Of Overcooking On Food Digestibility And In Vitro Fermentation, Wensheng Ding

Department of Food Science and Technology: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Areas of char or overcooking commonly appear in foods people consume. It has been reported that overcooked food is harmful to human health. However, little research exists on the effect of overcooking on in vitro protein and starch digestibility and gut microbial fermentation. This study aimed to reveal the connection between overcooking and in vitro protein and starch digestibility and gut microbial fermentation. In vitro protein digestibility of an overcooked ground beef patty was almost half that of a standard cooked sample (27 ± 2% versus 48 ± 6%, respectively; p = 0.02). Whole wheat bread protein digestibility was also …


Multiphysics Modeling To Understand Microwave-Food Interactions In A Multi-Port Solid-State Microwave System., Kartik Verma 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multiphysics Modeling To Understand Microwave-Food Interactions In A Multi-Port Solid-State Microwave System., Kartik Verma

Masters Theses

Multiphysics modeling plays a crucial role in understanding the complexities of microwave-food interactions, especially in multi-port solid-state microwave systems where microwave parameters can be precisely and dynamically controlled. However, previous models using simplistic or manually measured oven geometries face challenges in accurately simulating the microwave heating process. This study first developed a robust 3-D scanning approach to capture precise geometric details of the oven cavity, incorporating them into multiphysics modeling for solid-state microwave heating. Furthermore, a quantitative validation approach was also developed to characterize modeling accuracy against experimental results. The results showed that multiphysics modeling with 3-D scanned geometry demonstrated …


Evaluating Salmonella Cross Contamination In Raw Chicken Thighs In Simulated Post-Chill Tanks, Raziya Sadat 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Salmonella Cross Contamination In Raw Chicken Thighs In Simulated Post-Chill Tanks, Raziya Sadat

Department of Food Science and Technology: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Salmonella contamination poses a significant risk to food safety, particularly in poultry products and public health. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of peracetic acid (PAA) treatment in mitigating Salmonella cross-contamination in chicken thighs within simulated post-chill tanks, considering different inoculum concentrations and organic matter (OM) levels.

The experiment involved the use of five distinct Salmonella serovars to inoculate chicken thighs, which were categorized into two groups: higher inoculation level (ca. 7 log CFU/mL) and lower inoculation level (ca, 4 log CFU/mL). These groups underwent treatment with four different solutions, including 540 ppm PAA with 1.5% OM, 540 ppm …


Preparation Of Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge Shell Biochar Activated By Phosphoric Acid And Its Adsorption Performance For Methylene Blue, CHEN Yan-qin, WANG Xue-li, SONG Shi-fang, LIU Zun-qi 2023 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China; Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry and Biomaterials, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China

Preparation Of Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge Shell Biochar Activated By Phosphoric Acid And Its Adsorption Performance For Methylene Blue, Chen Yan-Qin, Wang Xue-Li, Song Shi-Fang, Liu Zun-Qi

Food and Machinery

Objective: The adsorption performance and mechanism of Xanthoceras sorbifolia shell biochar activated by phosphoric acid for methylene blue was investigated in this study. Methods: With phosphoric acid as activator, the Box-Behnken center combination design was used to optimize the preparation conditions of biochar from Xanthoceras sorbifolia shell. The biochar obtained under the optimal preparation conditions was used to adsorb methylene blue in water. Through investigating the adsorption influencing factors, the adsorption characteristics of biochar on methylene blue were determined, and combined with the analysis of kinetic, the adsorption mechanism was discussed. Results: The optimum technological conditions for preparing biochar from …


Extraction And Functional Characteristics And Structural Analysis Of Porcine Liver Salt Soluble Protein, WANG Hao-yang, LIU Li-li, CHENG Wei-wei, XU Bao-cheng, SU Ke-nan 2023 College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023, China

Extraction And Functional Characteristics And Structural Analysis Of Porcine Liver Salt Soluble Protein, Wang Hao-Yang, Liu Li-Li, Cheng Wei-Wei, Xu Bao-Cheng, Su Ke-Nan

Food and Machinery

Objective: Optimize the preparation process of salt-soluble porcine liver protein and improve the utilization rate of porcine liver by-products. Methods: Taking the extraction rate as the index, the effects of NaCl concentration, pH, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction rate of SSLP were analyzed, and the optimal preparation process was determined by orthogonal rotation optimization test. Taking water soluble liver proteins (WSLP) as the control, the functional characteristics (solubility, foaming, foam stability, emulsification, emulsification stability, etc.) of SSLP were compared and analyzed, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used, the structural changes were analyzed by low field …


Study On Metabolic Changes Of Crucian Carp Induced By Phoxim Based On 1H-Nmr Metabolomics, LI Hong, LI Dan, LI Li-juan, WU Ni 2023 Hunan Provincial Institute of Product and Goods Quality Inspection, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Safety Monitoring and Early Warning, Changsha, Hunan 410117, China

Study On Metabolic Changes Of Crucian Carp Induced By Phoxim Based On 1H-Nmr Metabolomics, Li Hong, Li Dan, Li Li-Juan, Wu Ni

Food and Machinery

Objective: Standardize the use of phoxim to ensure the safety of aquatic products. Methods: Taking freshwater crucian carp as the research object, Selecting phoxim, an organic phosphorus pesticide often used in agriculture, as the representative of exogenous environmental pollutants. The changes in normal physiological metabolism of crucian carp exposed to phoxim were studied by using the 1H-NMR metabonomics method combined with PCA, PLS-DA, OPLS-DA and other multivariate statistical methods. Based on this, the toxic effects of phoxim on crucian carp and the toxicological mechanism of phoxim in the crucian carp were deduced. Results: Compared with the control group, the …


Construction And Application Of Multi-Dimensional Food Safety Evaluation Index System Model, MIAO Lu, ZHU Ke, CAO Yi-qun, ZHOU Mo-qin, GAO Meng-zhao, TUO Xiong-xin, DENG Ke 2023 Guangxi Institute of Product Quality Inspection, Nanning, Guangxi 530200, China

Construction And Application Of Multi-Dimensional Food Safety Evaluation Index System Model, Miao Lu, Zhu Ke, Cao Yi-Qun, Zhou Mo-Qin, Gao Meng-Zhao, Tuo Xiong-Xin, Deng Ke

Food and Machinery

Objective: It was the method of evaluating regional food safety status through food safety evaluation index model. Methods: In the index model, various factors affecting food safety, such as the size of the city, the types of food, the hazards of the test items, the place of production, etc., were comprehensively considered, and a variety of data sources were used to support the model. Using this model, the results of food safety index could be calculated from multiple angles and different levels, such as region, food category, region and food category. Results: Sampling data of Guangxi food safety assessment in …


Theoretical Analysis And Experimental Study On Optimal Exhaust Pressure For Co2 Heat Pump, LIU Xiao-ting, GU Zhong, XIE Jing 2023 College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China; Shanghai Professional Technology Service Platform on Cold Chain Equipment Performance and Energy Saving Evaluation, Shanghai 201306, China

Theoretical Analysis And Experimental Study On Optimal Exhaust Pressure For Co2 Heat Pump, Liu Xiao-Ting, Gu Zhong, Xie Jing

Food and Machinery

Objective: This study aimed to optimize the performance of heat pump system and discuss the optimal exhaust pressure of carbon dioxide system under the control of different working conditions. Methods: By establishing a CO2 trans-critical heat pump model, the relationship between exhaust pressure and heat production, inspiratory superheat, refrigerant mass flow rate and system energy efficiency was analyzed, and the influence of inlet and outlet water temperature and ambient temperature on the optimal exhaust pressure was deeply studied. Moreover, the reliability of the model was verified by the CO2 heat pump test bench. Results: At the three effluent …


Interactive Affordance Design Strategy For Nutrition Labels Of Prepackaged Foods, TAN Yuan-yuan, JIANG Peng-ru 2023 Guilin University of Electronic Technology School of Art and Design, Guilin, Guangxi 541004, China

Interactive Affordance Design Strategy For Nutrition Labels Of Prepackaged Foods, Tan Yuan-Yuan, Jiang Peng-Ru

Food and Machinery

Objective: To explore the theoretical relationship between interactive availability thinking in the design of nutrition labels for prepackaged foods; To improve consumer awareness and trust, guide consumers' healthy choice behavior, and construct a design framework for prepackaged food labels based on interactive availability model. Methods: Based on the two-tier result model of interactive availability and the empirical evidence of knowledge, this paper analyzes how the design can help the nutrition labels of prepackaged food to effectively convey information and improve the labels' value and its guidance role. Results: Four interactive design strategies were proposed: enhancing the influence of unconscious interaction …


Effect Of Cold Storage Temperature On The Quality Of Plant-Based Bacon, FAN Jiong, MA Jun-hua, YAN Jing-xin, ZHANG Hui-en, YANG Hua 2023 College of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315100, China

Effect Of Cold Storage Temperature On The Quality Of Plant-Based Bacon, Fan Jiong, Ma Jun-Hua, Yan Jing-Xin, Zhang Hui-En, Yang Hua

Food and Machinery

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of cold storage temperature on the quality of plant-based bacon. Methods: The effect of cold storage temperature (-40, -20, 4 ℃) on texture characteristics, cooking loss, water activity, protein content, total number of colonies and microstructure of plant-based bacon were investigated, and the optimal cold storage conditions of plant-based bacon were explored. Results: During the period of refrigeration (0~30 d), the hardness, cooking loss rate and number of microorganisms of plant-based bacon increased, while the water activity decreased with the extension of refrigeration time. As refrigerated temperatures dropped, the plant-based bacon became …


Preparation And Volatile Compounds Analysis Of Camellia Seed Oil With Zanthoxylum Flavor, LI Dong, ZHANG Qiong, HE Xin-yi, LI Yun, ZHANG Chen-yun 2023 Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Tianjin Agriculture University, Tianjin 300384, China

Preparation And Volatile Compounds Analysis Of Camellia Seed Oil With Zanthoxylum Flavor, Li Dong, Zhang Qiong, He Xin-Yi, Li Yun, Zhang Chen-Yun

Food and Machinery

Objective: In order to improve the special smell of Camellia oleifera seed oil, the Zanthoxylum flavor Camellia oleifera seed oil was developed with camellia oleifera seed oil and prickly ash as the raw materials. Methods: The peroxide value, acid value, fatty acid composition and odor change of Zanthoxylum bungeanum flavor seed oil were studied under different processing conditions. Results: When the ratio of material to liquid was 10∶100 (mpeppermcamellia oil), the frying temperature was 180 ℃, and the frying time was 5 minutes, the acid value, peroxide value and hydroxy-β-pyrroxin content were …


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