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The Cost Of Protection: Frost Avoidance And Competition In Herbaceous Plants, Frederick Curtis Lubbe 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Cost Of Protection: Frost Avoidance And Competition In Herbaceous Plants, Frederick Curtis Lubbe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Perennial herbaceous plants in regions that experience winter freezing must survive using belowground structures that can tolerate or avoid frost stress. Soil and plant litter can insulate plant structures from frost exposure, but plants must invest into growth to penetrate through these layers to reach the surface in the spring. The overall goal of my thesis was to test the hypothesis that the protection of overwintering clonal structures by soil or plant litter (frost avoidance) comes at the expense of subsequent reduced growth and competitive ability in absence of freezing stress. I first explored this trade-off with a suite of ...


Precision Nomenclature For The New Genomics, Harris A. Lewin, Jennifer A. Marshall Graves, Oliver A. Ryder, Alexander S. Graphodatsky, Stephen James O'Brien 2019 University of California, Davis

Precision Nomenclature For The New Genomics, Harris A. Lewin, Jennifer A. Marshall Graves, Oliver A. Ryder, Alexander S. Graphodatsky, Stephen James O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

The confluence of two scientific disciplines may lead to nomenclature conflicts that require new terms while respecting historical definitions. This is the situation with the current state of cytology and genomics, which offer examples of distinct nomenclature and vocabularies that require reconciliation. In this article, we propose the new terms C-scaffold (for chromosome-scale assemblies of sequenced DNA fragments, commonly named scaffolds) and scaffotype (the resulting collection of C-scaffolds that represent an organism's genome). This nomenclature avoids conflict with the historical definitions of the terms chromosome (a microscopic body made of DNA and protein) and karyotype (the collection of images ...


Inevitable Future: Space Colonization Beyond Earth With Microbes First, Jose Lopez, Raquel S. Peixoto, Alexandre S. Rosado 2019 Nova Southeastern University

Inevitable Future: Space Colonization Beyond Earth With Microbes First, Jose Lopez, Raquel S. Peixoto, Alexandre S. Rosado

Biology Faculty Articles

Based on modern microbiology, we propose a major revision in current space exploration philosophy and planetary protection policy, especially regarding microorganisms in space. Mainly, microbial introduction should not be considered accidental but inevitable. We hypothesize the near impossibility of exploring new planets without carrying and/or delivering any microbial travelers. In addition, although we highlight the importance of controlling and tracking such contaminations—to explore the existence of extraterrestrial microorganisms—we also believe that we must discuss the role of microbes as primary colonists and assets, rather than serendipitous accidents, for future plans of extraterrestrial colonization. This paradigm shift stems ...


Impacts Of Hiv Cure Interventions On Viral Reservoirs In Tissues, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Impacts Of Hiv Cure Interventions On Viral Reservoirs In Tissues, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup

Biology Faculty Publications

HIV reservoirs persist in infected individuals despite combination antiretroviral therapy and can be identified in secondary lymphoid tissues, in intestinal tissues, in the central nervous system as well as in blood. Clinical trials have begun to explore effects of small molecule interventions to perturb the latent viral infection, but only limited information is available regarding the impacts of HIV cure-related clinical interventions on viral reservoirs found in tissues. Of the 14 HIV cure-related clinical trials since 2012 that have evaluated the effects of small molecule interventions in vivo, four trials have examined the impacts of the interventions in peripheral blood ...


Loss Of Developmental Diapause As Prerequisite For Social Evolution In Bees, Priscila Karla Ferreira Santos, Maria Cristina Arias, Karen M. Kapheim 2019 Universidade de São Paulo

Loss Of Developmental Diapause As Prerequisite For Social Evolution In Bees, Priscila Karla Ferreira Santos, Maria Cristina Arias, Karen M. Kapheim

Biology Faculty Publications

Diapause is a physiological arrest of development ahead of adverse environmental conditions and is a critical phase of the life cycle of many insects. In bees, diapause has been reported in species from all seven taxonomic families. However, they exhibit a variety of diapause strategies. These different strategies are of particular interest since shifts in the phase of the insect life cycle in which diapause occurs have been hypothesized to promote the evolution of sociality. Here we provide a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis with phylogenetic analysis and ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) of the ecological and evolutionary factors associated with ...


Does A Carbonatite Deposit Influence Its Surrounding Ecosystem?, James M.C. Jones, Elizabeth A. Webb, Michael D.J. Lynch, Trevor C. Charles, Pedro M. Antunes, Frédérique C. Guinel 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Does A Carbonatite Deposit Influence Its Surrounding Ecosystem?, James M.C. Jones, Elizabeth A. Webb, Michael D.J. Lynch, Trevor C. Charles, Pedro M. Antunes, Frédérique C. Guinel

Biology Faculty Publications

Carbonatites are unusual alkaline rocks with diverse compositions. Although previous work has characterized the effects these rocks have on soils and plants, little is known about their impacts on local ecosystems. Using a deposit within the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario, Canada, we investigated the effect of a carbonatite on soil chemistry and on the structure of plant and soil microbial communities. This was done using a vegetation survey conducted above and around the deposit, with corresponding soil samples collected for determining soil nutrient composition and for assessing microbial community structure using 16S/ITS Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing ...


The Vertebrate Tlr Supergene Family Evolved Dynamically By Gene Gain/Loss And Positive Selection Revealing A Host–Pathogen Arms Race In Birds, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Liliana Silva, Daniela Almeida, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen James O'Brien, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, M. Thomas Gilbert, Agostinho Antunes 2019 Universidade do Porto - Portugal

The Vertebrate Tlr Supergene Family Evolved Dynamically By Gene Gain/Loss And Positive Selection Revealing A Host–Pathogen Arms Race In Birds, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Liliana Silva, Daniela Almeida, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen James O'Brien, Guojie Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, M. Thomas Gilbert, Agostinho Antunes

Biology Faculty Articles

The vertebrate toll-like receptor (TLRs) supergene family is a first-line immune defense against viral and non-viral pathogens. Here, comparative evolutionary-genomics of 79 vertebrate species (8 mammals, 48 birds, 11 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 11 fishes) revealed differential gain/loss of 26 TLRs, including 6 (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR14, TLR21, and TLR22) that originated early in vertebrate evolution before the diversification of Agnatha and Gnathostomata. Subsequent dynamic gene gain/loss led to lineage-specific diversification with TLR repertoires ranging from 8 subfamilies in birds to 20 in fishes. Lineage-specific loss of TLR8-9 and TLR13 in birds and gains of TLR6 and TLR10-12 ...


Macrophyte Distribution In Limestone Streams Of South Central Pennsylvania, Joshua Stone 2019 Messiah College

Macrophyte Distribution In Limestone Streams Of South Central Pennsylvania, Joshua Stone

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Limestone streams are common in south-central Pennsylvania and arise from aquifers flowing through the abundant limestone (CaCO3) geography of the area. This action imbues the streams with several unique chemical characteristics, leading to a unique ecosystem that is occupied by very different flora and fauna from non-limestone streams in the same area. While calcium carbonate is not easily dissolved, travel through the limestone aquifer significantly changes the chemistry of the water. Limestone streams are characterized by an alkaline pH (7.0 - 8.0), ample plant nutrients, a stable and low temperature, and a relatively constant flow throughout the year ...


Janani Subramaniam Thesis.Pdf, Janani Subramaniam 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Janani Subramaniam Thesis.Pdf, Janani Subramaniam

Janani Subramaniam

Distinctly organized domains of receptors, ion channels, transporters, signaling molecules, cell adhesion molecules, and contractile proteins are crucial to cardiac function. Interactions between adaptor proteins such as ankyrins and cytoskeletal proteins such as obscurin play a pivotal role in organizing these functional domains in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, dysfunction of both ankyrin as well as obscurin lead to a host of cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies. Alternative splicing of ankyrin yields numerous isoforms that interact with obscurin at various sub-cellular domains. And while some of these obscurin-ankyrin complexes have been studied, many others have not been characterized. Further, previous studies ...


Life Is In The Blood, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad 2019 Liberty University

Life Is In The Blood, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad

Alan L. Gillen

It takes about 60 seconds for all the blood in your body to complete its journey. It travels from your heart to your extremities and returns, there and back again. Blood moves with the rapid current of the great arterial rivers and through the smallest capillary creeks. William Harvey first noticed circulation (1628) through the heart into arteries and veins; however, he could not see how they connected since he did not have a microscope. The man who first described this was Anton van Leeuwenhoek about 46 years later (1674). Then, J. J. Lister and Thomas Hodgkin described the rouleaux ...


Leveraging Synthetic Root-Soil Systems To Quantify Relationships Between Plant Traits And The Formation Of Soil Organic Carbon, Bonnie G. Waring 2019 Utah State University

Leveraging Synthetic Root-Soil Systems To Quantify Relationships Between Plant Traits And The Formation Of Soil Organic Carbon, Bonnie G. Waring

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Expanding Beyond Carnivores To Improve Livestock Protection And Conservation, Shari L. Rodriguez, Christie Sampson 2019 Clemson University

Expanding Beyond Carnivores To Improve Livestock Protection And Conservation, Shari L. Rodriguez, Christie Sampson

Publications

Promoting human–wildlife coexistence is critical to the long-term conservation of many wild animal species that come into conflict with humans. Loss of livestock to carnivore species (e.g., lions, tigers, wolves) is a well-documented occurrence and the focus of mitigation strategies around the world. One area that has received little research is the impact of noncarnivores on livestock. Both African and Asian elephant species are known to cause livestock injuries and deaths. Livestock owners within elephant ranges perceive elephants as a risk to their livestock, which may reduce their tolerance towards elephants and jeopardize conservation efforts in the area ...


The Impact Of Soil Water Storage Capacity On Species-Specific Forb Establishment In Cp42 Fields, Ervina Tabakovic, Mark Sherrard, Kathleen Madsen, Allison Eagan 2019 University of Northern Iowa

The Impact Of Soil Water Storage Capacity On Species-Specific Forb Establishment In Cp42 Fields, Ervina Tabakovic, Mark Sherrard, Kathleen Madsen, Allison Eagan

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

Background:
• The loss of tallgrass prairie habitat has likely contributed to decline in North American pollinator communities.1
• To combat these losses the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) created Conservation Practice (CP) 42 to re-establish pollinator habitat on the landscape.2
• One factor that could influence forb establishment in CP42 fields is the water storage capacity of the soil.
• In this study, we test whether soil water storage capacity to 25 cm influences floral resources or species-specific forb establishment in 35 randomly selected CP42 fields


Life Is In The Blood, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad 2019 Liberty University

Life Is In The Blood, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad

Faculty Publications and Presentations

It takes about 60 seconds for all the blood in your body to complete its journey. It travels from your heart to your extremities and returns, there and back again. Blood moves with the rapid current of the great arterial rivers and through the smallest capillary creeks. William Harvey first noticed circulation (1628) through the heart into arteries and veins; however, he could not see how they connected since he did not have a microscope. The man who first described this was Anton van Leeuwenhoek about 46 years later (1674). Then, J. J. Lister and Thomas Hodgkin described the rouleaux ...


Life Is In The Blood, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad 2019 Liberty University

Life Is In The Blood, Alan L. Gillen, Jason Conrad

Alan L. Gillen

It takes about 60 seconds for all the blood in your body to complete its journey. It travels from your heart to your extremities and returns, there and back again. Blood moves with the rapid current of the great arterial rivers and through the smallest capillary creeks. William Harvey first noticed circulation (1628) through the heart into arteries and veins; however, he could not see how they connected since he did not have a microscope. The man who first described this was Anton van Leeuwenhoek about 46 years later (1674). Then, J. J. Lister and Thomas Hodgkin described the rouleaux ...


Differential Vulnerability To Window Collision Mortality Among Migratory Songbird Species, Olivia M. Colling 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Differential Vulnerability To Window Collision Mortality Among Migratory Songbird Species, Olivia M. Colling

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Millions of birds die annually in North America by colliding with windows. I investigated differential vulnerability to window collision among migratory songbird species using long-term citizen science datasets from two bird banding stations and the fatal light awareness program. I used negative binomial regressions to model species-specific catch ratios, a mixed-effects negative binomial regression to model trophic guild-specific catch ratios and mixed-effects logistic regressions to model the odds of catching different age classes. Species-specific vulnerability varied significantly. Blue-headed Vireos, Yellow-rumped Warblers and Ruby-crowned Kinglets were least vulnerable, while Ovenbirds, Common Yellowthroats, Fox Sparrows and Bay-breasted Warblers were most vulnerable. Foraging ...


Molecular Phylogeny Provides New Insights On The Taxonomy And Composition Of Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) And Related Genera, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Pyrka, Jiljí Sitko, Witold Jeżewski, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Vasyl V. Tkach, Zdzisław Laskowski 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Molecular Phylogeny Provides New Insights On The Taxonomy And Composition Of Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) And Related Genera, Joanna Hildebrand, Ewa Pyrka, Jiljí Sitko, Witold Jeżewski, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Vasyl V. Tkach, Zdzisław Laskowski

Biology Faculty Publications

Lyperosomum Looss, 1899 is one of the largest genera of the Dicrocoeliidae and is one of the best examples of the systematic complexity and taxonomic instability within this family. We present the molecular analyses based on novel sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes obtained from 56 isolates of adult flukes and larval stages of dicrocoeliids belonging to Lyperosomum, Skrjabinus, Zonorchis as well as previously available sequence data. According to obtained results we propose to return Zonorchis clathratus and Z. petiolatus into Lyperosomum, and to recognize L. alagesi as a synonym of L. petiolatum. Our study shows that L. petiolatum commonly ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson 2019 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


Does Thermotolerance In Daphnia Depend On The Mitochondrial Function?, Rajib Hasan 2019 East Tennessee State University

Does Thermotolerance In Daphnia Depend On The Mitochondrial Function?, Rajib Hasan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thermotolerance limit in aquatic organism is set by the ability to sustain aerobic scope to sudden temperature shifts. This study tested the genetic and plastic differences in thermotolerance of Daphnia that can be explained by the differences in the ability to retain mitochondrial integrity at high temperatures. Five genotypes with different biogeographic origins were acclimated to 18C and 25C. We developed a rhodamine 123 in-vivo assay to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and observed higher fluorescent in heat damaged tissues as the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Significant effects on temperature tolerance were observed with CCCP ...


Seed And Seedling Data From Sugarcreek Metropark Restoration Experiment, Michaela J. Woods, Meredith Cobb, Ryan W. McEwan 2019 University of Dayton

Seed And Seedling Data From Sugarcreek Metropark Restoration Experiment, Michaela J. Woods, Meredith Cobb, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

This dataset encompasses information following seed germination and seedling growth of three tree species: Quercus rubra, Juglans cinerea, and Carya laciniosa. Seed sizes were recorded prior to incubation in sand, vermiculite, or without media. Seeds were then germinated with time to germination recorded in this dataset. After germination, seedlings were planted in Sugarcreek Metropark in either fall 2011 or spring 2012. One-half of seedlings were planted in tree tubes and a half without. Seedling height and diameter was recorded in June 2014 and March 2019, and death of seedlings was noted.


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