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Symbiosis Between Arabidopsis Thaliana And Colletotrichum Tofieldiae For Enhanced Phytoremediation Of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds, Emre Ovet 2020 University of San Francisco

Symbiosis Between Arabidopsis Thaliana And Colletotrichum Tofieldiae For Enhanced Phytoremediation Of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds, Emre Ovet

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Arabidopsis thaliana, a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa, is known to have the ability to reduce the concentrations of elemental pollutants such as mercury, lead, and cadmium and organic pollutants like benzene, trichloroethylene, and xylene from air and soil. This particular process of pollutant treatment is known as phytoremediation. There have been a number of studies investigating the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediation, but almost all of these studies focused on heavy metal phytoremediation in soil. Despite these promising findings, the effect of plant-fungal symbioses on organic pollutant removal from air has not yet been ...


Using Scanning Electron Microscopy And Morphologic Characteristics To Identify Centric Diatom Species In San Francisco Bay, Ria Angelica Laxa 2020 University of San Francisco

Using Scanning Electron Microscopy And Morphologic Characteristics To Identify Centric Diatom Species In San Francisco Bay, Ria Angelica Laxa

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Planktonic diatoms exhibit high biodiversity in marine systems and make a significant contribution to water column primary productivity. This makes research on planktonic diatoms particularly important in measuring the health of coastal marine ecosystems. At the University of San Francisco (USF), research has been conducted since September 2015 to study planktonic diatoms in San Francisco Bay. A previous study by Keith (2018), Planktonic Diatom Species Succession in San Francisco Bay, documented changes in species diversity over time, observing seasonal patterns in species richness as well as the effect of environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, and rainfall on species succession ...


Effect Of Air Quality On Outdoor Aerial Microbial Diversity In Urban Green Spaces, Ashley Sango 2020 University of San Francisco

Effect Of Air Quality On Outdoor Aerial Microbial Diversity In Urban Green Spaces, Ashley Sango

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a stark reminder that we should continue to prioritize ensuring that every one of us maintains the highest quality of health. The biodiversity hypothesis states that living in natural environments is beneficial for the human immune system and nourishes the human microbiome, thereby promoting good health. When people are exposed to diverse microbes from the environment, they develop immunoregulatory markers which promote appropriate responses to pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. However, extensive land-use changes to accommodate population spurts in urban cities, are decreasing the area of urban green spaces where people directly interact with ...


Primer Bias In Finding Fungal Diversity In An Artificial Biome, Jason Krastins 2020 University of San Francisco

Primer Bias In Finding Fungal Diversity In An Artificial Biome, Jason Krastins

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Studying soil microbial diversity in tropical ecosystems is of high importance to understanding global nutrient cycling. Soil microbes, as decomposers, are primary contributors to terrestrial nutrient cycling. In tropical systems, warm, moist conditions create ideal environments for microbial growth year-round. However, the ability to study these topics in the field is limited by the remoteness and ruggedness of many tropical forest locations, combined with the highly changeable and difficult-to-control conditions present in the field. To that end, proxy study systems have been created that allow researchers to approximate natural conditions, but with better accessibility in terms of location and controllability ...


Phylogenetic Relationships Of Foliar Bacteria Within Cover Crops In An Organic Cropping System., Marcello B. Kuan, Derek Newberger, Christina Tran 2020 University of San Francisco

Phylogenetic Relationships Of Foliar Bacteria Within Cover Crops In An Organic Cropping System., Marcello B. Kuan, Derek Newberger, Christina Tran

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

As the human population continues to grow, there is an increasing realization that there is a finite amount of land available to grow enough food to feed people in the long-term. Sustainable agriculture is one key part of the solution to this issue. One technique used in sustainable agriculture is cover cropping, which involves the planting of a non-cash crop that is used to restore nutrients or structure within the soil. Although these benefits of cover cropping are well documented, the effect that this practice has on the reduction of pathogens on cash crops has yet to be fully explored ...


Cloning And Expression Of Hydra Innexin 2, A Gap Junction Protein Required For Coordinated Contraction Of The Body Column, Ashley O'Brien 2020 Buffalo State College

Cloning And Expression Of Hydra Innexin 2, A Gap Junction Protein Required For Coordinated Contraction Of The Body Column, Ashley O'Brien

Biology Theses

In invertebrates gap junctions are formed by the innexin family of proteins. Remarkably, the genome of Hydra magnipapillata contains 17 innexin genes. This study focused on Hydra innexin-2 (h-Inx2) which is expressed in nerve cells and plays a role in contraction of the body column. The gene sequence of H-Inx2 was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the gene was synthesized externally and transferred to a vector suitable for expression in Xenopus oocytes (pcDNA3.1 CT-GFP TOPO). The TOPO CT-GFP vector includes a priming site for RNA polymerase which allows in vitro preparation of RNA. Another advantage ...


Determining The Abundance And Range Of The Invasive Terrestrial Planarian Bipalium Adventitium, Samantha Robbins 2020 SUNY Cortland

Determining The Abundance And Range Of The Invasive Terrestrial Planarian Bipalium Adventitium, Samantha Robbins

Transformations: Presentation Slides

The terrestrial planarian, Bipalium adventitium, is an invasive predator on earthworms. Despite having a wide range in the United States, neither its population densities, country of origin, nor ecological impacts are known. A factor contributing to this limited knowledge is the lack of an effective sampling technique for determining planarian abundance. Although scientists have begun to study the ecological impacts of some planarians using selected field techniques, there has not been a study analyzing the effectiveness of multiple techniques. My study investigates the effectiveness of five sampling techniques commonly used on organisms of similar microhabitats to B. adventitium: select point ...


Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger

Biology Theses

An in-depth ecological analysis of how and why the aquatic community changes over time was conducted for 6 streams on the Fort Polk military base in Louisiana using data collected from 2001 to 2019. Fort Polk is a unique location as nineteen first-order streams are located on the premises belonging to three separate drainages. The primary goal was to determine whether temporal or between-drainage variation has a larger effect on community structure. To accomplish this the effects of disturbance on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages was determined temporally and between drainages. Several hypotheses were drawn from this: 1) temporally, assemblages exhibit ...


Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison 2020 Murray State University

Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison

Honors College Theses

Inteins are emerging as post-translational regulatory elements, undergoing conditional protein splicing in response to a variety of environmental cues. Inteins are seamlessly removed by self-splicing from exteins, or flanking portions of the host protein, which they interrupt. DnaB of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a helicase essential for replication, harbors two inteins known as DnaBi1 and DnaBi2, each with discrete structural characteristics and insertion positions. DnaBi1 was used here to design a reporter system which links splicing with resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. We built a construct that strictly requires catalytically active DnaBi1 for survival in the presence of kanamycin and used this ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


Levels Of Cyclin B In Thp-1 Cells Incubated In Hibernating And Non-Hibernating Bullfrog Plasma, Lithobates Catesbeianus, Tharuka D. Pathmaperuma 2020 University of Northern Iowa

Levels Of Cyclin B In Thp-1 Cells Incubated In Hibernating And Non-Hibernating Bullfrog Plasma, Lithobates Catesbeianus, Tharuka D. Pathmaperuma

Dissertations and Theses @ UNI

Hibernation is a process that occurs in nature where organisms undergo dormancy for long periods of time in order to improve their survival during extreme environmental conditions. During this time, organisms undergo physiological changes such as reduction in core body temperature and metabolic rate, as well as cells being impeded from going into mitosis. Alvarado et al. (2015) discovered that genomic DNA methylation is dynamic across torpor-arousal bouts during winter hibernation in thirteen lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), indicating that physiological changes during hibernation are the results of more than simply cold temperatures slowing down metabolism and that there are ...


Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi

Biological Sciences

Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is a damage-repair protein and ribonuclease that specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of RNA in an RNA/DNA duplex and breaks down RNA/DNA junctions. It plays an important role in a variety of biological processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. It is also pivotal in anti-HIV drug development and the analysis of cellular processes and has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for various neoplastic diseases. This thesis discusses a unique assay based on DNA nanoswitches to detect RNase H levels and activity. The assay is based on conformational changes of DNA ...


Body Composition Of Female Collegiate Track And Field Athletes, Adelaide Cooke 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Body Composition Of Female Collegiate Track And Field Athletes, Adelaide Cooke

Biological Sciences

The aim of this study is to see if there is a correlation between an athlete's body compostion and the demands of their different track and field events. Track and field is arugably the most diverse when it comes to body types in a single sport, with distance runners tending to be leaner and smaller and throwers more muscular and larger. However, most data collected is not female specfic. Thirty-one female track and field athletes were asked to take part in a series of physical measurements, which included recording their height, weight, percent body fat, and muscle mass. They ...


Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Glutamine Antagonist 6-Diazo-5-Oxo-L-Norleucine, A Hyaluronan Synthesis Inhibitor, Slows Triple Negative Breast Cancer Growth, Le Gia Cat Pham

Biological Sciences

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with few treatment options and poor outcomes. TNBCs are characterized by elevations in hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) enzyme expression, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression and hyaluronan (HA) production. Glutamine is an important substrate for HA production via the HBP. 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) is a well-known glutamine antagonist with validated antitumoral efficacy. This project examined the effects of DON on HA production and energy metabolism in TNBC cells. We examined the effect of DON treatment on Hs578T cells, which represent the mesenchymal stem-like subtype of TNBC. We specifically analyzed the ...


Effect Of Soil Moisture On Arrowleaf Balsamroot, Balsamorhiza Sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. Establishment, Sarah E. Hill 2020 Eastern Washington University

Effect Of Soil Moisture On Arrowleaf Balsamroot, Balsamorhiza Sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. Establishment, Sarah E. Hill

2020 Symposium Posters

Every spring, Arrowleaf Balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt.) dots the landscape across the inland Pacific Northwest. Balsamroot’s copious blooms, numerous leaves, long lifespan, and resilience once established, make it popular in restoration seed mixes, although balsamroot displays erratic germination in the restoration context. Understanding the effects of variables, like the availability of soil moisture on the germination and establishment of balsamroot, could provide insights into the successes of restoration plantings, or planning. This study examines the relationship between soil moisture availability and balsamroot establishment, tracking growth and survival of balsamroot seedlings during their first season, across a range of ...


Impact Of Intracellular Hemin On N-Type Inactivation Of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels, Ina Coburger, Kefan Yang, Alisa Bernert, Eric Wiesel, Nirakar Sahoo, Toshinori Hoshi, Roland Schönherr, Stefan H. Heinemann 2020 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Impact Of Intracellular Hemin On N-Type Inactivation Of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels, Ina Coburger, Kefan Yang, Alisa Bernert, Eric Wiesel, Nirakar Sahoo, Toshinori Hoshi, Roland Schönherr, Stefan H. Heinemann

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

N-type inactivation of voltage-gated K+ channels is conferred by the N-terminal “ball” domains of select pore-forming α subunits or of auxiliary β subunits, and influences electrical cellular excitability. Here, we show that hemin impairs inactivation of K+ channels formed by Kv3.4 α subunits as well as that induced by the subunits Kvβ1.1, Kvβ1.2, and Kvβ3.1 when coexpressed with α subunits of the Kv1 subfamily. In Kvβ1.1, hemin interacts with cysteine and histidine residues in the N terminus (C7 and H10) with high affinity (EC50 100 nM). Similarly, rapid inactivation of Kv4.2 channels induced by ...


Parasite Susceptibility In An Amphibian Host Is Modified By Salinization And Predators, Nicholas Buss, Jessica Hua 2020 Binghamton University--SUNY

Parasite Susceptibility In An Amphibian Host Is Modified By Salinization And Predators, Nicholas Buss, Jessica Hua

Biological Sciences Student Scholarship

Secondary salinization represents a global threat to freshwater ecosystems. Salts, such as NaCl, can be toxic to freshwater organisms and may also modify the outcome of species interactions (e.g. host-parasite interactions). In nature, hosts and their parasites are embedded in complex communities where they face anthropogenic and biotic (i.e. predators) stressors that influence host-parasite interactions. As human populations grow, considering how anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to shape host-parasite interactions will become increasingly important. We conducted two experiments investigating: (1) the effects of NaCl on tadpole susceptibility to trematodes and (2) whether density- and trait-mediated effects of a ...


Direct And Indirect Effects Of A Common Cyanobacterial Toxin On Amphibian-Echinostome Dynamics, Nicholas Buss, Matthew Wersebe, Jessica Hua 2020 Binghamton University--SUNY

Direct And Indirect Effects Of A Common Cyanobacterial Toxin On Amphibian-Echinostome Dynamics, Nicholas Buss, Matthew Wersebe, Jessica Hua

Biological Sciences Student Scholarship

Wildlife diseases are emerging at unprecedented rates. While there are likely several factors at play, human-mediated environmental alterations may play a significant role. Of growing interest is the effect that microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyanotoxin, may have on disease outcomes. In this study, using an amphibian-trematode model we examined (1) the lethal effects of MC-LR on cercariae of trematodes; (2) the sublethal effects of MC-LR exposure on the ability for trematodes to infect green frog tadpoles; and (3) the sublethal effects of MC-LR on green frog tadpole susceptibility to trematodes. We found that environmentally-relevant concentrations of MC-LR at 50, 100, and ...


Dynamics Of Sensory Integration Of Olfactory And Mechanical Stimuli Within The Response Patterns Of Moth Antennal Lobe Neurons, Harrison Tuckman 2020 William & Mary

Dynamics Of Sensory Integration Of Olfactory And Mechanical Stimuli Within The Response Patterns Of Moth Antennal Lobe Neurons, Harrison Tuckman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Odors emanating from a biologically relevant source are rapidly embedded within a windy, turbulent medium that folds and spins filaments into fragmented strands of varying sizes. Environmental odor plumes therefore exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics, and rarely yield an easily discernible concentration gradient marking an unambiguous trail to an odor source. Thus, sensory integration of chemical input, encoding odor identity or concentration, and mechanosensory input, encoding wind speed, is a critical task that animals face in resolving the complex dynamics of odor plumes and tracking an odor source. In insects, who employ olfactory navigation as their primary means of foraging for ...


Two Component System Independent Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori, Catharine Burgess 2020 William & Mary

Two Component System Independent Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori, Catharine Burgess

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The acid acclimation capabilities of Helicobacter pylori allow it to colonize the gastric biome for decades, causing many adverse health effects for its human host. The Acid Response System (ArsRS) accomplishes much of the H. pylori acid response by inducing the transcription of subunits and accessory genes of the enzyme urease. Hydrolyzing urea into CO2 and NH3 to buffer the periplasm facilitates long term bacterial survival.

We used H. pylori isogenic mutants of ArsRS and other TCS (DarsS, and DarsS-DcrdS-DflgS) to examine TCS-independent pH mediated gene expression. Control and TCS mutants were treated at pH 7 and ...


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